International Rifle events that occur in three positions are conducted with an equal number of shots fired from the Kneeling, Prone and Standing positions, although the order has changed over the years. Each of the three positions shot during the match has a fixed time limit that the shooter is able to shoot unlimited numbers of sighting shots and 10 or 20 shots for record.
In qualification rounds, shots are scored as integers, so each shot scores from 0-10 with no decimal points, while in finals shots are scored as decimal values (i.e. 9.8 instead of what would have been a 9 under integer scoring.)The center of the bullseye is commonly the 10 and the score drops points as it distances from the center. It is up to the organization's discretion to score using outside ring or inside ring scoring. Outside ring scoring measures what ring the hole breaks and measures accordingly. Inside ring scoring scores by determining whether the hole breaks the inside line of the bullseye.
The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) recognizes four three-position events. Two of these events, both called 50 m Rifle, are shot in the Olympics, one for men, the other for women. The two Olympic events are shot with a rimfire rifle at 50m. The two three-position events not in the Olympics, 300 m Rifle and 300 m Standard Rifle, are shot with a centerfire rifle at a distance of 300m.
For the Olympic events, up until the 2016 Olympics Games, men would shoot a 3 X 40, or rather 40 shots in prone, 40 shots in standing, and 40 shots in kneeling, and women a 3 X 20, 20 shots in each position. This is considered the qualification round, and shots are scored as integers. In January 2018, these rules were changed so that men and women now both shoot a 3x40. The maximum qualification score is 1200. This will first be seen in the Olympic Games in 2020. Following the qualification round, the top eight shooters participate in a final. Previously, this would consist of an additional 10 shots in the standing position, with the winner of the match being the shooter with the highest aggregate in both the qualification round and the final.However, in 2013 a new finals format was introduced, still for the top eight shooters in the qualification round. Both men and women shoot an additional 45 shots - 15 in each position - and qualification scores are discarded. The 15 shots in kneeling position come first, followed by the 15 prone shots, then once 10 standing shots have been fired, the two lowest-ranking shooters are eliminated, then after every single shot thereafter the lowest-ranked shooter is again eliminated until the 15th shot decides the gold and silver medalists.
The two non-Olympic 300m three position events are shot historically by men only. The first course of fire is with a free rifle, for a 3 X 40. The second course of fire is with a standard rifle, for a 3 X 20. Neither of these events have a final. The 300m events are no longer in the Olympics primarily due to the price of constructing a 300m range.
In the United States, a coalition of the Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP), USA Shooting, JROTC, 4-H, and the American Legion recognize three position events for juniors using air rifles. The course of fire is a 3 X 20, or 3 X 10, depending on the organization and location, with the top eight shooters competing in a final. The winner is again the shooter with the highest aggregate between the qualification round and the final. In most cases junior shooting is done at either 10m or 50 ft. distances. The CMP manages these matches for the National Three-Position Air Rifle Council, and recognizes the best junior shooters via the Distinguished program.
At the beginning of a standard match the range officer will go over the rules of the range and the competition. They will state the course of fire and any change over times. In between each string of shooting the range will generally give about 10-minute change over time to get ready for the next position.During this time shooters can get their spotting scope set up, adjust rifle butt plates, or anything else without handling or shouldering the rifle. In addition to this time the range officer may also give a three-minute prep time for shooters to shoulder their rifle and do their last changes before the string starts. When the range officer gives the command to commence firing the timer is started for the match being shot. Shooters start by shooting sighting shots to ensure the rifle is sighted in and boost the confidence of the shooter. Shooters use a simple spotting scope to review their shots and adjust accordingly. The scopes come very useful for seeing any patterns with their shots or any missed bulls eyes. When the shooter has finished shooting all the shots for record they must wait for the range officer instructions to begin preparing for the next position.
The kneeling, prone and standing positions all are equally as important when shooting a three position match. Each count for the same number of points and have specific guidelines for each position.In ISSF three position matches, the first position is kneeling, followed by prone and then standing.
The first position in a three positions match is the kneeling position. Shooters generally use a kneeling roll and place it under the rear foot while aiming downrange. They sit on their rear foot and the other foot is pointed downrange. Shooters are allowed to use a sling just like the prone position.This sling is extremely important for creating a stable position. For many shooters kneeling begins as a struggle. With practice each shooter finds different keys for their position to make the most comfortable and stable position. There is a great fluctuation in scores and often depends on the stability and comfort of the shooters position.
The prone position comes second in the match and is often the first learned shooting position. The prone position is the easiest to master and is often is easy to sight in rifles using this position due to its stability.The added stability that this position gives the shooter makes this position, in most cases, the easiest to learn and typically is the highest scoring string of the match. Shooters are able to use a “sling” to support the rifle. The sling is a belt like device that goes around the non-shooting bicep and wraps around the wrist and attaches to the handstop of the rifle. This gives support so the sling holds up the weight instead of your arms.
The standing position is the final part of the three position match. This position is the hardest to master in most cases. Most competitors have a standing stand that they rest the rifle on then pick up to aim down range. The standing position is a freestanding position. For more stability it is common for shooters to place a fist or grip the rifle near or under the trigger guard and place their forearm against their body.Natural point of aim is especially crucial in this position. Natural point of aim is where your body is naturally aiming at while aiming downrange. If shooters fight their natural point of aim it is very difficult to stay stable and make a good shot. There are many tricks for finding a shooters natural point of aim and can be very difficult to teach to new shooters.
Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon. Even the acts of launching flame, artillery, darts, harpoons, grenades, rockets, and guided missiles can be considered acts of shooting. When using a firearm, the act of shooting is often called firing as it involves initiating a combustion (deflagration) of chemical propellants.
Shooting sports is a group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in shooting — the art of using ranged weapons, mainly small arms and bows/crossbows.
The International Shooting Sport Federation recognizes several shooting events, some of which have Olympic status. They are divided into four disciplines: rifle, pistol, shotgun and running target.
In the United States (U.S.), a marksmanship badge is a U.S. military badge or a civilian badge which is awarded to personnel upon successful completion of a weapons qualification course or high achievement in an official marksmanship competition. The U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps are the only military services that award marksmanship qualification badges. However, marksmanship medals and/or marksmanship ribbons are awarded by the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and U.S. Air Force for weapons qualifications. For non-military personnel, different U.S. law enforcement organizations and the National Rifle Association (NRA) award marksmanship qualification badges to those involved in law enforcement. Additionally, the Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP) and the NRA award marksmanship qualification badges to U.S. civilians. Most of these organizations and the U.S. National Guard award marksmanship competition badges to the people they support who succeed in official competitions.
NRA Precision Pistol, formerly known as NRA Conventional Pistol, is a national bullseye shooting discipline organized in the United States by the National Rifle Association of America. Emphasis is on accuracy and precision, and participants shoot handguns at paper targets at fixed distances and time limits. Other organizations in the United States and Canada have established rules and keep records of similar disciplines, including the Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP) in the United States.
Prone position is a body position in which the person lies flat with the chest down and the back up. In anatomical terms of location, the dorsal side is up, and the ventral side is down. The supine position is the 180° contrast.
10 meter air rifle is an International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) shooting event, shot at a bullseye target over a distance of 10 meters using a 4.5 mm (0.177 in) calibre air rifle with a maximum weight of 5.5 kg (12.13 lb). It is one of the ISSF-governed shooting sports included in the Summer Olympics since the 1984 Los Angeles Games.
The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) is the governing body of the Olympic shooting events in rifle, pistol and shotgun disciplines, and of several non-Olympic shooting sport events. ISSF's activities include regulation of the sport, Olympic qualifications and organization of international competitions such as the ISSF World Cup Series, the ISSF World Cup Finals, the ISSF Separate World Championship in Shotgun events and the ISSF World Championship in all events.
Paralympic shooting, evil known as shooting Para sport, is an adaptation of shooting sports for competitors with disabilities. Shooting is a test of accuracy and control, in which competitors use pistols or rifles to fire a series of shots at a stationary target. Each shot is worth a maximum score of 10.9 points. Athletes use .22 caliber rifles, pistols and .177 caliber air guns. Paralympic shooting first appeared in the Summer Paralympics at the 1976 Toronto Games.
50 meter rifle three positions is an International Shooting Sport Federation event, a miniature version of 300 meter rifle three positions. It consists of the kneeling, prone, and standing positions, fired in that order, traditionally with 3×40 shots for men and 3×20 shots for women. In January 2018, the number of shots was equalised between genders with the Women's 3x20 being abolished in favour of a 3x40 match identical to the men's event. The caliber is .22 Long Rifle (5.6 mm).
300 m rifle three positions is an ISSF shooting event, involving shooting 40 shots each from the prone, the standing and the kneeling positions. Men and women both shoot the same number of shots, though previously women only shot half the course - or 20 shots in each position.
High Power Rifle, also called XTC from "Across the Course", is a shooting sport using fullbore target rifles which is arranged in the United States by the National Rifle Association of America (NRA). The sport is divided into classes by equipment, and popular types of matches include Service Rifle, Open, Axis and Allies and metallic silhouette. The term High Power Rifle sometimes also includes the international shooting disciplines of Palma and F-Class by the International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations (ICFRA) which are represented by the NRA in the United States.
The Art of the Rifle is a concise book explaining the use and techniques of rifles. It was authored by Lt. Col. (R) Jeff Cooper (1920–2006) and published in 1997. In it, Cooper uses short chapters to teach about both physical and mental preparedness for successful rifle shooting, whether for defense, hunting, or competition. His goal was to help the rifle shooter be accurate at any time or place. Col. Cooper was particularly well known for his pistol shooting expertise, popularizing the widely used “Weaver stance” and establishing a large training center in Arizona for military, law enforcement and civilians interested in gaining skill with firearms and defense techniques. Col. Cooper also authored at least half a dozen other books related to shooting since the 1950s. As of 2012, The Art of the Rifle was still in print in hardcover, softcover and electronic formats.
The mixed 300 m rifle three positions was an event at the 1972 Summer Olympics. This was the final time that free rifle was contested at the Olympics. Soviet shooter Boris Melnik was leading 1155 to 1154 when the unofficial scores were posted, but the official scoring brought American Lones Wigger up to 1155, Wigger won the tie breaker with a better score on the last string fired kneeling, 97, versus 96 for Melnik. It was the third consecutive victory in the event for the United States; the Soviet Union had taken at least one medal each of the six times it competed before the event was discontinued. Lajos Papp of Hungary took bronze.
The men's 50 metre rifle three positions event at the 2012 Olympic Games took place on 6 August 2012 at the Royal Artillery Barracks.
The men's 50 metre rifle three positions team competition at the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, Qatar was held on 7 December at the Lusail Shooting Range.
The men's 50 metre rifle three positions team competition at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China was held on 18 November at the Aoti Shooting Range.
The men's 50 metre rifle three positions team competition at the 2014 Asian Games in Incheon, South Korea was held on 27 September at the Ongnyeon International Shooting Range.
The Women's 50 metre rifle three positions shooting event at the 2015 Pan American Games will be held on July 18 at the Pan Am Shooting Centre in Innisfil.
Bullseye shooting is a category of shooting sport disciplines where the objective is to score points with carefully placed precision fire by hitting a target as close to its center as possible. The name refers to the target center's nickname — the "bull's eye". In Scandinavia, this type of shooting competition is referred to as Range-Shooting, as it usually takes place at dedicated shooting range.