Squash (sport)

Last updated
Open International de Squash de Nantes 2017.jpg
Glass court under the Naves of the Open International de Squash de Nantes in 2017
Highest governing body World Squash Federation (WSF)
First played19th century, England, United Kingdom
Contact Limited
Team membersSingles or doubles
Mixed-sex Separate competitions (mixed sometimes in leagues)
Type Racket sport
Equipment Squash ball, squash racket, goggles, non-marking gum soled shoes
VenueIndoor or outdoor (with glass court)
Olympic No
Paralympic No
World Games 1997, 2005–present

Squash is a racket and ball sport played by two or four players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow, rubber ball. The players alternate in striking the ball with their rackets onto the playable surfaces of the four walls of the court. The objective of the game is to hit the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. There are about 20 million people who play squash regularly world-wide in over 185 countries. [1] The governing body of Squash, the World Squash Federation (WSF), is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), but the sport is not part of the Olympic Games, despite a number of applications. Supporters continue to lobby for its incorporation in a future Olympic program. The Professional Squash Association (PSA) organizes the pro tour.


Squash Played at the Pyramids of Egypt. Squash Played at the Pyramids of Egypt.jpg
Squash Played at the Pyramids of Egypt.


Squash has its origins in the older game of rackets which was played in London's prisons in the 19th century. Later, around 1830, boys at Harrow School noticed that a punctured ball, which "squashed" on impact with the wall, offered more variety to the game. The game spread to other schools. The first courts built at Harrow were dangerous because they were near water pipes, buttresses, chimneys, and ledges. Natural rubber was the preferred material for the ball. Students modified their rackets to have a smaller reach and improve their ability to play in these cramped conditions. [2] In 1864, the school built four outside courts. [3]

In the 20th century the game increased in popularity with various schools, clubs and private individuals building squash courts, but with no set dimensions. The first squash court in North America was at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire, in 1884. In 1904 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the earliest national association of squash in the world, the United States Squash Racquets Association, now known as U.S. Squash, was formed. In April 1907, the Tennis, Rackets & Fives Association of Queens, New York, which regulated those three sports (fives being a similar sport using hands instead of a racket), established a subcommittee to set standards for squash. In 1912, the association published rules for squash, [2] :38 combining aspects of these three sports.

In 1912, the RMS Titanic had a squash court in first class, available for 50 cents. The 1st-Class Squash Court was situated on G-Deck. The Spectators Viewing Gallery was one level higher, on F-Deck. Passengers could use the court for one hour unless others were waiting.

In 1923, the Royal Automobile Club hosted a meeting to further discuss the rules and regulations. Five years later, the Squash Rackets Association, now known as England Squash, was formed to set standards for the game in Great Britain and internationally. [2] The rackets were made from one piece English ash, with a suede leather grip and natural gut.

The 1980s witnessed a period of re-structuring and consolidation. The Cambridge rackets factory was forced to close in face of the move to graphite rackets, and production was moved to the Far East. [4] Customization of squash rackets has grown over the years as well. There are custom variations on racket head shape, racket balance, and racket weight. The most common racket variation for international singles squash is a teardrop (closed throat) head shape, even balance, and racket weight of 130g. For hardball doubles, the most common variation is an open throat head shape, even balance, and racket weight of 140g.

There are several variations of squash played across the world, although the international version of the sport has become the dominant form. In the United States, a variant of squash known as hardball was traditionally played with a harder ball and different sized courts. Hardball squash has lost much of its popularity in North America (in favor of the international version). There is doubles squash a variant played by four players. There is also a tennis-like variation of squash known as squash tennis. Finally, racketball, a similar sport, is also played in the United States.



Old and new style squash rackets Nanoldsquash2.JPG
Old and new style squash rackets

Squash rackets have maximum dimensions of 686 mm (27.0 in) long and 215 mm (8.5 in) wide, with a maximum strung area of 500 square centimeters (77.5 sq in). The permitted maximum weight is 255 grams (9.0 oz), but most have a weight between 90 and 150 grams (3–5.3 oz.). The strings of the racket usually have a tension of 25–30 pounds.


A squash ball Squash Ball Dunlop Revelation Pro 1.jpg
A squash ball

Squash balls are between 39.5 and 40.5 mm in diameter, and weigh 23 to 25 grams. [5] They are made with two pieces of rubber compound, glued together to form a hollow sphere and buffed to a matte finish. Different balls are provided for varying temperature and atmospheric conditions and standards of play: more experienced players use slow balls that have less bounce than those used by less experienced players (slower balls tend to "die" in court corners, rather than "standing up" to allow easier shots). Squash balls must be hit dozens of times to warm them up at the beginning of a session; cold squash balls have very little bounce. Small colored dots on the ball indicate its dynamic level (bounciness). The "double-yellow dot" ball, introduced in 2000, is the competition standard, replacing the earlier "yellow-dot" ball. There is also an "orange dot" ball for use at high altitudes. The recognized colors are:

ColourSpeed (of Play)BouncePlayer Level
OrangeExtremely SlowSuper lowOnly recommended for high altitude play
Double yellowExtra SlowVery lowExperienced
BlueFastVery highBeginner/Junior

Some ball manufacturers such as Dunlop use a different method of grading balls based on experience. They still have the equivalent dot rating, but are named to help choose a ball that is appropriate for one's skill level. The four different ball types are Intro (Blue dot, 140% of Pro bounce), Progress (Red dot, 120% of Pro bounce), Competition (single yellow dot, 110% of Pro bounce) and Pro (double yellow dot).

Many squash venues mandate the use of shoes with non marking tread and eye protection. Some associations require that all juniors and doubles players must wear eye protection. The National Institutes of Health recommends wearing goggles with polycarbonate lenses. [6]


Squash Court.svg

The squash court is a playing surface surrounded by four walls. The court surface contains a front line separating the front and back of the court and a half court line, separating the left and right sides of the back portion of the court, creating three 'boxes': the front half, the back left quarter and the back right quarter. Both the back two boxes contain smaller service boxes.

The court's four walls are divided into a front wall, two side walls, and a back wall. An 'out line' runs along the top of the front wall, descending along the side walls to the back wall. The bottom line of the front wall marks the top of the 'tin', a half meter-high metal area. The middle line of the front wall is the service line. The dimensions of the court are: [7]


North American hardball doubles courts are larger than international singles courts because of a hard ball that has a much faster pace. With double the number of players, the doubles court needs to be significantly bigger than a singles court. The doubles court should measure 25 feet wide by 45 feet long and have a ceiling height of at least 24 feet but preferably 26. [8]

Manner of play


The players spin a racket to decide who serves first. This player starts the first rally by electing to serve from either the left or right service box. For a legal serve, one of the server's feet must be in the service box, not touching any part of the service box lines, as the player strikes the ball. After being struck by the racket, the ball must strike the front wall above the service line and below the out line and land in the opposite back quarter court. The receiving player can choose to volley a serve after it has hit the front wall. If the server wins the point, the two players switch sides for the following point. If the server loses the point, the opponent then serves, and can serve from either box.


Glass Squash Court Payne-whitney-squash.jpg
Glass Squash Court

After the serve, the players take turns hitting the ball against the front wall, above the tin and below the out line. The ball may strike the side or back walls at any time, as long as it hits below the out line. It must not hit the floor after hitting the racket and before hitting the front wall. A ball landing on either the out line or the line along the top of the tin is considered to be out. After the ball hits the front wall, it is allowed to bounce once on the floor (and any number of times against the side or back walls) before a player must return it. Players may move anywhere around the court but accidental or deliberate obstruction of the other player's movements is forbidden and could result in a let or a stroke. Players typically return to the centre of the court after making a shot, as it is the optimal position in the court to receive the opponent's shot. The centre of the court is typically referred to as "the T", named after the shape of the floor lines.

Strategy and tactics

A key strategy in squash is known as "dominating the T" (the intersection of the red lines near the centre of the court, shaped like the letter "T", where the player is in the best position to retrieve the opponent's next shot). Skilled players will return a shot, and then move back toward the "T" before playing the next shot. From this position, the player can quickly access any part of the court to retrieve the opponent's next shot with a minimum of movement and possibly maximising the movement required by the opponent to answer the returned shot.

A common tactic is to hit the ball straight up the side walls to the back corners; this is the basic squash shot, referred to as a "rail," straight drive, wall, or "length". After hitting this shot, the player will then move to the centre of the court near the "T" to be well placed to retrieve the opponent's return. Attacking with soft or "short" shots to the front corners (referred to as "drop shots") causes the opponent to cover more of the court and may result in an outright winner. Boasts or angle shots are deliberately struck off one of the side walls before the ball reaches the front. They are used for deception and again to cause the opponent to cover more of the court. Rear wall shots float to the front either straight or diagonally drawing the opponent to the front. Advantageous tactical shots are available in response to a weak return by the opponent if stretched, the majority of the court being free to the striker.

Rallies between experienced players may involve 30 or more shots and therefore a very high premium is placed on fitness, both aerobic and anaerobic. As players become more skilled and, in particular, better able to retrieve shots, points often become a war of attrition. At higher levels of the game, the fitter player has a major advantage.

The ability to change the direction of the ball at the last instant is also a tactic used to unbalance the opponent. Expert players can anticipate the opponent's shot a few tenths of a second before the average player, giving them a chance to react sooner. [9]

The glass show court used at the 2011 US Open Squash Championships hosted by Drexel University at the Daskalakis Athletic Center.
2 points during the Semi Final between James Willstrop and Nick Matthew in 2011. US Open Squash Championship 2011 Drexel University.jpg
The glass show court used at the 2011 US Open Squash Championships hosted by Drexel University at the Daskalakis Athletic Center.
2 points during the Semi Final between James Willstrop and Nick Matthew in 2011.

Depending on the style of play, it is common to refer to squash players [12] [13] as

Interference and obstruction

Interference and obstruction are an inevitable aspect of squash, since two players are confined within a shared space. Generally, the rules entitle players to a direct straight line access to the ball, room for a reasonable swing and an unobstructed shot to any part of the front wall. When interference occurs, a player may appeal for a "let" and the referee (or the players themselves if there is no official) then interprets the extent of the interference. The referee may allow a let and the players then replay the point, or award a "stroke" to the appealing player (meaning that he is declared the winner of that point) depending on the degree of interference, whether the interfering player made an adequate effort to avoid interfering, and whether the player interfered with was likely to have hit a winning shot had the interference not occurred. An exception occurs when the interfering player is directly in the path of the other player's swing, effectively preventing the swing, in which case a stroke is always awarded.

When it is deemed that there has been little or no interference, the rules provide that no let is to be allowed in the interests of continuity of play and the discouraging of spurious appeals for lets. Because of the subjectivity in interpreting the nature and magnitude of interference, awarding (or withholding) of lets and strokes is often controversial.

Interference also occurs when a player's shot hits their opponent prior to hitting the front wall. If the ball was travelling towards the side wall when it hit the opponent, or if it had already hit the side wall and was travelling directly to the front wall, it is usually a let. However, it is a stroke to the player who hit the ball if the ball was travelling straight to the front wall when the ball hit the opponent, without having first hit the side wall. Generally after a player has been hit by the ball, both players stand still; if the struck player is standing directly in front of the player who hit the ball he loses the stroke; if he is not straight in front, a let is played. If it is deemed that the player who is striking the ball is deliberately trying to hit his opponent, they will lose the stroke. An exception occurs when the player hitting the ball has "turned", i.e., letting the ball pass them on one side, but then hitting it on the other side as it came off the back wall. In these cases, the stroke goes to the player who was hit by the ball.


The referee is usually a certified position issued by the club or assigned squash league. Any conflict or interference is dealt with by the referee. The referee may also take away points or games due to improper etiquette regarding conduct or rules. The referee is also usually responsible for the scoring of games. Three referees are usually used in professional tournaments. The Central referee has responsibility to call the score and make decisions with the two side referees.

Scoring system

Point-a-Rally to 11

Games are played according to point-a-rally scoring (PARS) to 11 points. PARS is almost universally preferred by the game's top professionals, and is the current official scoring system for all levels of professional squash tournaments. In PARS, the winner of a rally receives a point, regardless of whether they were the server or returner. Games are played to 11 and must be won by two points. That is, if the score reaches 10–10, play continues until one player wins by two points. Competition matches are usually played to "best-of-five" games (i.e. the first player to win three games).

Squash can also be played with different scoring systems such as PARS to 15, traditional English or Hand-In-Hand-Out (HiHo) scoring to 9, or RAM scoring (see below). Players often experience PARS and Hi-Ho as requiring different tactics and player attributes.

Other scoring systems

Point-a-Rally to 15

Point-a-rally scoring to 15 was used for the World Championships between 1989 and 2003. PARS to 15, with the tiebreak being two clear points (as per standard PARS) from 14–14, was used in many amateur leagues because PARS to 11 was considered too short. [14] This system fell out of favor in 2004 when the Professional Squash Association (PSA) decided to switch to PARS to 11. Games were considered to last too long and the winner would usually be the fitter player, not necessarily the better player. [15]

English/Hand-In-Hand-Out to 9

Known as English or hand-in-hand-out scoring, under this system, if the server wins a rally, they receive a point, while if the returner wins rally, only the service changes (i.e., the ball goes "hand-out") and no point is given. The first player to reach nine points wins the game. However, if the score reaches 8–8, the player who was first to reach eight decides whether the game will be played to nine, as before (called "set one"), or to 10 (called "set two"). This scoring system was formerly preferred in Britain, and also among countries with traditional British ties, such as Australia, Canada, Pakistan, South Africa, India and Sri Lanka.


The RAM scoring system is a proposed new scoring system created by former World Champion, Ramy Ashour and co-founded by Osama Khalifa. This consists of playing a best of five games. Each game is three minutes long; however, this only refers to the three minutes in play. The 'downtime' in between the end of a rally and a serve is not counted. Once the time is up, the clock stops, and the leading player needs to win a final point. If the player who is behind wins the point the game continues until the trailing player catches up and wins one more point than the initially leading player.

For example, Player one is leading 5–3 and the clock stops. Player two wins the next two points and the score is 5–5. Whoever wins the next point wins the game. This is called sudden death. If the score is 0–0 when the clock stops the clock is reset and the game restarts. For Let Calls the clock reverts to the start time of that point. Further rules include that there must be a referee and a time keeper to make this match official. Players have two minutes of rest between games, and all other standard PSA and WSF rules apply. [16]

Transition from English/HiHo to PARS 11

In 2004, the Professional Squash Association (PSA) decided to switch to PARS 11. This decision was ratified in 2009 when the World Squash Federation confirmed the switch to the PARS 11 scoring system. [17] Since that time, almost all professional and league games have been played according to PARS to 11. One of the reasons for switching to PARS was that long, taxing matches became less frequent and promoters could more easily predict match and session length. Gawain Briars, who served as the Executive Director of the Professional Squash Association when the body decided to switch to PARS in 2004 hoped that PARS would make the "professional game more exciting to watch, [and] then more people will become involved in the game and our chances of Olympic entry may be enhanced." [18]

One of the problems with English or Hi-Ho scoring is that games often last longer as players continually win service before losing service to the other player without the score being affected. Consequently, the winner is more often than not the fitter athlete. Moreover, English or Hi-Ho scoring can encourage players to play defensively with the aim of wearing down one's opponent before winning by virtue of one's fitness. Such exhausting, defensive play can affect player's prospects in knock-out tournaments and does not make for riveting TV. In English or Hi-Ho, one player might win by 9–0 despite the opponent having repeatedly won service, but without converting that service into actual points.

For the World Championships: HiHo to 9 was used until 1988; PARS to 15 from 1989 to 2003; and PARS to 11 from 2004. For the British Open: HiHo to 9 was used until 1994; PARS to 15 from 1995 to 2003; and PARS to 11 from 2004. [19]

The WSF's decision to switch to PARS 11 proved controversial in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth where games were usually played according to English or Hi-Ho. When the Veterans Squash Rackets Club of Great Britain surveyed their members in 2012, they found that 80% of their members were against switching from HiHo to PARS. [20] President Philip Ayton argued that PARS would "kill the essence of the game." [20] Ayton was particularly concerned that the "great comebacks" that characterised English or Hi-Ho when "the player who is down in a game can still attack when in hand serving" [20] would disappear as PARS fostered an "ultra-defensive attitude, because every rally counts the same." [20]

Jahangir Khan has countered that PARS actually made the game far more attacking, but diminished the psychological aspect of the game: "With the nine points scoring system, matches were more mental and physical and could go longer, but now with the 11-point system, every rally counts, and even if you go behind you can still recover. That makes it a lot more attacking." Maj Madan, one of the game's top referees, similarly stated that PARS had "destroyed the fitness element and, more importantly, the cerebral magic of the…game." [21] His comments were unearthed when an email chain of referees discussing the problem of shorter and shorter squash matches was leaked in 2011.

Contribution to health

Squash provides an excellent cardiovascular workout. Players can expend approximately 600 to 1,000 food calories (3,000 to 4,000 kJ) every hour playing squash according to English or Hi-Ho scoring. [22] The sport also provides a good upper and lower body workout by exercising both the legs in running around the court and the arms and torso in swinging the racket. In 2003, Forbes rated squash as the number one healthiest sport to play. [22] However, one study has implicated squash as a cause of possible fatal cardiac arrhythmia and argued that squash is an inappropriate form of exercise for older men with heart disease. [23]

Around the world

According to the World Squash Federation, there are about 50,000 squash courts in the world, with 188 countries and territories having at least one court. England had the greatest number at 8,500. The other countries with more than 1,000 courts, in descending order by number were Germany, Egypt, the United States of America, Australia, South Africa, Canada, Malaysia, France, the Netherlands, and Spain. Today, The United States has the fastest growing squash participation. There are an estimated 20 million squash players worldwide.

As of November 2019, there were players from eighteen countries in the top fifty of the men's world rankings, with Egypt dominating with fifteen players, six of whom were in the top ten, including ranks one through four. [24] Similarly, the women's world rankings featured players from sixteen countries, again led by Egypt taking thirteen spots of the top fifty, whilst holding spots one through four in the world. [25]

The men's and women's Professional Squash Association tour, men's rankings and women's rankings are run by the Professional Squash Association (PSA).

The Professional Squash Tour is a tour based in the United States. [26]

Inclusion in multi-sport events

Squash has been featured regularly at the multi-sport events of the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games since 1998. Squash is also a regular sport at the Pan American Games since 1995. Squash players and associations have lobbied for many years for the sport to be accepted into the Olympic Games, with no success as of 2021. Squash narrowly missed being instated for the 2012 London Games and the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Games (missed out again as the IOC assembly decided to add golf and rugby sevens to the Olympic programme). [27] Squash also was not selected as an event in the 2020 Olympic Games. [28] At the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, the IOC voted for Wrestling instead of Squash or Baseball/Softball. The usual reason cited for the failure of the sport to be adopted for Olympic competition is that it is difficult for spectators to follow the action, especially via television. Previous world number one Peter Nicol stated that he believed squash had a "very realistic chance" of being added to the list of Olympic sports for the 2016 Olympic Games, [29] but it ultimately lost out to golf and rugby sevens.

Squash was accepted as a demonstration sport for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics. [30] The World Squash Federation hopes that this inclusion will create a strong bid for a potential inclusion at the 2024 Summer Olympics. [31]

Major tournaments

Players, records and rankings

Jansher Khan of Pakistan Record Eight Times Winner of the Squash World Open, Record Four Times Winners of the World Super Series and Guinness World Records. Jansher Khan in happy mood.jpeg
Jansher Khan of Pakistan Record Eight Times Winner of the Squash World Open, Record Four Times Winners of the World Super Series and Guinness World Records.
Nicol David; widely regarded as the most successful Malaysian squash player ever. Nicol2009.jpg
Nicol David; widely regarded as the most successful Malaysian squash player ever.

The (British) Squash Rackets Association (now known as England Squash) conducted its first British Open championship for men in December 1930, using a "challenge" system. Charles Read was designated champion in 1930, but was beaten in home and away matches by Don Butcher, who was then recorded as the champion for 1931. The championship continues to this day, but has been conducted with a "knockout" format since 1947.

The women's championship started in 1921, and has been dominated by relatively few players: [32] Joyce Cave, Nancy Cave, Cecily Fenwick (England) in the 1920s; Margot Lumb and Susan Noel (England) 1930s; Janet Morgan (England) 1950s; Heather McKay (Australia) 1960s and 1970s; Vicki Cardwell (Australia) and Susan Devoy (New Zealand) 1980s; Michelle Martin and Sarah Fitz-Gerald (Australia) 1990s and Nicol David (Malaysia) 2000s.

The Men's British Open has similarly been dominated by relatively few players: [32] F.D. Amr Bey (Egypt) in the 1930s; Mahmoud Karim (Egypt) in the 1940s; brothers Hashim Khan and Azam Khan (Pakistan) in the 1950s and 1960s; Jonah Barrington (Great Britain and Ireland) and Geoff Hunt (Australia) in the 1960s and 1970s, Jahangir Khan (Pakistan) 1980s ; Jansher Khan (Pakistan) in the 1990s and more recently, David Palmer and Nick Matthew.

The World Open professional championship was inaugurated in 1976 and serves as the main competition today. Jansher Khan holds the record of winning eight World titles followed by Jahangir Khan with six, Geoff Hunt & Amr Shabana four, Nick Matthew & Ramy Ashour three. The women's record is held by Nicol David with eight wins followed by Sarah Fitzgerald five, Susan Devoy four, and Michelle Martin three.

Heather McKay remained undefeated in competitive matches for 19 years (between 1962 and 1981) and won sixteen consecutive British Open titles between 1962 and 1977. [33]

Current rankings

The Professional Squash Association (PSA) publishes monthly rankings of professional players:


PSA Men's World Rankings, of 3 October 2022 [34]
1Flag of New Zealand.svg  Paul Coll  (NZL)17,925Increase2.svg
2Flag of Egypt.svg  Ali Farag  (EGY)17,710Decrease2.svg
3Flag of Egypt.svg  Mostafa Asal  (EGY)15,020Steady2.svg
4Flag of Peru.svg  Diego Elías  (PER)12,555Increase2.svg
5Flag of England.svg  Mohamed Elshorbagy  (ENG)11,465Decrease2.svg
6Flag of Egypt.svg  Tarek Momen  (EGY)9,040Steady2.svg
7Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Joel Makin  (WAL)7,020Steady2.svg
8Flag of Egypt.svg  Mazen Hesham  (EGY)6,745Steady2.svg
9Flag of Egypt.svg  Marwan Elshorbagy  (EGY)6,450Steady2.svg
10Flag of France.svg  Victor Crouin  (FRA)6,045Increase2.svg


PSA Women's World Rankings, of 3 October 2022 [35]
1Flag of Egypt.svg  Nouran Gohar  (EGY)20,270Steady2.svg
2Flag of Egypt.svg  Hania El Hammamy  (EGY)14,710Increase2.svg
3Flag of Egypt.svg  Nour El Sherbini  (EGY)13,610Decrease2.svg
4Flag of the United States.svg  Amanda Sobhy  (USA)7,830Steady2.svg
5Flag of New Zealand.svg  Joelle King  (NZL)7,485Steady2.svg
6Flag of Egypt.svg  Nour El Tayeb  (EGY)6,935Steady2.svg
7Flag of England.svg  Sarah-Jane Perry  (ENG)5,945Increase2.svg
8Flag of Egypt.svg  Rowan Elaraby  (EGY)5,650Decrease2.svg
9Flag of the United States.svg  Olivia Fiechter  (USA)5,500Steady2.svg
10Flag of England.svg  Georgina Kennedy  (ENG)5,225Steady2.svg

Current champions

EditionTitle holderEditionTitle holder
World Championship 2022 Flag of Egypt.svg Ali Farag 2022 Flag of Egypt.svg Nour El Sherbini
WSF World Team Championships 2019 Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 2018 Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
World Games 2022 Flag of France.svg Victor Crouin 2022 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Tinne Gilis
WSF World Junior Championships 2019 Flag of Egypt.svg Mostafa Asal 2019 Flag of Egypt.svg Hania El Hammamy
WSF World Junior Team Championships 2018 Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 2019 Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt
World University 2018 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Joshua Masters 2018 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Lily Taylor
World Masters (Over 35) 2018 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Laurens-Jan Anjema 2018 Flag of the United States.svg Natalie Grainger

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Badminton</span> Racquet sport

Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" and "doubles". Badminton is often played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach; formal games are played on a rectangular indoor court. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tennis</span> Racket sport

Tennis is a racket sport that is played either individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to manoeuvre the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball validly will not gain a point, while the opposite player will.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Table tennis</span> Racket sport

Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small solid rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, the rules are generally as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce once on their side of the table and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. A point is scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Volleyball</span> Team sport

Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. Beach volleyball was introduced to the programme at the Atlanta 1996. The adapted version of volleyball at the Summer Paralympic Games is sitting volleyball.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Racquetball</span> Racquet sport played with a hollow rubber ball in an indoor or outdoor court

Racquetball is a racquet sport and a team sport played with a hollow rubber ball on an indoor or outdoor court. Joseph Sobek invented the modern sport of racquetball in 1950, adding a stringed racquet to paddleball in order to increase velocity and control. Unlike most racquet sports, such as tennis and badminton, there is no net to hit the ball over, and, unlike squash, no tin to hit the ball above. Also, the court's walls, floor, and ceiling are legal playing surfaces, with the exception of court-specific designated hinders being out-of-bounds. Racquetball is played between various players on a team who try to bounce the ball with the racquet onto the ground so it hits the wall, so that an opposing team’s player cannot bounce it back to the wall.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Squash tennis</span>

Squash tennis is an American variant of squash, but played with a ball and racquets that are closer to the equipment used for lawn tennis, and with somewhat different rules. For younger players the game offers the complexity of squash and the speed of racquetball. It also has exercise and recreational potential for older players.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Basque pelota</span> Variety of court sports

Basque pelota is the name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using one's hand, a racket, a wooden bat or a basket, against a wall or, more traditionally, with two teams face to face separated by a line on the ground or a net. The roots of this class of games can be traced to the Greek and other ancient cultures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">World Squash Federation</span>

The World Squash Federation (WSF) is the international federation for squash, an indoor racket sport which was formerly called "squash rackets". The WSF is recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the International Federation (IF) for squash, and is also a member of the SportAccord and the Association of the IOC Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rackets (sport)</span> Indoor racquet sport

Rackets or racquets is an indoor racket sport played in the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada. The sport is infrequently called "hard rackets", to distinguish it from the related sport of squash.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pickleball</span> Racket/paddle sport

Pickleball is an indoor or outdoor racket/paddle sport where two players (singles), or four players (doubles), hit a perforated hollow polymer ball over a 36-inch-high (0.91 m) net using solid-faced paddles. Opponents on either side of the net hit the ball back and forth until one side commits a rule infraction. Pickleball was invented in 1965 as a children's backyard game on Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA. In 2022, pickleball was adopted as the official state sport of Washington.

This page is a glossary of tennis terminology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ball badminton</span> Badminton variation

Ball badminton is a sport native to India. It is a racket game, played with a yellow ball made of wool, on a court of fixed dimensions divided by a net. The game was played as early as 1856 by the royal family in Tanjore, the capital of Thanjavur district in Tamil Nadu, India. It enjoys the greatest popularity in India. Ball badminton is a fast-paced game; it demands skill, quick reflexes, good judgment, agility, and the ability to control the ball with one's wrist.

Table tennis is unique among racket sports in that it supports a large variety of different styles of players. As players' levels increase, the diversity of styles decreases slightly, because technically weak styles are quickly eliminated; but, even at the very top of international table tennis, there are many dramatically different styles to be found. As of 2021, attacking styles dominate most of the top places in the world. However, this may be due to the relative popularity of attack over defense, as defensive players are still able to reach the highest levels of international competition.

Charles Edgar Brumfield is an American attorney and former professional racquetball player as well as a noted paddleball player. For much of his professional racquetball career, Brumfield was the marquis player for Leach Industries, the leading manufacturer of racquetball rackets at the time. Leach produced several Brumfield signature rackets including the very popular "Graphite Brumfield". For a brief time, Brumfield had his own sports brand label, which marketed rackets and sports apparel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Four wall paddleball</span>

Four wall paddleball, or paddleball, is a popular court sport in the Upper Midwest of the United States, on the West Coast of the U.S. and in the Memphis, Tennessee area. It is played with a paddle and small rubber ball on a standard handball or racquetball court, with similar rules to those sports.

Table squash is a sport for two players which is an evolution of table tennis and uses similar rules and equipment. The game is played by placing a table tennis table against a playing wall with the net remaining on the table perpendicular to the wall. Each player stands on the opposite side of the table facing the wall on either side of an imaginary line as if the net was extended backwards. Players each use table tennis rackets and take turns to play a table tennis ball off the playing wall onto the table on the opponents side of the net, except on serves where the ball must first bounce on the servers side of the net on the table.

A squash ball machine is a mechanical device that automatically throws out squash balls at different speeds and angles. Its main purpose is to help players to develop their ball hitting technique.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tennis polo</span>

Tennis polo is a field sport where two teams of ten players use a tennis ball to score goals by throwing the ball into a goal defended by a keeper who holds a racket. Tennis polo shares elements of sports such as field handball, hurling, football, and lacrosse. The game may also be played where all field players have racquets including the goalkeeper.



  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2020-08-23. Retrieved 2019-07-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. 1 2 3 Zug, James. "History of Squash". US Squash. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  3. "From prison rackets to squash racquets". 26 June 2002. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  4. "Grays of Cambridge: History" Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine – makers of rackets and founded in 1855 by Henry John Gray, the Champion rackets Player of England. "In those days, the rackets were made from one piece English ash, with a suede leather grip and natural gut. ... The 1980s witnessed a period of re-structuring and consolidation. The Cambridge rackets factory was forced to close in face of the move to graphite rackets, and production was moved to the Far East."
  5. "Squash Balls". Squashplayer.co.uk. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
  6. "Sports, For Parents, Teachers and Coaches, National Eye Institute [NEI]". Nei.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  7. "Squash Court Construction: "How to build a Court?" – ASB SquashCourt". asbsquash.com. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  8. "Squash: The Definitive Guide (and How You Can Start to Play Today)". BossSquash. 14 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  9. "Agility Training: Improving Sporting Reaction Times". Pponline.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  10. "Squash : Nick Matthew v James Wilstrop : 2011 Delaware Investments U.S. Squash Open". YouTube. 12 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  11. "Squash : Nick Matthew v James Wilstrop : 2011 Delaware Investments U.S. Open Squash". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  12. Strategies, Jonathon Power Exposed DVD 2.
  13. Commentary by Jonathon Power and Martin Heath, TOC, 2005
  14. "PAR scoring equals less squash".
  15. "Frequently asked questions on squash – general squash tips". squashclub.org.
  16. "RAM Scoring System". Archived from the original on 2019-05-18. Retrieved 2019-05-18.
  17. "Squash: New Scoring System | IWGA".
  18. "New Scoring System". www.squashplayer.co.uk. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  19. "Number of rallies in squash games depending on scoring method".
  20. 1 2 3 4 Gilmour, Rod (13 June 2012). "Squash scoring changes will 'kill essence of the game', say top British veterans" . The Daily Telegraph. ISSN   0307-1235. Archived from the original on 2022-01-11. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  21. "Will's World The Referees' Call | Squash Magazine". squashmagazine.ussquash.com. August 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  22. 1 2 "Santelmann, N. 2003. Ten Healthiest Sports". Forbes.com. 30 September 2003. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  23. "Heart rate and metabolic response to competitive squash in veteran players: identification of risk factors for sudden cardiac death", European Heart Journal, Volume 10, Number 11, Pp. 1029–1035, abstract.Additionally Squash players are also prone to injuries during the game and should do necessary stretching before & after the game.
  24. "PSA World Tour Rankings". psaworldtour.com. 26 November 2019.
  25. "PSA World Tour Rankings". psaworldtour.com. 26 November 2019.
  26. "Professional Squash Tour". Prosquashtour.net. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  27. "Golf & rugby voted into Olympics". BBC.co.uk. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  28. "Squash Leads on 'Innovation' in Bid Presentation". World Squash Federation. 19 December 2012.
  29. Slater, Matt (23 March 2007). "Squash 'deserves Olympic place', BBC article". BBC News. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  30. "Buenos Aires 2018 take Youth Olympic Games to the next level with Squash". World Squash Federation. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  31. "Squash Favourite for 2024 Olympic Games inclusion". squash.org.au. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  32. 1 2 "Championship records". Allam British Open Squash.
  33. "Squash NSW History". Squash Australia. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  34. "Current PSA World Rankings". PSA World Tour, Inc.
  35. "Current PSA World Rankings". PSA World Tour, Inc.

General sources

Further reading