2028 Summer Olympics

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Games of the XXXIV Olympiad
2028 Summer Olympics Logo.svg
One of the variations of the emblems being used for the 2028 Summer Olympics
Host city Los Angeles, California, United States
Opening July 21
Closing August 6
Stadium
Summer
Winter

The 2028 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad, and commonly stylized as LA28, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from July 21 to August 6, 2028, in Los Angeles, California, United States. It will be the first Summer Games to be held in the US since the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, and the first Olympics in the US since the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Contents

The process of bidding for the host city had originally been scheduled to begin in 2019, with the winning bid due to be announced at the IOC Session in mid-2021. However, following the withdrawal of a number of cities from bidding for both the 2022 Winter Olympics [1] and the 2024 Summer Olympics, [2] the International Olympic Committee (IOC) resolved in July 2017 to jointly award both the 2024 and 2028 Games. [3] Thus on July 31, 2017, an agreement was reached whereby Los Angeles would bid for the 2028 Games with $1.8 billion of additional funding from the IOC, [4] which then cleared the way for Paris to be confirmed as host of the 2024 Games. Both cities were formally announced as winners of their respective games at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru, on September 13, 2017. [5] The LA bid was praised by the IOC for using a record-breaking number of existing and temporary facilities and for relying entirely on corporate funding. [6] [7]

This will be the third time that Los Angeles has hosted the Summer Olympics, making it the first North American city and the third worldwide, after London (1908, 1948, and 2012) and Paris (1900, 1924, and 2024), to host the Games three times. These will be the fifth Summer Olympic Games to be hosted in the United States, the previous four being St. Louis 1904, Los Angeles 1932, Los Angeles 1984, and Atlanta 1996. These will also be the fourth Olympics to be held in the state of California, and the ninth Olympics to be held in the US overall, including four winter events at Lake Placid 1932, Squaw Valley 1960, Lake Placid 1980, and Salt Lake City 2002.

Bidding process

On September 16, 2015, the International Olympic Committee announced the candidature process and the five candidate cities for the 2024 Games: Budapest, Hamburg, Los Angeles, Paris, and Rome. [8] Budapest, Hamburg, and Rome eventually withdrew, leaving only Los Angeles and Paris. A similar situation had already occurred during the bidding for the 2022 Winter Olympics when Krakow, Lviv, Oslo and Stockholm withdrew, resulting in a two-way decision between Beijing, China and Almaty, Kazakhstan, with Beijing ultimately declared the winner. On April 3, 2017, at the IOC convention in Denmark, Olympic officials met with bid committees from both Los Angeles and Paris to discuss the possibility of naming two winners in the competition to host the 2024 Summer Games.

After these withdrawals, the IOC Executive Board met in Lausanne, Switzerland on June 9, 2017, to discuss the 2024 and 2028 bid processes. [3] The IOC formally proposed electing the 2024 and 2028 host cities at the same time in 2017, a proposal that an Extraordinary IOC Session approved on July 11, 2017, in Lausanne. The IOC set up a process where the Los Angeles and Paris 2024 bid committees and the IOC, held meetings in July 2017 to decide which city would host in each of the two years. [9]

Following the decision to award the 2024 and 2028 Games simultaneously, Paris was understood to be preferred for the 2024 Games. On July 31, 2017, the IOC announced Los Angeles as the sole candidate for 2028, allowing Paris to be confirmed as the host for 2024. On August 11, 2017, Los Angeles City Council voted unanimously to approve the bid. [10] On September 11, 2017, Los Angeles received formal approval from the IOC's evaluation commission. [11] On September 13, 2017, Los Angeles was formally awarded the 2028 Games following a unanimous vote by the IOC. [12]

On October 16, 2017, Los Angeles 2028 received official support from the state of California. [13] On August 29, 2018, Olympic officials arrived for a two-day visit that included meetings with local organizers and a tour of the city's newest venues. [14] On October 9, 2018, a movement called NOlympics LA released a poll results stating that 45% of respondents from Los Angeles County and 47% from across California oppose bringing the 2028 Summer Games to Los Angeles. [15] However, LMU and LA Times polls suggest that more than 88% of Angelenos are in favor of the city's hosting the 2028 Olympic and Paralympic Games. [16]

2028 Summer Olympics
bidding results
CityNationVotes
Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States Unanimous

Development and preparations

Venue construction and renovations

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum 2008-0913-USCOSU-Pan01 crop.jpg
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
2020 aerial view of SoFi Stadium at Hollywood Park Sofistadium 2020.jpg
2020 aerial view of SoFi Stadium at Hollywood Park

While most host cities have seven years to prepare for the Olympic Games, Los Angeles will get an additional four, giving the city eleven years. The Los Angeles bid relied on a majority of existing venues; other venues that are already under construction were planned regardless of the Games. Banc of California Stadium, which opened in 2018 as the home of Major League Soccer's Los Angeles FC, will host football (soccer) and several events in athletics. SoFi Stadium, which opened in 2020 as the home of the NFL's Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers, will host the main opening ceremony, football, and archery. Around the time when Los Angeles won its bid, the Los Angeles Clippers proposed building a new arena in Inglewood. However, this venue has not yet been approved and has yet to be mentioned as a potential Olympic venue. [17] [18]

The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum underwent a major renovation and restoration program from 2017 to 2019. [19] A new press box, loge boxes, and club seats were installed. [20] This reduced stadium capacity from 93,607 to 78,467. [21] As the track and field venue, future renovations include the re-installation of an athletics track.

Infrastructure

Metro E Line train in Downtown Los Angeles Expo Line and L.A. skyline.jpg
Metro E Line train in Downtown Los Angeles

The Twenty-eight by '28 initiative is an effort set forth by Mayor Eric Garcetti that the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority complete 28 transit infrastructure projects before the start of the games. [22] Most of these projects were already in the planning stages but will receive accelerated priority, while several new projects were programmed with the initiative.

As of 2019, the K Line light rail is expected to open and will be fully completed by 2021. It will link the Crenshaw District, Inglewood and Westchester once completed. The Crenshaw/LAX line will also connect to a people mover being constructed to link Los Angeles International Airport with the Aviation/96th Street station. The construction of the people mover will be expedited in anticipation of the 2028 Olympics, with a completion date of 2023 being set. [23] The LAX people mover started construction in early 2018 and the Crenshaw Line is currently 75% completed (as of March 2018). [24] The Inglewood Transit Connector is another people mover planned to provide transportation between the Crenshaw line and the Olympic venues in Inglewood.

While various infrastructure improvements were planned regardless of the outcome of the Los Angeles Olympic bid, the extension of the Metro D Line will be expedited to serve the 2028 Olympics. Three phases were created to extend the line. The first phase will extend the D Line from the Wilshire/Western station to the new Wilshire/La Cienega station. This phase will be completed by 2023. The second phase will extend the D Line to Century City by 2025, while the third and final phase will extend the line to the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center in Westwood with a completion date set for 2026. The third phase will also include a station adjoining the UCLA campus, connecting the Olympic village and Pauley Pavilion with venues in downtown Los Angeles. [25] [26] Currently phase one, two and three broke ground and are under construction. Phase 3 did not have a "ground breaking ceremony", but did receive its federal funding grants in February 2020. Construction began in 2019 and remains on schedule. [25] [27] [28]

The Regional Connector in downtown Los Angeles will be complete in 2022. The project will connect the Metro E Line, which already links venues in Downtown Santa Monica to venues at Exposition Park and in downtown Los Angeles, to the Metro L Line. This will allow for direct rail service between Santa Monica and East Los Angeles. The Regional Connector will also link the Metro A Line with the Metro L Line, connecting the Long Beach area and San Gabriel Valley via downtown. [29] [30]

These infrastructure improvements, among others, are being funded by "Measure R", a temporary half-cent sales tax increase, and "Measure M", a continuation of Measure R's tax increase plus an additional permanent half-cent sales tax increase, both tax measures applicable to Los Angeles County. [31] Measure R was approved by voters in November 2008 and Measure M was approved by voters in November 2016. [31]

Budget

In April 2019, the estimated cost of the Games was assessed as being approximately $6.88 billion with all the money coming from the private sector, although the Los Angeles city council and state of California legislators have agreed to serve as a "financial backstop." The organizers adjusted the budget for inflation after L.A., which originally bid for the 2024 Games, agreed to wait four more years. [32] [33]

The City of Los Angeles is the lead public guarantor, committing to spend up to $250 million to cover shortfalls. In 2016, the California legislature took action so that the Governor is empowered to negotiate the next $250 million in public backup, but only after the city backup money has been used first. LA 2024 also agreed to purchase a wide range of insurance policies, including natural disaster, terrorism, event cancellation, as well as reduced ticket sales. The games are expected to generate as much as they cost, with $2.5 billion coming in through sponsorships and nearly $2 billion earned through ticket sales. Average ticket prices for the games will range between $13 and $457 (in 2016 dollars). [33]

The Federal government will designate the Olympics a National Special Security Event (NSSE) in which the U.S. Secret Service heads a single chain of command. [33] The U.S. federal government will also cover the cost of security, with an agreement signed by the LA organizing committee and Department of Homeland Security in February 2020. The federal government will not be involved in the Games' funding, covering only security costs. [34]

Venues

Under present IOC policy, venues with corporate naming rights will not be allowed to use their sponsored name during the Olympics. [35]

Downtown Los Angeles Sports Park

The Downtown Los Angeles sports park will incorporate various venues around downtown Los Angeles. Multiple venues will be located at LA Live, Exposition Park and the campus of the University of Southern California.

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Olympic Cauldron LA Coliseum gate.jpg
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Olympic Cauldron
Night view of Staples Center Staples Center LA Live.jpg
Night view of Staples Center
Banc of California Stadium LAFC East Side Stadium interior.jpg
Banc of California Stadium


VenueEventsCapacityStatus
Figueroa Street [36] Live site: "Olympic Way" – Street art, vendors and entertainment connecting USC and L.A. Live in Downtown Los Angeles N/AExisting
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Athletics (except some field events)78,467
Opening/Closing ceremonies
Banc of California Stadium Football (preliminaries, quarterfinals, women's 3rd place)22,000
Athletics (discus, javelin, and hammer first rounds)20,000
Dedeaux Field (USC)Swimming, Diving, Synchronized swimming20,000Temporary structure on existing site
Galen Center (USC)Badminton10,300Existing
Karate
Los Angeles Convention Center Basketball (women's preliminaries)8,000
Boxing8,000
Fencing7,000
Taekwondo
Table tennis5,000
BMX freestyle8,000
Staples Center Basketball (men's preliminaries, finals)18,000
Microsoft Theater Weightlifting7,000
USC Village Media VillageN/A
Grand Park Marathon5,000
Race walk
Road cycling

Valley Sports Park

The Valley Sports Park will be centered around the Sepulveda Dam in the San Fernando Valley.

VenueEventsCapacityStatus
Sepulveda Basin Park Canoe slalom8,000Planned construction
Equestrian15,000Temporary
Shooting3,000

South Bay Sports Park

Dignity Health Sports Park Center LA Galaxy vs Houston Dynamo- Western Conference Finals panorama.jpg
Dignity Health Sports Park Center

The South Bay Sports Park will be located on the campus of California State University, Dominguez Hills in Carson, California.

VenueEventsCapacityStatus
Dignity Health Sports Park - Main Stadium Rugby30,000Existing
Modern pentathlon
(excluding fencing)
30,000
Dignity Health Sports Park - Tennis Stadium Tennis10,000 (Center Court)
Dignity Health Sports Park - Track and Field Facility Field hockey15,000 (primary field)
5,000 (secondary field)
VELO Sports Center Track cycling6,000
Modern pentathlon (fencing)6,000

Long Beach Sports Park

Long Beach Long beach3.jpg
Long Beach

The Long Beach Sports Park will be located in and around Downtown Long Beach in Long Beach, California.

VenueEventsCapacityStatus
Long Beach Waterfront BMX racing6,000Temporary
Water polo8,000
Triathlon2,000Existing
Open water swimming2,000
Long Beach Arena Handball12,000
Belmont Veterans Memorial Pier Sailing6,000

Westside

Various venues in the Westside of Los Angeles, CA.

Riviera Country Club RivieraCountryClub18th.jpg
Riviera Country Club
The Forum Forum Inglewood.JPG
The Forum
VenueEventsCapacityStatus
Santa Monica State Beach and Venice Beach Beach volleyball12,000Temporary
Skateboarding10,000Existing
Surfing8,000
3x3 basketball
Riviera Country Club Golf30,000
UCLA Olympic Village and
Olympic Village Training Center
N/A
Pauley Pavilion (UCLA)Wrestling12,500
Judo12,500
SoFi Stadium Opening/Closing ceremonies70,000–100,000Existing
Football (men's quarterfinals, women's semifinals, men's final)70,000–100,000
Archery8,000
(stadium lake)
The Forum Gymnastics17,000Existing

Southern California venues

UCLA student housing site of the Olympic Village De Neve and Dykstra Hall UCLA.jpg
UCLA student housing site of the Olympic Village
VenueLocationEventsCapacityStatus
Rose Bowl Pasadena Football (women's quarterfinals, men's semifinals, women's final, men's 3rd place)92,000Existing
Lake Perris Riverside County Canoe sprint12,000
Rowing12,000
Frank G. Bonelli Regional Park San Dimas Mountain biking3,000Temporary
Dodger Stadium Los Angeles Baseball/Softball56,000Existing
Angel Stadium Anaheim 45,000
Honda Center Volleyball18,000
Anaheim Convention Center
(The Arena at Anaheim)
6,000
KNBC/Universal Studios Lot Universal City International Broadcast Centre/MPC [37]

Potential football venues

Rose Bowl 2018.06.17 Over the Rose Bowl, Pasadena, CA USA 0039 (42855669451) (cropped).jpg
Rose Bowl

According to the initial bid book for the Los Angeles 2024 Olympics, football venues are to be situated within Los Angeles Metropolitan Area and other main cities of California. The organizing committee's responsibility is to choose from four to six venues to host the tournament. According to the official website of the local organizing committee, eight venues are under consideration, all within California. [38]

Potential venues in Los Angeles County
Potential venues in the San Francisco Bay area
Potential venues in San Diego County


The Games

Sports

New sports

In 2019, after it was added to the program of the 2022 Commonwealth Games in Birmingham, England, the Marylebone Cricket Club (custodian of the Laws of Cricket) and the International Cricket Council announced that they would back the proposed inclusion of cricket as an event in 2028. [39] In October 2020, USA Cricket (an associate member of the ICC) disclosed in its foundational plan that it would also back cricket for inclusion in the Games. [40] [41]

The NFL and the International Federation of American Football (IFAF) are planning to back the proposed inclusion of flag football, a non-contact variation of American football, as an event in 2028. [42]

Baseball and softball, Olympic sports from 1992 (softball from 1996) to 2008, made a return to the Games in 2020, but will not return in 2024. As they are not core Olympic sports, they may be included at the discretion of the local organizing committee; the World Baseball Softball Confederation has made a bid to include the sports at the 2028 Games, [43] aided by baseball's popularity as a major sport in the United States.

Ceremonies

In January 2017, it was reported by the local media that the Organizing Committee was proposing the unprecedented opening and closing ceremonies to be held in two locations, and simultaneously, they would be the historic Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and the modern SoFi Stadium in Inglewood, the proposal involves performing some starting segments of the opening ceremony at the Coliseum, including the last overnight of the Olympic torch, before the starting of the last leg of the relay, some minutes before the start of the ceremonies. At the same time, other entertainment would be provided to spectators at the Coliseum, including a simulcast of the main portion (protocol) of the ceremony, which will happen simultaneously at the Inglewood stadium. Finally, the historic Olympic cauldron at the Coliseum would symbolically be rekindled simultaneously as the new cauldron is lit. Sixteen days later, the venues for the closing ceremony would be organized in reverse, with the starting segments held in Inglewood and the Olympic Charter protocol to be at the Coliseum. The International Olympic Committee is analyzing this proposal since the current version of the Olympic Charter does not authorize simultaneous ceremonies in two places. [44]

Marketing

Emblem

On September 1, 2020, the LA organizing committee unveiled the emblem for the 2028 Summer Olympics, featuring the characters "LA" and "28" in a stacked layout. The "A" in "LA" is designed to be interchangeable, with a multitude of variations created in collaboration with different athletes, artists, designers, celebrities, and other figures (such as musician Billie Eilish, Indian-Canadian comedian Lilly Singh, and actress Reese Witherspoon). [45] [46] There is also a variation derived from the "Stars in Motion" emblem of the 1984 Summer Olympics. [47]

Organizing committee chairman Casey Wasserman explained that the multitude of variations was intended to "showcase our community's collective creativity and celebrate the diversity that makes us strong", as the city "defies a singular identity". Chief marketing officer Amy Gleeson stated that the emblem was designed to "foster a deeper connection with the audience who will be in their 20s and 30s when the games happen." [45] [46] [48] [49] [47]

Broadcasting rights

In the United States, the 2028 Summer Olympics will be broadcast by NBCUniversal properties, as part of long-term agreements with the IOC through 2032. [50] The Universal Studios Lot is planned to be the site of the International Broadcast Centre for the Games. [37] In addition, NBCUniversal and the organizing committee will coordinate sponsorship sales for the Games, and parent company Comcast will be promoted as a "founding partner" of the Games as part of a renewed sponsorship agreement with the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee. [51] [52]

Concerns and controversies

Opposition

In October 2018, a poll commissioned by No Olympics LA, an anti-Olympic Games group found that 32% of respondents in Los Angeles County supported hosting the 2028 Summer Olympics, with 45% opposed, and 24% expressing a neutral opinion. [56] [57] Organized groups that have voiced opposition to Los Angeles hosting the games include Black Lives Matter, [58] Strategic Actions for a Just Economy, [59] and the Democratic Socialists of America. [60]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Candidature files

Preceded by
Paris
XXXIV Olympiad
Los Angeles

2028
Succeeded by
Brisbane