Softball at the Summer Olympics

Last updated

Softball at the Summer Olympics
Softball pictogram.svg
Governing body WBSC
Events1 (women)
Games
  • 1896
  • 1900
  • 1904
  • 1908
  • 1912
  • 1920
  • 1924
  • 1928
  • 1932
  • 1936
  • 1948
  • 1952
  • 1956
  • 1960
  • 1964
  • 1968
  • 1972
  • 1976

Softball at the Summer Olympics was on the Olympic programme from 1996 to 2008. It was introduced at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Softball was removed from the programme for 2012 and 2016, but was added for a one off appearance, along with baseball, for the 2020 Summer Olympics (which was postponed to 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic). [1]

Contents

Olympic softball is governed by the World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC).

Softball, the Olympic program and Olympic recognition

Early attempts for Olympic inclusion

During the 1940s, Americans and Japanese were making the first overtures to get softball included on the Olympic programme. This effort was led by the American softball association and Jiro Iwano, Vice President of the Japanese Olympic Committee and President of the Japanese Softball Association. [2]

There were efforts to get softball on the Olympic program during the 1950s. [2] [3] In 1950, the Amateur Softball Association of America sent letters to national organisations asking for assistance in getting the newly created International Olympic Federation to include softball on the Olympic program. Australia received such a letter and responded by asking for additional information. Irene Burrows, the Australian association secretary, was extremely keen to support this and took active steps to try to work on this goal. [2] The Australian Softball Council made an effort in 1952 to get the sport included on the programme and thought they had a decent opportunity at doing just that because the sport had a great deal of popularity, being played in over 15 countries. [3] This effort was mirrored by the Americans with the support of other countries such as New Zealand. Efforts to improve the chances of getting softball on the 1956 programme included having New Zealand's national softball body affiliating with the American one. [4]

These efforts continued into the 1960s, with the International Softball Federation working consistently towards inclusion. They were told in 1965 a requirement of playing the sport at the Olympics as the sport must be played in at least eleven countries who can field teams to compete at the Games and the international governing body for the sport must have at least twenty-nine national federations affiliated with it. At the time, softball only had fifteen national bodies affiliated with it. [2]

Despite being eligible for inclusion on the programme by 1969, it was not because Olympic organisers determined the sport, alongside roller skating and water skiing was "too big and too expensive." [2] Efforts continued to get softball on the Olympic programme during the 1970s, with the hope of the 1984 Summer Olympics being held in the United States meaning softball could at least be a demonstration sport. This did not materialise. [2] The Barcelona Olympic Organising Committee decided to make softball and golf demonstration sports at the 1992 Summer Olympics but the IOC stepped in in 1990 because they felt its inclusion would be an "undue burden" on the organisers. [2] The 1992 Summer Olympics frustrated softball organisers because baseball was to be a medal sport at the Games as a men's only event. [2]

Inclusion on the Olympic programme

At the highest level they are moving away from the ideals of Olympicism. We've been a casualty of that. I'm not against golf or any other sport being at the Olympics. I think there should be a place for everyone. I just thought we'd been loyal to the Olympic movement and they should have been loyal to us.

Melanie Roche, four time Olympic medalist in softball [5]

Softball was introduced as an Olympic sport for women only in the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] The decision to add the sport to the 1996 Olympic programme was made in 1995. [11] The IOC earlier had established a committee the prototype of their International Olympic Commission on Women and Sports. Anita DeFrantz as committee chair starting 1992 would be instrumental in helping get softball on the Olympic programme. [12]

Expulsion from the Olympic programme

It is a little bit funny seeing London splashed across the TV at the moment for us and I think a lot of the girls are only now just starting to realise that we aren't in the Olympics. It will be really different [to be away from the hype of an Olympics] but it is probably a good thing that we are focused on our world championships and not having to watch the opening ceremony and all those fun things.

Stacey Porter, Australian softball player [13]

On 11 July 2005, the IOC voted to drop baseball and softball from the Olympic program for 2012, [14] a decision that was reaffirmed on 9 February 2006. [15] The vote to keep softball on the programme required a simple majority of the 105 eligible voters, but the vote ended up as 52–52 with one abstention. [16] It was officially decided in August 2009 at IOC Board meeting in Berlin that it would not be included in the 2016 Summer Olympics. [17] This was the first time in 69 years that sports had been removed from the Olympic programme, with polo the sport removed in 1936. [18] The selection of which sports to include on the London Programme was done via secret ballot. [18]

The decision to remove softball from the Olympics in advance of the Beijing Games created a sense of urgency for some development players to make their senior national teams by 2008 as they would not otherwise have a chance to compete at the Olympics. [18]

The removal of softball from the Olympics has had an adverse impact on the game: Australia's government gave less funding to the sport as a result of the decision. This means players had to reduce their international travel for competition at the highest levels. [19]

The IOC decision to include two other sports, golf and rugby sevens, on the Olympic programme was perceived by the softball community as a likely end of their ability to get back onto the Olympic programme. [5] On 1 April 2011, the International Softball Federation and International Baseball Federation announced they were preparing a joint proposal to revive play of both sports at the 2020 Summer Olympics. [20]

Re-inclusion on the Olympic programme

On August 3, 2016, the IOC voted to include baseball and softball in the 2020 Summer Olympics, along with karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding. [21]

Rules

Women's softball was the female version of baseball played at the Games since women's baseball was not included on the programme. Rule differences between Olympic softball and baseball included: 1) ball is pitched underhand. The ball must weigh between 6.25 ounces (177 g) and 7 ounces (200 g). The pitcher's mound is the same height as the rest of the playing surface, with the infield being covered in dirt instead of grass. The distance of the outfield fence is measured from home plate at 200 feet (61 m) and the distance between bases is 60 feet (18 m) instead of the 90 feet (27 m) of Olympic baseball. Games at the Olympics have seven innings compared to baseball's nine innings. [22]

Format

At the Olympics, eight teams competed being chosen to compete at the Olympics based on the following criteria: One team was the host nation. Four teams were chosen because they were the semifinalists at the most recent ISF Women's World Championship. The three remaining nations were chosen based on regional qualification tournaments. [22] The preliminary round of competition was formatted as a round robin competition, with the top four point earning teams advancing to the semifinals. [22] During this stage, the semifinal team with the best record automatically advanced to the finals. [22] "[T]he other semifinal winner plays the team that lost to the superior seminal winner. The winner of this game goes to the final." [22]

At the Games

1996 Summer Olympics

The softball games were held in Columbus, Georgia (approximately 100 miles from the main Olympic Games site of Atlanta, Georgia). Countries competing at the 1996 Summer Olympics included the United States, China, Australia, Japan, Canada, Taiwan, the Netherlands and Puerto Rico. [22] [23] This was the first time softball was on the Olympic programme. [23] The United States finished first, China second and Australia third. [24] [25]

2000 Summer Olympics

The Games were held in Sydney, Australia. Countries competing at the 2000 Summer Olympics included the United States, Japan, Australia, China, Italy, New Zealand, Cuba and Canada. The United States won the gold medal for the second time, with Japan winning silver and Australia winning their second bronze medal. [22]

2004 Summer Olympics

The Games were held in Athens, Greece. Countries competing at the 2004 Summer Olympics included the United States, Australia, Japan, China, Canada, Taiwan, Greece and Italy. [22]

Only one hitter at the 2004 game was able to score a run off the American team's pitchers. That hitter was Stacey Porter of Australia. [26]

The United States (USA) won their third consecutive gold while Australia (AUS) took silver and Japan (JPN), the bronze. These were the same three medalists as 2000, though AUS and JPN flipped their positions.

2008 Summer Olympics

The 2006 edition of the ISF Women's World Championship was very important as the Championships were used for Olympic qualifying, with the top four finishers going to the Olympic Games. In 2006, the fourth-place finishers automatically qualified to the Games because China was the Olympic Games based on that. Thus, there was a battle for fifth place between Canada and Italy for Olympic qualifications. In the match for fifth, Canada won 3–0 and earned their fourth consecutive trip to the Olympics. [27]

The medalists were the same three nations (in different orders) for the third consecutive Olympics; Japan won the 2008 Summer Olympics softball gold medal, with the United States taking home silver and Australia the bronze. [28]

2020 Summer Olympics

On August 12, 2018 the first team to qualify for the 2020 Olympics was the United States, by winning the 2018 World Championship. Japan automatically qualifies by being the host country. [29]

After three consecutive Olympics (2000, 2004 and 2008) of the medalists being the same three nations Australia, Japan and the United States the 2020 medalists were Japan winning the gold, the United States winning the silver, with Canada winning the bronze.

Records

The first solo no-hitter to be pitched at the Olympics was done by the American pitcher Lori Harrigan in a game against Canada at the 2000 Summer Olympics. [30]

The first side to beat the host country in softball was Australia at the 1996 Summer Olympics. [5] The USA team lost this game primarily because of a base running error in which a home run was hit but the runner failed to touch home plate during the celebration at the plate, resulting in the run not scoring and an out being called. Australia won this game by one run. However, the USA team rebounded to win the overall tournament and the gold.

The United States had a 22-game winning streak at the Olympics between 2000 and 2008, only ending their winning steak in the gold medal match against Japan. [31]

Medal table

At the inaugural appearance of the event on the Olympic programme, the United States took gold and losing one game on the way there. [32] They beat other medal favourites Australia and China. [33] The United States repeated their victory at the 2000 Games when they beat Japan 3–1 in the gold medal game [32] and again in 2004. [6] Japan won the tournament in 2008 and defended their gold medal in 2020.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)3205
2Flag of Japan.svg  Japan  (JPN)2114
3Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)0134
4Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)0101
5Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)0011
Totals (5 nations)55515

Results

EditionYearOfficial hostChampionsScore and venueRunners-upThird placeScore and venueFourth placeNo. of teams
1 1996 Flag of the United States.svg  United States Flag of the United States.svg
United States
3–1
Golden Park, Columbus, Georgia
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
China
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
3–0
Golden Park, Columbus, Georgia
Flag of Japan.svg
Japan
8
2 2000 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of the United States.svg
United States
2–1
(F/8)
Blacktown International Sportspark, Sydney
Flag of Japan.svg
Japan
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
1–0
Blacktown International Sportspark, Sydney
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
China
8
3 2004 Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Flag of the United States.svg
United States
5–1
Hellinikon Olympic Complex, Athens
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
Flag of Japan.svg
Japan
1–0
Hellinikon Olympic Complex, Athens
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
China
8
4 2008 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Flag of Japan.svg
Japan
3–1
Fengtai Softball Field, Beijing
Flag of the United States.svg
United States
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
5–3
Fengtai Softball Field, Beijing
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada
8
5 2020 Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Flag of Japan.svg
Japan
2–0
Yokohama Stadium, Yokohama
Flag of the United States.svg
United States
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada
3–2
Yokohama Stadium, Yokohama
Flag of Mexico.svg
Mexico
6

Participating nations

Nation 1996 2000 2004 2008 2020 Years
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia 332355
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 585435
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 24454
Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei 6663
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 71
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 71
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 423115
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 5863
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 41
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 782
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 61
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico 81
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 111225
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 71
Total Nations88886

See also

Related Research Articles

Summer Olympic Games International multi-sport event

The Summer Olympic Games, also known as the Games of the Olympiad, are a major international multi-sport event normally held once every four years. The Games were first held in 1896 in Athens, Greece, and are currently being held in 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) organises the Games and oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third place; this tradition began in 1904. The Winter Olympic Games were created out of the success of the Summer Olympics.

Olympic sports

Olympic sports are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games. The 2016 Summer Olympics included 28 sports, with five additional sports due to be added to the 2020 Summer Olympics program ; the 2014 Winter Olympics included seven sports. The number and types of events may change slightly from one Olympiad to another. Each Olympic sport is represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation (IF). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes a hierarchy of sports, disciplines, and events. According to this hierarchy, each Olympic sport can be subdivided into multiple disciplines, which are often mistaken as distinct sports. Examples include swimming and water polo, which are in fact disciplines of the sport of aquatics, and figure skating and speed skating, which are both disciplines of the sport of ice skating. In turn, disciplines are subdivided into events, for which Olympic medals are awarded. A sport or discipline is included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines it to be widely practiced around the world, that is, the popularity of a given sport or discipline is indicated by the number of countries that compete in it. The IOC's requirements also reflect participation in the Olympic Games – more stringent conditions are applied to men's sports/disciplines and to summer sports/disciplines.

International Baseball Federation

The International Baseball Federation is the former worldwide governing body recognized by the International Olympic Committee as overseeing, deciding and executing the policy of the sport of baseball. The IBAF has since become the international baseball "Division" of the World Baseball Softball Confederation, the officially recognized world governing body for baseball. One of its principal responsibilities under the WBSC umbrella is to organize, standardize and sanction international competitions, using the WBSC name, among baseball's 124 national governing bodies through its various tournaments to determine a world champion and calculate world rankings for both men's and women's baseball. Prior to the establishment of the WBSC, which has since superseded its authority, the IBAF had been the lone entity that can assign the title of "world champion" to any baseball team delegated to represent a nation. Its offices are housed within the WBSC headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland—the Olympic Capital.

Baseball at the Summer Olympics Baseball at the Summer Olympics

Baseball at the Summer Olympics unofficially debuted at the 1904 Summer Olympics and became an official Olympic sport at the 1992 Summer Olympics. The event was last played in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, with South Korea taking the gold; the sport was dropped from the Summer Olympic program but will be revived as part of the program for the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo for a one off appearance.

117th IOC Session 117th International Olympic Committee Session held in Singapore from 2 to 9 July 2005

The 117th International Olympic Committee Session was held for the first time in Singapore from 2 to 9 July 2005. Two important decisions were made through voting during the session – namely the selection of the hosting city for the 2012 Summer Olympics, and a review of the 28 sports currently represented in the summer games.

United States national baseball team

The United States national baseball team represents the United States in international-level baseball competitions. The team is currently ranked 4th in the world by the World Baseball Softball Confederation. Team USA won the Olympic baseball tournament in 2000, and the World Baseball Classic (WBC) in 2017.

1981 World Games

The 1981 World Games were the first World Games, an international multi-sport event, and were held in Santa Clara, California in the United States. The games featured sports that were not included in the Olympics, including tug-of-war, racquetball, baseball and softball, artistic roller skating, roller hockey, roller speed skating, finswimming, karate, women's water polo, bowling, bodybuilding, waterskiing, casting, badminton, trampoline, powerlifting and taekwondo. Best estimates for attendance figures were that about 80,000 spectators witnessed the first World Games.

Softball in Australia is played in Australia.

The Japan women's national softball team is the national team of Japan in international softball competitions. It is governed by the Japan Softball Association. They are currently ranked #2 in the world by the International Softball Federation. In four Olympic Games, since 1996 until 2008, Japan has won one gold medal, a silver medal and a bronze medal. In the top four nations at the Olympics, Japan is the second most successful national team, following the United States, and beating out Australia and China with one silver medal. After winning the gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics, the Japanese national team was defeated by the United States team at the XII Women's Softball World Championship in Caracas, Venezuela.

Softball at the 2008 Summer Olympics Softball events at the Olympics

Softball at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing took place over a ten-day period starting August 12 and culminating in the medal finals on August 21. All games were played at the Fengtai Softball Field. Olympic softball is a women only competition, with men competing in the similar sport of baseball.

The Women's Softball World Cup is a fastpitch softball tournament for women's national teams held historically every four years, now every two years, by the World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC). The tournament, originally known as the ISF Women's World Championship, was sanctioned by the International Softball Federation (ISF) until that body's 2013 merger with the International Baseball Federation to create the WBSC. The number of teams in the tournament began at five in its inaugural event in 1965, went to a high of 28 for the 1994 edition, and now the WBSC Code legislates that the maximum number of teams that may participate is 16. There are qualifying tournaments that determine which countries will play at the World Cup.

Stacey Porter Australian softball player

Stacey Porter is an Australian professional indigenous softball first/third baseman. She represents New South Wales in Australian national competitions, where she has won several national championships on the junior and senior team. She played university softball for the University of Hawaii from 2001 to 2003 where she set several records and was named to the All-American team. She plays professional softball in Japan. She represented Australia at the junior level and continues to represent Australia at the senior level and is current Australian Captain. Stacey competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics where she won a silver medal and the 2008 Summer Olympics where she won a bronze medal and has competed in multiple world softball championships.

The Australia women's national softball team, also known as the Aussie Spirit, or the Dingeroos, is the national softball team of Australia. It is governed by Softball Australia and takes part in international softball competitions. They are one of Australia's most successful women's sporting teams on the world stage, and they have achieved outstanding results over the last 3 decades. Alongside the USA team, the Aussie Spirit are the only other team to medal at all 4 Olympics that softball was included as a sport in the Olympics program. At the inaugural Women's Softball World Championship held in Melbourne, 1965. Australia claimed the first ever title, winning Gold and stamped themselves as a pioneer in the sport.

Netball has never been played at the Summer Olympics, but its federation has been recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), since 1995 after a twenty-year period of lobbying. The netball community sees netball's absence at the Olympic Games as a hindrance to the global growth of the game, depriving it of media attention and funding. The IOC requires a high geographical scope for inclusion in the Olympics, but netball is mostly played in Commonwealth countries. When the IOC recognized netball's federation, it opened up sources of funds that the global netball community had not been able to access before, including the (IOC), national Olympic committees and sports organisations, and state and federal governments.

Softball is played in New South Wales, introduced to the state in 1939. By 1984, there were 1,356 registered teams in New South Wales. Players from Australia have been on the men's and women's national team, had AIS scholarships, played at universities in the United States, and professionally in the US, Japan and Europe.

Softball is played in the Australian Capital Territory. The game was influenced early in its history in the territory by Queanbeyan. There are efforts to increase participation in the sport in the ACT. The territory has won the Gilleys Shield three times in a row. Players from Canberra have been on the national team, held Australian Institute of Sport scholarships and played for American universities.

Participation of women in the Olympics

The rate of participation of women in the Olympic Games has been increasing since their first participation in 1900. Some sports are uniquely for women, others are contested by both sexes, while some older sports remain for men only. Studies of media coverage of the Olympics consistently show differences in the ways in which women and men are described and the ways in which their performances are discussed. The representation of women on the International Olympic Committee has run well behind the rate of female participation, and it continues to miss its target of a 20% minimum presence of women on their committee.

References

  1. "Joint Statement from the International Olympic Committee and the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Embrey, Lynn; Australian Softball Federation (1995). "The Olympics". Batter up! : the history of softball in Australia. Bayswater, Vic.: Australian Softball federation. pp. 152–156.
  3. 1 2 "Victorian softballers too strong for North Tasmania". The Advocate . Burnie, Tas.: National Library of Australia. 4 November 1952. p. 3. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  4. "Hopes For Softball At Games". The West Australian . Perth: National Library of Australia. 26 May 1953. p. 9. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  5. 1 2 3 Brigid O'Connell and Rosie Squires (23 August 2009). "Softball cops rough deal as Olympics plumps for inclusion of golf". Herald Sun. Retrieved 11 March 2012.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. 1 2 White, Patrick (2005). Chambers sports factfinder. Edinburgh: Chambers. pp. 542–543. ISBN   0550101616. OCLC   58052551.
  7. 马国力 (2004). 体育英语. 清华大学出版社. pp. 59–. ISBN   978-7-302-08926-1 . Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  8. Chandler, Nicola (2007). Olympic world. Australia: Murray Books (Australia). p. 166. ISBN   9780980313185. OCLC   271861863.
  9. name=second-edi>Vamplew, Wray; Australian Society for Sports History; Australian Sports Commission (1994). The Oxford companion to Australian sport (2 ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. pp. 388–389. ISBN   0195532872. OCLC   27509815.
  10. Coppell, W G (1995). Sportspeak : an encyclopedia of sport. Port Melbourne, Vic., Australia: Reed Reference Australia. p. 479. ISBN   1875589732. OCLC   35235752.
  11. Paula Edelson (2002). A to Z of American Women in Sports. Infobase Publishing. pp. 79–. ISBN   978-1-4381-0789-9 . Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  12. Jean O'Reilly; Susan K. Cahn; Northeastern University (Boston, Massachusetts). Center for the Study of Sport in Society (28 February 2007). Women and sports in the United States: a documentary reader. UPNE. p. 29. ISBN   978-1-55553-671-8 . Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  13. Rees, Courtney. "Swapping London games for Canberra". Canberra Times. Canberra, Australia. p. 20.
  14. "They'rrre out! Olympics drop baseball, softball". NBC Sports . Associated Press. 9 July 2005. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2008. Rogge has basically conspired against the sports to get them removed
  15. de Vries, Lloyd (9 February 2006). "Strike 3 for Olympic Baseball". CBS News . Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  16. Ramona Shelburne (1 January 2008). "Softball needs baseball to get back on the Olympic program — espnW". ESPN. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  17. Wilson, Stephen (13 August 2009). "Golf, rugby backed by IOC board for 2016 Games". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  18. 1 2 3 "Teen on track to Beijing". The Gold Coast Bulletin. 19 October 2006. p. 80. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  19. "Canberra Times: Diamonds could lose chance to sparkle". Canberra Times. Canberra, Australia: Financial Times Limited — Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  20. "Baseball, softball consider joint 2020 Olympic bid". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. 1 April 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  21. "IOC approves five new sports for Olympic Games Tokyo 2020". Olympic.org. 3 August 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Wallechinsky, David; Loucky, Jaime (2008). The complete book of the Olympics (2008 ed.). London: Aurum. pp. 892–894. ISBN   9781845133306. OCLC   191754309.
  23. 1 2 Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (1999). Encyclopedia of world sport . New York: Oxford University Press. pp.  372–373. ISBN   0195127781. OCLC   39290992.
  24. Dorling Kindersley Limited. (1999). The Olympic Games. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Dorling Kindersley. p. 244. ISBN   1864660635. OCLC   57337092.
  25. Cashman, Richard (2001). Australian sport through time. Milsons Point, N.S.W.: Random House Australia. p. 459. ISBN   1740514459. OCLC   223005022.
  26. "Porter wins highest prize". Mt Druitt Standard. Sydney, Australia. 1 March 2006. p. 47. MDG_T-20060301-1-047-487628. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  27. "International Softball Federation". Internationalsoftball.com. 5 September 2006. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  28. Dodd, Mike (21 August 2008). "Even in defeat, U.S. proves point about softball's parity". USA Today.
  29. "Baseball and Softball on the Road to Tokyo 2020". 12 October 2018.
  30. Ernestine G. Miller (29 May 2002). Making her mark: firsts and milestones in women's sports. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 273–. ISBN   978-0-07-139053-8 . Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  31. AFP (21 August 2008). "Japan stuns US to win softball gold in Beijing Olympics". Herald Sun. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  32. 1 2 Paula Edelson (2002). A to Z of American Women in Sports. Infobase Publishing. pp. 79–80. ISBN   978-1-4381-0789-9 . Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  33. Marlene Targ Brill (1 September 2009). America in the 1990s. Twenty-First Century Books. pp. 121–125. ISBN   978-0-8225-7603-7 . Retrieved 10 March 2012.