Olympic sports

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Archery competition held during the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. Dropped from the Olympic program after the 1920 Antwerp games, it was reinstated in 1972. Athens archery.jpg
Archery competition held during the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. Dropped from the Olympic program after the 1920 Antwerp games, it was reinstated in 1972.

Olympic sports are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games. The 2016 Summer Olympics included 28 sports, with five additional sports due to be added to the 2020 Summer Olympics program; the 2014 Winter Olympics included seven sports. [1] The number and types of events may change slightly from one Olympiad to another. Each Olympic sport is represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation (IF). [2] The International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes a hierarchy of sports, disciplines, and events. [2] According to this hierarchy, each Olympic sport can be subdivided into multiple disciplines, which are often mistaken as distinct sports. Examples include swimming and water polo, which are in fact disciplines of the sport of aquatics (represented by the International Swimming Federation), [3] and figure skating and speed skating, which are both disciplines of the sport of ice skating (represented by the International Skating Union). [4] In turn, disciplines are subdivided into events, for which Olympic medals are awarded. [2] A sport or discipline is included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines it to be widely practiced around the world, that is, the popularity of a given sport or discipline is indicated by the number of countries that compete in it. The IOC's requirements also reflect participation in the Olympic Games – more stringent conditions are applied to men's sports/disciplines (as men are represented at the Games in higher numbers than women) and to summer sports/disciplines (as more nations compete in the Summer Olympics than in the Winter Olympics).

Summer Olympic Games international multi-sport event

The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) organises the Games and oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third place; this tradition began in 1904. The Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics.

Winter Olympic Games Major international sporting event

The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

2016 Summer Olympics Games of the XXXI Olympiad, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2016

The 2016 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. These were the first Olympic Games ever to be held in South America and the fourth to be held in a developing country, after the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico, the 1980 Summer Olympics in the Soviet Union, and the 2008 Summer Olympics in China.

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Previous Olympic Games included sports that are no longer included in the current program, such as polo and tug of war. [5] Known as "discontinued sports", these have been removed due to either a lack of interest or the absence of an appropriate governing body for the sport. [2] Some sports that were competed at the early Games and later dropped by the IOC, have managed to return to the Olympic program, for example Archery, which made a comeback in 1972, and tennis, which was reintroduced in 1988. The Olympics have often included one or more demonstration sports, normally to promote a local sport from the host country or to gauge interest in an entirely new sport. [6] Some such sports, like baseball and curling, were added to the official Olympic program (in 1992 and 1998, respectively). Baseball was discontinued after the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, only to be revived again for the forthcoming 2020 Olympics in Tokyo, which will see the introduction of new disciplines within a number of existing Summer Olympics sports as well as several new sports, such as karate and skateboarding, making their Olympic debuts.

Polo Equestrian team sport

Polo is a horseback mounted team sport. It is one of the world's oldest known team sports.

Tug of war sport in which two teams pull on opposite ends of a rope

Tug of war is a sport that pits two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull.

Archery art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows

Archery is the art, sport, practice, or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus. Historically, archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is mainly a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is typically called an archer or a bowman, and a person who is fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite.

Olympic sports definitions

The term "sport" in Olympic terminology refers to all events sanctioned by an international sport federation, a definition that may differ from the common meaning of the word "sport". One sport, by Olympic definition, may comprise several disciplines, which would often be regarded as separate sports in common usage.

For example, aquatics is a summer Olympic sport that includes six disciplines: swimming, synchronized swimming, diving, water polo, open water swimming, and high diving (the last of which is a non-Olympic discipline), since all these disciplines are governed at international level by the International Swimming Federation. [1] Skating is a winter Olympic sport represented by the International Skating Union, and includes four disciplines: figure skating, speed skating (on a traditional long track), short track speed skating, and synchronized skating (the latter is a non-Olympic discipline). [1] The sport with the largest number of Olympic disciplines is skiing, with six: alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, nordic combined, snowboarding, and freestyle skiing.

Swimming (sport) water-based sport

Swimming is an individual or team racing sport that requires the use of one's entire body to move through water. The sport takes place in pools or open water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle, and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers who will each swim a different stroke, ordered as backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques; in competition, there are distinct regulations concerning the acceptable form for each individual stroke. There are also regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps, jewelry and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are also multiple health benefits associated with the sport.

Synchronised swimming hybrid form of swimming, dance and gymnastics

Synchronised swimming, referred to by international governing body FINA as artistic swimming since 2017, is a hybrid form of swimming, dance, and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers performing a synchronised routine of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music. Artistic swimming is governed internationally by FINA, and has been part of the Summer Olympics programme since 1984.

Diving (sport) Sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard

Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, usually while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.

Other notable multi-discipline sports are gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, and trampoline), cycling (road, track, mountain, and BMX), volleyball (indoors and beach), wrestling (freestyle and Greco-Roman), canoeing (flatwater and slalom), and bobsleigh (includes skeleton). The disciplines listed here are only those contested in the Olympics—gymnastics has two non-Olympic disciplines, while cycling and wrestling have three each.

Gymnastics Sport

Gymnastics is a sport that includes exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, legs, shoulders, back, chest, and abdominal muscle groups. Alertness, precision, daring, self-confidence, and self-discipline are mental traits that can also be developed through gymnastics. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse and from circus performance skills.

Cycling riding a bicycle

Cycling, also called biking or bicycling, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bikers", or less commonly, as "bicyclists". Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, "cycling" also includes the riding of unicycles, tricycles, quadracycles, recumbent and similar human-powered vehicles (HPVs).

Volleyball ballgame and team sport in which two teams compete to ground the ball on their opponents side of the net

Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964.

It should also be noted that the IOC definition of a "discipline" may differ from that used by an international federation. For example, the IOC considers artistic gymnastics a single discipline, but the International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG) classifies men's and women's artistic gymnastics as separate disciplines. [7] Similarly, the IOC considers freestyle wrestling to be a single discipline, but United World Wrestling uses "freestyle wrestling" strictly for the men's version, classifying women's freestyle wrestling as the separate discipline of "female wrestling". [8]

United World Wrestling international sport governing body

United World Wrestling (UWW) is the international governing body for the sport of amateur wrestling; its duties include overseeing wrestling at the Olympics. It presides over international competitions for various forms of wrestling, including Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestling for men and women, as well as others. The flagship event of UWW is the Wrestling World Championships. It was formerly known as the FILA, having assumed its current name in September 2014.

On some occasions, notably in the case of snowboarding, the IOC agreed to add a sport that previously had a separate international federation to the Olympics on condition that they dissolve their governing body and instead affiliate with an existing Olympic sport federation, therefore not increasing the number of Olympic sports.

An event, by IOC definition, is a competition that leads to the award of medals. Therefore, the sport of aquatics includes a total of 46 Olympic events, of which 32 are in the discipline of swimming, eight in diving, and two each in synchronized swimming, water polo, and open water swimming. The number of events per sport ranges from a minimum of two (until 2008, there were sports with only one event) to a maximum of 47 in athletics, which despite its large number of events and its diversity is not divided into disciplines except on an informal basis - the division between, for example, swimming and diving in aquatics is not replicated within athletics by divisions between track and field events, or stadium and road events.

Changes in Olympic sports

Curling was promoted to official Olympic sport at the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics. Curling Torino 2006 Pinerolo Palaghiaccio scena1.jpg
Curling was promoted to official Olympic sport at the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics.

The list of Olympic sports has changed considerably during the course of Olympic history, and has gradually increased until the early 2000s, when the IOC decided to cap the number of sports in the Summer Olympics at 28.

The only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic program are athletics, aquatics (the discipline of swimming has been in every Olympics), cycling, fencing, and gymnastics (the discipline of artistic gymnastics has been in every Olympics).

The only winter sports that were included in all Winter Olympic Games are skiing (only nordic skiing), skating (figure skating and speed skating), and ice hockey. Figure skating and ice hockey were also included in the Summer Olympics before the Winter Olympics were introduced in 1924.

For most of the 20th century, demonstration sports were included in many Olympic Games, usually to promote a non-Olympic sport popular in the host country, or to gauge interest and support for the sport. [6] The competitions and ceremonies in these sports were identical to official Olympic sports, except that the medals were not counted in the official record. Some demonstration sports, like baseball and curling, were later added to the official Olympic program. This changed when the International Olympic Committee decided in 1989 to eliminate demonstration sports from Olympics Games after 1992. [9] An exception was made in 2008, when the Beijing Organizing Committee received permission to organize a wushu tournament. [10] [11]

A sport or discipline may be included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines that it is widely practiced around the world, that is, the number of countries and continents that regularly compete in a given sport is the indicator of the sport's prevalence. The requirements for winter sports are considerably lower than for summer sports since many fewer nations compete in winter sports. The IOC also has lower requirements for inclusion of sports and disciplines for women for the same reason. Women are still barred from several disciplines; but on the other hand, there are women-only disciplines, such as rhythmic gymnastics and synchronized swimming.

Sports that depend primarily on mechanical propulsion, such as motor sports, may not be considered for recognition as Olympic sports, though there were power-boating events in the early days of the Olympics before this rule was enacted by the IOC. [2] [12] Part of the story of the founding of aviation sports' international governing body, the FAI, originated from an IOC meeting in Brussels, Belgium on June 10, 1905. [13]

These criteria are only a threshold for consideration as Olympic sport. In order to be admitted to the Olympic program, the IOC Session has to approve its inclusion. There are many sports that easily make the required numbers but are not recognized as Olympic sports, mainly because the IOC has decided to put a limit on the number of sports, as well as events and athletes, in the Summer Olympics in order not to increase them from the 28 sports, 300 events, and 10,000 athletes of the 2000 Summer Olympics.

No such limits exist in the Winter Olympics and the number of events and athletes continue to increase, but no sport has been added since 1998. The latest winter sport added to the Winter Olympics was curling in 1998.

Previous Olympic Games included sports which are no longer present on the current program, like polo and tug of war. [1] In the early days of the modern Olympics, the organizers were able to decide which sports or disciplines were included on the program, until the IOC took control of the program in 1924. As a result, a number of sports were on the Olympic program for relatively brief periods before 1924. [2] These sports, known as discontinued sports, were removed because of lack of interest or absence of an appropriate governing body, or because they became fully professional at the time that the Olympic Games were strictly for amateurs, as in the case of tennis. [2] Several discontinued sports, such as archery and tennis, were later readmitted to the Olympic program (in 1972 and 1984, respectively). Curling, which was an official sport in 1924 and then discontinued, was reinstated as Olympic sport in 1998.

The Olympic Charter decrees that Olympic sports for each edition of the Olympic Games should be decided at an IOC Session no later than seven years prior to the Games.

Changes since 2000

The only sports that have been dropped from the Olympics since 1936 are baseball and softball, which were both voted out by the IOC Session in Singapore on July 11, 2005, [14] a decision that was reaffirmed on February 9, 2006. [15] These sports were last included in 2008, although officially they remain recognized in the Olympic Charter as a single sport, since both are now governed internationally by the World Baseball Softball Confederation. Therefore, the number of sports in the 2012 Summer Olympics was dropped from 28 to 26.

Following the addition of women's boxing in 2012, and women's ski jumping in 2014, there are only Greco-Roman wrestling and nordic combined, respectively, that are only for men in those games.

Two previously discontinued sports, golf and rugby, returned for the 2016 Summer Olympics. On August 13, 2009, the IOC Executive Board proposed that golf and rugby sevens be added to the Olympic program for the 2016 Games. [16] On 9 October 2009, during the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, the IOC voted to admit both sports as official Olympic sports and to include them in the 2016 Summer Olympics. [17] The IOC voted 81–8 in favor of including rugby sevens and 63–27 in favor of reinstating golf, thus bringing the number of sports back to 28. [17]

In February 2013, the IOC considered dropping a sport from the 2020 Summer Olympics to make way for a new sport. Modern pentathlon and taekwondo were thought to be vulnerable, but instead the IOC recommended dismissing wrestling. [18] On September 8, 2013, the IOC added wrestling to the 2020 and 2024 Summer Games. [19]

On August 3, 2016, the IOC voted to add baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding for the 2020 Summer Olympics. [20]

Summer Olympics

At the first Olympic Games, nine sports were contested. [21] Since then, the number of sports contested at the Summer Olympic Games has gradually risen to twenty-eight on the program for 2000–2008. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, however, the number of sports fell back to twenty-six following an IOC decision in 2005 to remove baseball and softball from the Olympic program. These sports retain their status as Olympic sports with the possibility of a return to the Olympic program in future games. [14] At the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen on 9 October 2009, the IOC voted to reinstate both golf and rugby to the Olympic program, meaning that the number of sports to be contested in 2016 was once again 28. [22]

In order for a sport or discipline to be considered for inclusion in the list of Summer Olympics sports, it must be widely practiced in at least 75 countries, spread over four continents.

Current and discontinued summer program

The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current and discontinued Summer Olympic Games official program and are listed alphabetically according to the name used by the IOC. The discontinued sports were previously part of the Summer Olympic Games program as official sports, but are no longer on the current program. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport contested at the respective Games; a bullet () denotes that the sport was contested as a demonstration sport.

Eight of the 34 sports consist of multiple disciplines. Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same color:

     Aquatics     Basketball     Canoeing/Kayaking     Cycling     Gymnastics     Volleyball     Equestrian     Wrestling

Sport (Discipline) Body 96 00 04 06 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20
 
Current summer sports
 
Diving Diving pictogram.svg FINA 2124554444444444444444888888
Marathon swimming Open water swimming pictogram.svg 2222
Swimming Swimming pictogram.svg 479469101111111111111315182929262629313132323232323235
Synchronized swimming Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg 2221222222
Water polo Water polo pictogram.svg 111111111111111111111222222
 
3-on-3 basketball 3-on-3 basketball pictogram.svg FIBA 2
Basketball Basketball pictogram.svg 11111111222222222222
 
Canoe/kayak (sprint) Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg ICF 99997777111112121212121212121212
Canoe/kayak (slalom) Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg 444444444
 
BMX freestyle BMX freestyle pictogram.svg UCI 2
BMX racing Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg 2222
Mountain biking Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg 2222222
Road cycling Cycling (road) pictogram.svg 112222222222222223334444444
Track cycling Cycling (track) pictogram.svg 52757444444444555445678121210101012
 
Artistic Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg FIG 81114244981199151514141414141414141414141414141414
Rhythmic Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg 1112222222
Trampoline Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg 222222
 
Volleyball (beach) Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg FIVB 2222222
Volleyball (indoor) Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg 222222222222222
 
Equestrian / Dressage Equestrian Dressage pictogram.svg FEI 1112222221222222222222222
Equestrian / Eventing Equestrian Eventing pictogram.svg 2222222222222222222222222
Equestrian / Jumping Equestrian Jumping pictogram.svg 32222222222222222222222222
 
Freestyle wrestling Wrestling Freestyle pictogram.svg UWW 75577778888881010101010101081111111212
Greco-Roman wrestling Wrestling pictogram.svg 14455667788888810101010101010877766
 
Archery Archery pictogram.svg WA 663102222444444445
Athletics Athletics pictogram.svg IAAF 122325212630292727292933333334363638373841424344464647474748
Badminton Badminton pictogram.svg BWF 45555555
Baseball Baseball pictogram.svg WBSC [s 1] 111111
Boxing Boxing pictogram.svg AIBA 75888888101010101111111112121212121111131313
Fencing Fencing pictogram.svg FIE 3758456777777788888888810101010101012
Field hockey Field hockey pictogram.svg FIH 111111111111122222222222
Football Football pictogram.svg FIFA 1111111111111111111112222222
Golf Golf pictogram.svg IGF 2222
Handball Handball pictogram.svg IHF 1222222222222
Judo Judo pictogram.svg IJF 4668871414141414141415
Karate Karate icon.svg WKF 8
Modern pentathlon Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg UIPM 1111111222222222221222222
Rowing Rowing pictogram.svg FISA 45644577777777777141414141414141414141414
Rugby sevens Rugby Sevens pictogram.svg WR 22
Sailing Sailing pictogram.svg ISAF 744143344555555666781010111111101010
Shooting Shooting pictogram.svg ISSF 5916151821102347766787711131315171715151515
Skateboarding Skateboarding pictogram.svg WS [s 2] 4
Softball Softball pictogram.svg WBSC [s 1] 11111
Sport climbing Climbing pictogram.svg IFSC 2
Surfing Surfing pictogram.svg ISA 2
Table tennis Table tennis pictogram.svg ITTF 444444445
Taekwondo Taekwondo pictogram.svg WT 888888
Tennis Tennis pictogram.svg ITF 24246855444444555
Triathlon Triathlon pictogram.svg ITU 222223
Weightlifting Weightlifting pictogram.svg IWF 22255555677777991010101010151515151514
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Equestrian / Vaulting EQ Vaulting pictogram.svg FEI 2
 
Handball / Field Handball Handball Field Handball pictogram.svg IHF 1
Rugby / Rugby union Rugby union pictogram.svg WR 1111
 
Basque pelota Basque pelota pictogram.svg FIPV 1
Cricket Cricket pictogram.svg ICC 1
Croquet Croquet pictogram.svg WCF 3
Lacrosse Lacrosse pictogram.svg FIL 11
Jeu de paume Jeu de paume pictogram.svg 1
Polo Polo pictogram.svg FIP 11111
Rackets Racquets pictogram.svg 2
Roque Roque pictogram.svg 1
Tug of war Tug of war pictogram.svg TWIF 111111
Water motorsports Water motorsports pictogram.svg UIM 3
 
Figure skating Figure skating pictogram.svg ISU 43Rescheduled during winter games
Ice hockey Ice hockey pictogram.svg IIHF 1
 
Total events43859478110102156126109117129136149151150163172195198203221237257271300301302302306339
Total Sports102117142518292320202523232323252428272729313437404042404250
Sport (Discipline) Body 96 00 04 06 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20
  1. 1 2 The World Baseball Softball Confederation, which currently governs both baseball and softball, was created by a 2013 merger of two former governing bodies—the International Baseball Federation and the International Softball Federation.
  2. At the time skateboarding was announced as part of the 2020 Summer Games, the sport was governed by the International Skateboarding Federation. That body merged with Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports in September 2017 to form the current World Skate.

Demonstration summer sports

The following sports or disciplines have been demonstrated at the Summer Olympic Games for the years shown, but have never been included on the official Olympic program:

Gliding was promoted from demonstration sport to an official Olympic sport in 1936 in time for the 1940 Summer Olympics, but the Games were cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II. [23] [24]

Tenpin bowling, demonstrated separately from the Olympics in 1936 in Germany (alongside forms of ninepin bowling), but part of the demonstration sports at Seoul in 1988, has been a regular medal sport of the Pan American Games since 1991.

Classification of Olympic sports for revenue share

Summer Olympic sports are divided into categories based on popularity, gauged by: television viewing figures (40%), Internet popularity (20%), public surveys (15%), ticket requests (10%), press coverage (10%), and number of national federations (5%). The category determines the share the sport's International Federation receives of Olympic revenue. [25] [26]

The current categories, as of 2013, are as follows, with the pre-2013 categorizations also being available. [27] Category A represents the most popular sports; category E lists either the sports that are the least popular or that are new to the Olympics (golf and rugby).

CategoryIndividual SportTeam Sport
Aathletics, aquatics, gymnastics——
Bcycling, tennisbasketball, football, volleyball
Carchery, badminton, boxing, judo, rowing
shooting, table tennis, weightlifting
——
Dcanoe/kayaking, equestrian, fencing,
sailing, taekwondo, triathlon, wrestling
handball, field hockey
Emodern pentathlon, golfrugby

Winter Olympics

Before 1924, when the first Winter Olympic Games were celebrated, sports held on ice, like figure skating and ice hockey, were held at the Summer Olympics. [28] These two sports made their debuts at the 1908 and the 1920 Summer Olympics, respectively, but were permanently integrated in the Winter Olympics program as of the first edition. The International Winter Sports Week, later dubbed the I Olympic Winter Games and retroactively recognized as such by the IOC, consisted of nine sports. The number of sports contested at the Winter Olympics has since been decreased to seven, comprising a total of fifteen disciplines. [29]

A sport or discipline must be widely practiced in at least 25 countries on three continents in order to be included on the Winter Olympics program. [2]

Current winter program

The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current Winter Olympic Games official program and are listed alphabetically, according to the name used by the IOC. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport that were contested at the respective Games (the red cells indicate that those sports were held at the Summer Games); a bullet denotes that the sport was contested as a demonstration sport. On some occasions, both official medal events and demonstration events were contested in the same sport at the same Games.

Three out of the seven sports consist of multiple disciplines. Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same color:

     Skating     Skiing     Bobsleigh

Sport (Discipline) Body 08 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18
 
Figure skating Figure skating pictogram.svg ISU 4333333333333444444444455
Speed skating Speed skating pictogram.svg  54444448888999101010101012121214
Short track speed skating Short track speed skating pictogram.svg  46688888
 
Ice hockey Ice hockey pictogram.svg IIHF  111111111111111111222222
 
Curling Curling pictogram.svg WCF  1222223
 
Cross-country skiing Cross country skiing pictogram.svg FIS  2223346677777881010101212121212
Alpine skiing Alpine skiing pictogram.svg  26666666666101010101010101011
Ski jumping Ski jumping pictogram.svg  11111111222222333333344
Nordic combined Nordic combined pictogram.svg  11111111111111222233333
Freestyle skiing Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg  2444461010
Snowboarding Snowboarding pictogram.svg  44661010
 
Biathlon Biathlon pictogram.svg IBU  11222333666810101111
 
Luge Luge pictogram.svg FIL  333333333333344
 
Bobsleigh Bobsleigh pictogram.svg IBSF  1122222222222222233333
Skeleton Skeleton pictogram.svg  1122222
 
Discontinued winter sports
 
Biathlon / Military Patrol Military patrol pictogram.svg IBU  1
Total events16141417222224273435353738394657616878848698102
Total Sports98789888101010101010101111141515151515

Military patrol was an official skiing event in 1924 but the IOC currently considers it an event of biathlon in those games, and not as a separate sport.

Demonstration winter sports

The following sports have been demonstrated at the Winter Olympic Games for the years shown, but have never been included on the official Olympic program:

Ice climbing was showcased in 2014, and will be demonstrated at the 2018 Winter Olympics, with a plan to be included official competition sport for the 2022 Winter Olympics. [30] Ski ballet, similarly to Military Patrol, was simply a demonstration event falling under the scope of freestyle skiing. Disabled sports are now part of the Winter Paralympic Games.

Recognized international federations

Tug of war was contested at the 1904 Summer Olympics. It was later dropped from the Olympic program but remains a recognized sport. 1904 tug of war.jpg
Tug of war was contested at the 1904 Summer Olympics. It was later dropped from the Olympic program but remains a recognized sport.

Many sports are not recognized as Olympic sports although their governing bodies are recognized by the IOC. [31] Such sports, if eligible under the terms of the Olympic Charter, may apply for inclusion in the program of future Games, through a recommendation by the IOC Olympic Programme Commission, followed by a decision of the IOC Executive Board and a vote of the IOC Session. When Olympic demonstration sports were allowed, a sport usually appeared as such before being officially admitted. [6] An International Sport Federation (IF) is responsible for ensuring that the sport's activities follow the Olympic Charter. When a sport is recognized the IF become an official Olympic sport federation and can assemble with other Olympic IFs in the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF, for summer sports contested in the Olympic Games), Association of International Olympic Winter Sports Federations (AIOWS, for winter sports contested in the Olympic Games) or Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF, for sports not contested in the Olympic Games). [1] A number of recognized sports are included itan the program of the World Games, a multi-sport event run by the International World Games Association, an organization that operates under the patronage of the IOC. Since the start of the World Games in 1981, a number of sports, including badminton, taekwondo, and triathlon have all subsequently been incorporated into the Olympic program.

In 2020, the IOC altered the way it plans the Olympic Games from one based around a maximum number of sports, to taking total events into account, opening the schedule up for the inclusion on a Games by Games basis of additional sports to the 25 "core" sports. For the 2020 Summer Olympics, the local organizing committee was thus permitted to add a total of five sports to the programme in addition to the existing 28, taking the total to 33. [20] [32]

The governing bodies of the following sports, though not contested in the Olympic Games, are recognized by the IOC: [33]


1 Official sport at the World Games
2 Discontinued Olympic sport
3 Ineligible to be included because the Olympic Charter bans sports with motorization elements
4 The governing bodies for baseball and softball merged into a single international federation in 2013.
5 Included at the 2020 Summer Olympics
6 Skateboarding, now a discipline within roller sports, is Included at the 2020 Summer Olympics.

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The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France. Originally held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions were held at the foot of Mont Blanc in Chamonix, and Haute-Savoie, France between January 25 and February 5, 1924. The Games were organized by the French Olympic Committee, and were originally reckoned as the "International Winter Sports Week." With the success of the event, it was retroactively designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games.

1992 Winter Olympics 16th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Albertville (France) in 1992

The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France. They were the last Winter Olympics to be held the same year as the Summer Olympics, and the first where the Winter Paralympics were held at the same site. Albertville was selected as host in 1986, beating Sofia, Falun, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Anchorage and Berchtesgaden. The games were the third Winter Olympics held in France, after Chamonix in 1924 and Grenoble in 1968, and the fifth Olympics overall in the country.

1904 Summer Olympics Games of the III Olympiad, celebrated in Saint Louis (United States) in 1904

The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in St. Louis, Missouri, United States from August 29 until September 3, 1904, as part of an extended sports program lasting from July 1 to November 23, 1904, at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis. It was the first time that the Olympic Games were held outside Europe.

International Baseball Federation international baseball governing body

The International Baseball Federation is the former worldwide governing body recognized by the International Olympic Committee as overseeing, deciding and executing the policy of the sport of baseball. The IBAF has since become the international baseball "Division" of the World Baseball Softball Confederation, the officially recognized world governing body for baseball. One of its principal responsibilities under the WBSC is to organize, standardize and sanction international competitions among baseball's 124 national governing bodies through its various tournaments to determine a world champion and calculate world rankings for both men's and women's baseball. Prior to the establishment of the WBSC, which has since superseded its authority, the IBAF had been the lone entity that can assign the title of "world champion" to any baseball team delegated to represent a nation. Its offices are housed within the WBSC headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland—the Olympic Capital.

A demonstration sport is a sport which is played to promote it, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also at other sporting events.

2020 Summer Olympics Games of the XXXII Olympiad in Tokyo

The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is an upcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 22 July.

Baseball at the Summer Olympics Baseball at the Summer Olympics

Baseball at the Summer Olympics unofficially debuted at the 1904 Summer Olympics, and became an official Olympic sport at the 1992 Summer Olympics. The event was last played in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing with South Korea taking the gold; the sport was dropped from the Summer Olympic programme, but will be revived as part of the programme for the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.

Wrestling at the Summer Olympics

Wrestling had been contested at the Summer Olympic Games since the sport was introduced in the ancient Olympic Games in 708 BC. When the modern Olympic Games resumed in Athens in 1896, wrestling became a focus of the Games, with the exception of the 1900 Summer Olympics when wrestling did not appear on the program. Freestyle wrestling and weight classes both made their first appearance in 1904. The women's competition was introduced in 2004.

Softball at the Summer Olympics

Softball at the Summer Olympics was on the Olympic programme from 1996 to 2008. Softball was removed from the programme for 2012 and 2016, but was added, along with baseball, for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

BC Games Society

The BC Games Society is a provincial crown corporation in British Columbia created in 1977. The organization is the governing body responsible for the BC Summer Games and BC Winter Games, and manages the Team BC program at the Canada Games.

This is a list of sports played in the biennial Southeast Asian Games. Unlike the Olympic games, there are no official limits to the number of sports which may be contested, and the range may be decided by the organising host pending approval by the Southeast Asian Games Federation. Albeit for some core sports which must be featured, the host is also free to introduce other sports. Over time, this has meant as much as 43 sports in the 24th edition of the games, and the programme has included relatively obscure sports such as arnis, finswimming and pétanque.

The Gymnasiade, or World Gymnasiade, is an international multi-sport event which is organised by the International School Sport Federation (ISF). It is the largest event among many other sport events held by the ISF.

This is a list of sports played in the Asian Games and other major affiliated games organised by the Olympic Council of Asia. On 29 June 2009, the OCA announced major changes to the event lists in the five major events, in particular aiming to restrict each sport to be played in not more than one event, although exemptions may be made. The first round of changes commenced with the 2014 Asian Games when the number of events was recommended to be restricted to 35 with 28 Olympic sports and up to a maximum of seven non-Olympic sports. Some events currently in the Asian Games programme may henceforth be relegated to the newly formed Asian Indoor-Martial Arts Games which was first held in 2013 or to the Asian Beach Games.

Pan American Games sports

The Pan American Games sports comprise all the sports contested in the Summer Olympic Games. In addition, traditional and popular sports throughout the Americas which are not contested at the Olympic Games are also contested such as bowling and baseball. As of 2015, the Pan American Games included 36 sports with 51 disciplines and 364 events. The number and kinds of events may change slightly from one Pan American Games to another.

125th IOC Session International Olympic Committee session

The 125th IOC Session took place at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 7 September to 10 September 2013. The International Olympic Committee elected Tokyo as the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympic Games on 7 September. Wrestling was restored to the Olympic program for 2020 and 2024, and Thomas Bach was elected to an eight-year term as IOC President.

The World Games sports comprise all the sports contested in The World Games.

International School Sport Federation International sports governing body for high school students

The International School Sport Federation (ISF) is an international sports governing body for school sport. Founded in 1972 with 21 signatory nations, the federation has been organising international competitions to encourage education through sport and student athletes. It has 113 members from five continents.

Participation of women in the Olympics

The rate of participation of women in the Olympics has been increasing since their first participation in 1900. Some sports are uniquely for women, others are contested by both sexes, while some older sports remain for men only. Studies of media coverage of the Olympics consistently show differences in the ways in which women and men are described and the ways in which their performances are discussed. The representation of women on the International Olympic Committee has run well behind the rate of female participation, and it continues to miss its target of a 20% minimum presence of women on their committee.

This article contains lists of achievements in major senior-level international Olympic team ball sports tournaments according to first-place, second-place and third-place results obtained by teams representing different nations. The objective is not to create combined medal tables; the focus is on listing the best positions achieved by teams in major international tournaments, ranking the nations according to the most number of podiums accomplished by teams of these nations.

References

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