1948 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the XIV Olympiad
1948 Summer Olympics logos.png
Host cityLondon, United Kingdom
Nations59
Athletes4,104 (3,714 men, 390 women)
Events136 in 17 sports (23 disciplines)
Opening29 July
Closing14 August
Opened by
Cauldron
Stadium Empire Stadium
Summer
Berlin 1936
London 1944
Helsinki 1952
Winter
St. Moritz 1948 Oslo 1952

The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom from 29 July to 14 August 1948.

A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance is the modern Olympic Games.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Contents

After a twelve-year hiatus caused by the outbreak of World War II; these were the first Summer Olympics held since the 1936 Games in Berlin. The 1940 Olympic Games had been scheduled for Tokyo, and then for Helsinki; the 1944 Olympic Games had been provisionally planned for London. This was the second occasion that London had hosted the Olympic Games, having previously hosted them in 1908, forty years earlier. The Olympics would again return to London 64 years later in 2012, making London the first city to have hosted the games three times, and the only such city until Paris and Los Angeles host their third games in 2024 and 2028, respectively. The 1948 Olympic Games were the first of two summer Olympic Games held under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

1936 Summer Olympics games of the XI Olympiad, celebrated in Berlin in 1936

The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona. It marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games.

Tokyo Metropolis in Kantō

Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2014, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.

The event came to be known as the Austerity Games, because of the difficult economic climate and rationing imposed in the aftermath of World War II. No new venues were built for the games (with events taking place mainly at Wembley Stadium and the Empire Pool at Wembley Park), and athletes were housed in existing accommodation at the Wembley area instead of an Olympic Village, as were the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games and the subsequent 1952 Games. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes, 3,714 men and 390 women, in 19 sport disciplines. Germany and Japan were not invited to participate in the games; the Soviet Union was invited but chose not to send any athletes, sending observers instead to prepare for the 1952 Olympics.

Wembley Stadium (1923) former stadium in London, England which opened in 1923

The original Wembley Stadium was a football stadium in Wembley Park, London, which stood on the same site now occupied by its successor, the new Wembley Stadium. The demolition in 2003 of its famous Twin Towers upset many people worldwide. Debris from the stadium was used to make the Northala Fields in Northolt, London.

Wembley Arena sports arena

Wembley Arena is an indoor arena in Wembley, London. With 12,500 seats, it is London's second-largest indoor arena after The O2 Arena, and the eighth-largest in the United Kingdom.

Wembley Park district

Wembley Park is a district of the London Borough of Brent, England. It is roughly centred on Bridge Road, a mile northeast of Wembley town centre and 7.6 miles (12 km) northwest from Charing Cross.

One of the star performers at the Games was Dutch sprinter Fanny Blankers-Koen. Dubbed "The Flying Housewife", the thirty-year-old mother of two won four gold medals in athletics. In the decathlon, American Bob Mathias became the youngest male ever to win an Olympic gold medal at the age of seventeen. The most individual medals were won by Veikko Huhtanen of Finland who took three golds, a silver and a bronze in men's gymnastics.

Fanny Blankers-Koen Dutch athlete, winner of four gold medals at the 1948 London Olympics

Francina "Fanny" Elsje Blankers-Koen was a Dutch track and field athlete, best known for winning four gold medals at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London. She competed there as a 30-year-old mother of two, earning her the nickname "the flying housewife", and was the most successful athlete at the event.

Decathlon athletic track and field competition

The decathlon is a combined event in athletics consisting of ten track and field events. The word "decathlon" was formed, in analogy to the word "pentathlon", from Greek δέκα and ἄθλος. Events are held over two consecutive days and the winners are determined by the combined performance in all. Performance is judged on a points system in each event, not by the position achieved. The decathlon is contested mainly by male athletes, while female athletes typically compete in the heptathlon.

Bob Mathias American decathlete

Robert Bruce Mathias was an American decathlete, two-time Olympic gold medalist in the event, a United States Marine Corps officer, actor and United States Congressman representing the state of California.

Election as host city

In June 1939, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) awarded the 1944 Olympic Summer Games to London, ahead of Rome, Detroit, Budapest, Lausanne, Helsinki, Montreal and Athens. [2] World War II stopped the plans and the Games were cancelled so London again stood as a candidate for 1948. Great Britain almost handed the 1948 games to the United States due to post-war financial and rationing problems, but King George VI said that this could be the chance to restore Britain from World War II. The official report of the London Olympics shows that there was no case of London being pressed to run the Games against its will. It says:

International Olympic Committee ruling body of the Olympic movement

The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

The 1944 Summer Olympics, which were to be officially known as the Games of the XIII Olympiad, were cancelled due to World War II. It would have been held in London, United Kingdom, which won the bid on the first ballot in a June 1939 IOC election over Rome, Detroit, Lausanne, Athens, Budapest, Helsinki and Montreal. The selection was made at the 38th IOC Session in London in 1939.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

The Games of 1944 had been allocated to London and so it was that in October 1945, the Chairman of the British Olympic Council, Lord Burghley, went to Stockholm and saw the president of the International Olympic Committee to discuss the question of London being chosen for this great event. As a result, an investigating committee was set up by the British Olympic Council to work out in some detail the possibility of holding the Games. After several meetings they recommended to the council that the Lord Mayor of London should be invited to apply for the allocation of the Games in 1948. [3]

In May 1946 the IOC, through a postal vote, gave the summer Games to London and the winter competition to St Moritz. London was selected ahead of Baltimore, Minneapolis, Lausanne, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. [4]

Baltimore Largest city in Maryland

Baltimore is an independent city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States. As of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles (60 km) northeast of Washington, D.C., making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315.

Minneapolis Largest city in Minnesota

Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331. The Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, and suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, and is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest.

Lausanne Place in Vaud, Switzerland

Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva. It faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva.

London, which had previously hosted the 1908 Summer Olympics, became the second city to host the Olympics twice; Paris hosted the event in 1900 and 1924. London later became the first city to host the Olympics for a third time when the city hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Organization

Lord Burghley, a gold medal winner at the 1928 Olympics, member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and President of the Amateur Athletics Association was named Chairman of the Organising and Executive Committees. [5] The other members of the committees were: Colonel Evan Hunter, General Secretary of the British Olympic Association, and Chef de mission for Great Britain; Lord Aberdare, the other British member of the IOC; Sir Noel Curtis-Bennett; Alderman H.E. Fern; E.J. Holt; J. Emrys Lloyd, who became the committee's legal advisor; C.B. Cowley of the London Press and Advertising; R.B. Studdert, Managing Director of the Army & Navy Stores; A.E. Porritt, a member of the IOC for New Zealand who resided in London; S.F. Rous, Secretary of The Football Association; and Jack Beresford. [6]

Olympic pictograms were introduced for the first time. There were twenty of them—one for each Olympic sport and three separate pictograms for the arts competition, the opening ceremony and the closing ceremony. They were called "Olympic symbols" and intended for use on tickets. The background of each pictogram resembled an escutcheon. [7] [8] Olympic pictograms appeared again 16 years later, and were used at all subsequent Summer Olympics.

At the time of the Games food, petrol and building were still subject to the rationing imposed during the war in Britain; because of this the 1948 Olympics came to be known as the "Austerity Games". [9] Athletes were given the same increased rations as dockers and miners, 5,467 calories a day instead of the normal 2,600. Building an Olympic Village was deemed too expensive, and athletes were housed in existing accommodation. Male competitors stayed at RAF camps in Uxbridge and West Drayton, and an Army camp in Richmond; female competitors in London colleges. The British Red Cross provided medical facilities at the Richmond Park camp. [10]

These were the first games to be held following the death of Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the International Olympic Committee, in 1937. They were also the last to include an arts competition, which took place at the Victoria and Albert Museum. [11]

Opening ceremony

The XIV Olympic Games opens in London, 1948 The XIV Olympic Games opens in London, 1948.jpg
The XIV Olympic Games opens in London, 1948

The Games opened on 29 July. Army bands began playing at 2 pm for the 85,000 spectators in Wembley Stadium at Wembley Park. The international and national organisers arrived at 2.35 pm and King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, with Queen Mary and other members of the Royal Family, at 2.45 pm. Fifteen minutes later the competitors entered the stadium in a procession that took 50 minutes. The last team was that of the United Kingdom. When it had passed the saluting base, Lord Burghley began his welcome:

Your Majesty: The hour has struck. A visionary dream has today become a glorious reality. At the end of the worldwide struggle in 1945, many institutions and associations were found to have withered and only the strongest had survived. How, many wondered, had the great Olympic Movement prospered?

After welcoming the athletes to two weeks of "keen but friendly rivalry", he said London represented a "warm flame of hope for a better understanding in the world which has burned so low." [12]

At 4 pm, the time shown on Big Ben on the London Games symbol, the King declared the Games open, 2,500 pigeons were set free and the Olympic Flag raised to its 35 ft (11 m) flagpole at the end of the stadium. The Royal Horse Artillery sounded a 21-gun salute and the last runner in the Torch Relay ran a lap of the track – created with cinders from the domestic coal fires of Leicester – and climbed the steps to the Olympic cauldron. After saluting the crowd, he turned and lit the flame. After more speeches, Donald Finlay of the British team (given his RAF rank of Wing Commander) took the Olympic Oath on behalf of all competitors. The National Anthem was sung and the massed athletes turned and marched out of the stadium, led by Greece, tailed by Britain.

The 580-page official report concluded:

Thus were launched the Olympic Games of London, under the most happy auspices. The smooth-running Ceremony, which profoundly moved not only all who saw it but also the millions who were listening-in on the radio throughout the world, and the glorious weather in which it took place, combined to give birth to a spirit which was to permeate the whole of the following two weeks of thrilling and intensive sport. [13]

The opening ceremony and over 60 hours of Games coverage was broadcast live on BBC television, which was then only available to a small audience in the London area. The BBC paid £1,000 for the broadcasting rights. [14]

Sports

A Boy Scout who fainted in the intense heat was the first 'casualty' of the 1948 Olympic Games. The temperature was in the nineties (32degC) as the sun blazed down mercilessly. A casualty at the Olympic Games, London, 1948. (7649953728).jpg
A Boy Scout who fainted in the intense heat was the first 'casualty' of the 1948 Olympic Games. The temperature was in the nineties (32°C) as the sun blazed down mercilessly.

The 1948 Summer Olympics featured 136 medal events, covering 23 disciplines in 17 different sports and in arts.

In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

These Games also included Lacrosse as a demonstration sport.

Athletics

Start of the 50 km walk Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2008-0428-501, London, Olympiade, Sart der Geher.jpg
Start of the 50 km walk
Delfo Cabrera crossing the finish line to take gold in the marathon Delfo Cabrera gana la maraton 1948.png
Delfo Cabrera crossing the finish line to take gold in the marathon

Wembley stadium was the venue for 33 athletics events at the Games; 24 for men and nine for women. Of these, four were making their Olympic debut – the men's 10 km walk, and the women's 200 metres, long jump and shot put. A total of 754 athletes from 53 countries participated in athletics. [15] Fanny Blankers-Koen of the Netherlands, a 30-year-old mother of three children nicknamed "The Flying Housewife", won four gold medals, in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 80 metre high hurdles, and 4 x 100 metre relay. As world record holder in the long jump and high jump Blankers-Koen may have been able to win further medals but, at this time, female athletes were limited to three individual events. [16] Duncan White won the first medal of any kind for Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) when he finished second in the 400 metre hurdles. Arthur Wint became the first Jamaican to win an Olympic gold medal, in the men's 400 metres; he also won silver in the men's 800 metres. [17] [18] Alice Coachman became the first woman of color in the world and the first African American woman to win a gold medal in track and field in the history of the modern Olympics with a jump of 1.68 m (5' 614"). She also was the only American woman to win an athletics gold medal during the 1948 Olympics. [19]

The marathon saw a dramatic finish with the first man to enter the stadium, Etienne Gailly of Belgium, exhausted and nearly unable to run. While he was struggling, Argentinian athlete Delfo Cabrera and Tom Richards of Great Britain passed him, with Cabrera winning the gold medal and Richards obtaining the silver. Gailly managed to recover enough to cross the line for the bronze. [20]

The decathlon was won by 17-year-old Bob Mathias of the United States. He became the youngest ever Olympic gold medallist in athletics and when asked how he would celebrate he replied: "I'll start shaving, I guess." [21] [22]

Arts

Categories: sports-related architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture.

Basketball

Basketball made its second appearance as a medal sport, appearing as an indoor competition for the first time after poor weather disrupted the matches at the 1936 Berlin Games. The event, for men only, was contested by 23 nations split into four pools for the preliminary round; the top two in each pool advanced to the quarterfinals with the other teams entering playoffs for the minor placings. The United States and France reached the final which was won by the Americans 65–21 to claim the gold medal. This was the second of the United States' seven consecutive gold medals in Olympic men's and women's basketball. [23] Brazil defeated Mexico 52–47 to claim bronze. [24]

Boxing

Eight different classifications were contested ranging from flyweight, for boxers weighing less than 51 kg, to heavyweight, for boxers over 80 kg. South Africa, Argentina and Hungary each won two gold medals.

Canoeing

Nine events were contested, eight for men and one for women. This marked the first time that a women's canoeing event had been contested in the Olympics. Sweden won four gold medals (two by Gert Fredriksson) and Czechoslovakia three.

Cycling

Six events were contested – two road bicycle racing events and four track cycling events. No women's cycling events were contested. France won three gold medals and Italy two, while Great Britain captured five medals overall, but none were gold.

Diving

Four diving events were contested, two for men, and two for women. The events are labelled as 3  metre springboard and 10  metre platform by the International Olympic Committee but appeared on the 1948 Official Report as springboard diving and highboard diving, respectively. [25] All four gold medals, and 10 out of 12 awarded in total, were won by the United States. Victoria Manalo Draves, who won both gold medals in the women's events, and Sammy Lee, who took a gold and a bronze in the men's events, became the first Asian Americans to win gold medals at an Olympic Games. [26]

Equestrian

Six gold medals were awarded in equestrian, individual and team dressage, individual and team eventing and individual and team show jumping. Harry Llewellyn and Foxhunter, who would claim a gold medal in Helsinki, won bronze in the team jumping event.

Fencing

Seven events were contested, six for men and one for women. Ilona Elek, who had won the women's foil competition in Berlin, was one of only two competitors to successfully defend an Olympic title in London. [11] Elek's sister, Margit, placed sixth in the same event. [27] Edoardo Mangiarotti won three medals, two silver and a bronze, having previously won a gold medal in the 1936 Games. Throughout his career the Italian won 13 Olympic fencing medals and 27 world championship medals, both of which remain records. [28] [29]

Field hockey

Thirteen nations participated in the field hockey competition. The tournament was ultimately won by India, who defeated Great Britain to claim the country's first gold medal as an independent nation under captain Kishan Lal and Vice-Captain Kunwar Digvijay Singh.

Football

Eighteen teams entered the football competition at these Olympics. Due to the rise of the professional game during the 12 years since the Berlin Olympics the number of talented amateurs for teams to select from was reduced. The gold medal was won by Sweden, who defeated Yugoslavia 3–1 in the final. Denmark defeated hosts Great Britain, managed by Matt Busby of Manchester United, 5–3 to win the bronze medal. In the tournament's 18 matches a total of 102 goals were scored; an average 5.66 goals per match. The joint top scorers with seven goals each were Gunnar Nordahl of Sweden and Denmark's John Hansen. Nordahl and Swedish teammates Gunnar Gren and Nils Liedholm went on to play for A.C. Milan and together were nicknamed Gre-No-Li. [30]

Gymnastics

Nine events were contested, eight for men, and one for women. In the men's pommel horse, a tie was declared between three competitors, all Finns, and no medals other than gold were awarded in this event. Finland won six gold medals overall, and Switzerland three.

Lacrosse

Lacrosse was an exhibition sport at these Olympics. An English team composed of players from various universities played a U.S. team represented by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at the Empire Stadium.

Modern pentathlon

Gold medalist William Grut of Sweden (foreground) competing in the running component of the modern pentathlon. William Grut and Sune Wehlin 1948.jpg
Gold medalist William Grut of Sweden (foreground) competing in the running component of the modern pentathlon.

Only one modern pentathlon event was contested, the five component sports– riding, fencing, shooting, swimming, and running- being held over six days. Scoring was by point-for-place system across the five phases with the winner being the athlete with the lowest combined ranking. The sport's international federation, the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne was founded during the Games, on 3 August 1948. Sweden won two medals in the event; William Grut won the gold, with a final points total of 16, and Gösta Gärdin took bronze. American George Moore won the silver medal. [31]

Rowing

Seven rowing events were contested, all open to men only. Great Britain and the United States each claimed two gold medals. The events were held on the same course as the Henley Royal Regatta.

Sailing

The sailing events at the Games took place in Torquay, in the southwest of Great Britain. [32] Five events were contested, with the United States winning four total medals. [33] One of host nation Great Britain's three gold medals at the Games came in the Swallow class from Stewart Morris and David Bond. In the Firefly class Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won gold the despite the Danish Olympic Committee having misgivings about sending him to compete as the 18-year-old could speak no English. This was the first of four consecutive Olympics with a gold medal for Elvstrøm. [32]

Shooting

Four events were contested, all open to both men and women, although all medals were won by men. In the 50 metre rifle, prone position, only two points separated the top three competitors. Károly Takács had been a member of the Hungary's world champion pistol shooting team in 1938 when a grenade shattered his right hand – his pistol hand. Takács taught himself to shoot with his left hand and, 10 years after his injury, he won an Olympic gold medal in the rapid-fire pistol event. [34]

Swimming

Eleven events were contested, six for men and five for women. The United States won eight gold medals, including all six men's events, and 15 medals in total.

Water polo

Eighteen nations fielded a team in these games, which were ultimately won by Italy, who were undefeated throughout. The tournament was conducted in a mult-tier bracket, with the best four teams from the group stages participating in a final round-robin bracket. Silver was claimed by Hungary, and bronze by the Netherlands.

Weightlifting

Six events were contested, all for men only. These games marked the addition of the bantamweight class to the Olympic programme, the first change to the programme since 1920. The United States won four gold medals, and eight overall; the remaining two gold medals were claimed by Egypt. [35] Rodney Wilkes won the first medal for Trinidad and Tobago in an Olympic games, winning silver in the featherweight division; the featherweight gold medal was won by Egyptian Mahmoud Fayad, with a new Olympic and World record of 332.5 kg. [36] [37]

Wrestling

Sixteen wrestling events were held, eight Greco-Roman and eight freestyle. All were open to men only. Both categories were dominated by two nations. Turkey was the most successful nation with six gold medals followed by Sweden receiving 5 gold medals. These two teams claimed 24 total medals, in other words half of the total medals given.

Political defection

London was the first Olympics to have a political defection. Marie Provazníková, the 57-year-old Czechoslovakian President of the International Gymnastics Federation, refused to return home, citing "lack of freedom" after the Czechoslovak coup in February led to the country's inclusion in the Soviet Bloc. [38] [39]

Broadcasting

For the 1948 Olympics, the Technicolor Corporation devised a bipack colour filming process – dubbed "Technichrome" – whereby hundreds of hours of film documented the events in colour, without having to use expensive and heavy Technicolor cameras. [40]

Slightly over 2,000 journalists attended the 1948 Games. [41]

Venues

Poster promoting the 1948 Olympics London Olympics.jpg
Poster promoting the 1948 Olympics

No new venues were built for the Games. A cinder track was laid inside Wembley Stadium and all other venues were adapted. [9] For the first time at the Olympics swimming events were held undercover, at the 8000 capacity Empire Pool. As the pool was longer than the standard Olympic length of 50 metres a platform was constructed across the pool which both shortened it and housed officials. [34] In 2010 one of the last remaining venues from the Games, the Herne Hill Velodrome where cycling events were staged, was saved when a new 15-year lease was agreed meaning that repairs could take place. Campaigners and users of the track had feared that it would be forced to close as it was in desperate need of refurbishment. [42]

Participating NOCs

Participants 1948 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participants
Number of athletes per country 1948 Summer olympics team numbers.gif
Number of athletes per country

A total of 59 nations sent athletes. Fourteen made their first official appearance: British Guiana (now Guyana), Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. [43] It was the first time that the Philippines, India and Pakistan competed as fully independent nations at the Olympic Games. Germany and Japan, both under Allied military occupations, were not allowed to send athletes to the games. German forced labour was used for the construction of the facilities. [44] Italy, although originally an Axis power, defected to the Allies in 1943 following Benito Mussolini being deposed, and was allowed to send athletes. The Soviet Union was invited but they chose not to send any athletes, sending observers instead to prepare for the 1952 Olympics. [45] The number in parentheses indicates the number of participants that each country contributed.

Participating National Olympic Committees

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest)

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1948 Summer Games, ranked by number of gold medals won. The host nation was 12th, with 23 medals, including three golds. [46]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1US flag 48 stars.svg  United States 38271984
2Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 16111744
3Flag of France.svg  France 1061329
4Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957).svg  Hungary 1051227
5Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 811827
6Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 87520
7Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 64212
8Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia 62311
9Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland 510520
10Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 57820
Totals (10 nations)1129092294

See also

Notes

    Related Research Articles

    1976 Summer Olympics Games of the XXI Olympiad, held in Montréal in 1976

    The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.

    1972 Summer Olympics Games of the XX Olympiad, held in Munich in 1972

    The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.

    1964 Summer Olympics Games of the XVIII Olympiad, celebrated in Tokyo in 1964

    The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before ultimately being cancelled because of World War II.

    1960 Summer Olympics Games of the XVII Olympiad, celebrated in Rome in 1960

    The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy. The city of Rome had previously been awarded the administration of the 1908 Summer Olympics, but following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906, Rome had no choice but to decline and pass the honour to London.

    1956 Summer Olympics Games of the XVI Olympiad, celebrated in Melbourne in 1956

    The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, from 22 November to 8 December 1956, with the exception of the equestrian events, which were held in Stockholm, Sweden, in June 1956.

    1952 Summer Olympics Games of the XV Olympiad, held in Helsinki in 1952

    The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland from July 19 to August 3, 1952.

    1952 Winter Olympics 6th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Oslo (Norway) in 1952

    The 1952 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VI Olympic Winter Games, took place in Oslo, Norway, from 14 to 25 February 1952.

    1948 Summer Olympics medal table

    The 1948 Summer Olympics was an international multi-sport event held from July 29 through August 14, 1948, in London, United Kingdom. It was the first Olympic Games to take place in twelve years, due to the Second World War, with London being chosen as the host city in March 1946. London had previously hosted the 1908 Summer Olympics, and was due to have hosted the event in 1944. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes, 3,714 men and 385 women, in 19 sport disciplines. Following the Second World War, Germany and Japan remained under military occupation and had not yet formed their National Olympic Committee, and so were not invited. The only major Axis power to take part in the Games was Italy. The Soviet Union was invited to compete, but chose not to send any athletes, sending observers instead to prepare for the 1952 Summer Olympics. Following the threats of a boycott from Arab countries should an Israeli team fly their flag at the opening ceremony, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) excluded Israel from the Games on a technicality.

    This 1928 Summer Olympics medal table comprises two tables of countries ranked by the number of medals won during the 1928 Summer Olympics. The 1928 Summer Olympics were held in and around Amsterdam in the Netherlands from 17 May 1928 to 22 August 1928. A total of 2,883 athletes from 46 countries participated in the sports competition, in 14 sports and 109 events. Additionally, five art competitions were held with 13 events combined. 327 sports medals and 29 arts medals were awarded during the 1928 Summer Olympics. A total of 5,901 souvenir medals were given; 5,139 medals to contestants and officials, and 762 medals to persons that contributed to the Olympics by rendering their services. The souvenir medals are not displayed in the medal tables.

    1908 Summer Olympics medal table

    The 1908 Summer Olympics was an international multi-sport event held from 27 April to 31 October 1908, in London, United Kingdom, coinciding with the Franco-British Exhibition. A total of 2,008 athletes representing 22 nations participated in 110 events in 18 sports. Diving, field hockey, and figure skating were contested for the first time at these Games. Argentina, Switzerland and Turkey were the only nations that did not earn any medals.

    Argentina at the 2000 Summer Olympics

    Argentina competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. 143 competitors, 98 men and 45 women, took part in 98 events in 21 sports.

    Art competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years, from 1912 to 1948. The competitions were part of the original intention of the Olympic Movement's founder, Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin. Medals were awarded for works of art inspired by sport, divided into five categories: architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture.

    Finland at the 1948 Summer Olympics

    Finland competed at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, England. 129 competitors, 123 men and 6 women, took part in 84 events in 16 sports.

    The men's 100 metres sprint event at the 1948 Olympic Games in London, England, we held at Wembley Stadium on 30 and 31 July. The final was won by American Harrison Dillard, in a photo finish. This was the first time a photo finish camera was used at an Olympic Games.

    The men's 5000 metres event at the 1948 Olympic Games took place July 31 and August 2. The final was won by Gaston Reiff of Belgium.

    The men's decathlon event at the 1948 Olympic Games took place between August 5 & August 6. Bob Mathias of the United States won with a points total of 7139.

    The men's marathon event at the 1948 Summer Olympic Games took place August 7. The race was won by Delfo Cabrera. Reminiscent of Dorando Pietri's final-lap ordeal when the Olympics were held in the same city 40 years earlier, Belgian Étienne Gailly entered the London stadium in first place, but was exhausted and running very slowly. He was passed first by Cabrera, then by Briton Tom Richards, but managed to hold on for the bronze medal. South African Johannes Coleman, who finished 4th in this race, had placed 6th in the last Olympic marathon in Berlin twelve years earlier.

    Venues of the 1948 Summer Olympics

    A total of twenty-five sports venues were used to host the events of the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. For the first time in the history of the modern Olympic Games, the diving, gymnastics, swimming, and water polo competitions were held indoors. These Games have since been nicknamed the "Austerity Games" for the tight control of costs at a time when the host nation was still under rationing, which resulted in a total expenditure of around £750,000. All of the venues were already in place and required only temporary modifications. The organizing committee decided not to build an Olympic Village; instead, foreign athletes were housed in makeshift camps at military bases and colleges around London, while local athletes were told to stay at home. Despite these measures, the combined venues of the 1948 Summer Olympics recorded the highest attendance figures for a Games at that time.

    United States at the 2000 Summer Olympics

    The United States competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. 586 competitors, 333 men and 253 women, took part in 265 events in 31 sports.

    References

    1. 1 2 "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. September 13, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
    2. "Past Olympic Host City Election Results". gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
    3. Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 17
    4. "Olympic Games Fonds" (PDF). International Olympic Committee Historical Archives. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
    5. "David George Burghley – lord of the hurdles (photos attached)". The official website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    6. Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 18
    7. Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 131, 135
    8. Two sample tickets from 1948 Summer Olympics Archived 23 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine at the Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
    9. 1 2 "British Olympic Movement". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
    10. Mike Rowbotham (7 July 2005). "1948 Olympics: 'We had much more fun and a greater sense of achievement than modern athletes do'". The Independent. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
    11. 1 2 "London 1948". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
    12. Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 221
    13. Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 225
    14. "Landmarks in the history of the media and the Olympics" (PDF). The British Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
    15. "Athletics at the 1948 London Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    16. "1948 London Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    17. Chris Dhambarage (4 February 2010). "Sports striving for greater heights after Independence". Daily News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    18. Donald McRae (1 April 2010). "Cradle of champions where Jamaican sprinters earn their spurs". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    19. "Alice Coachman – First African American Gold Medallist". olympics30.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    20. Martin, David E.; Roger W. H. Gynn (2000). The Olympic marathon. Human Kinetics. p. 188. ISBN   978-0-88011-969-6.
    21. "Former congressman Bob Mathias dies at 75". USA Today. Associated Press. 3 September 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
    22. Martin Weil (3 September 2006). "Bob Mathias; Congressman, Twice Olympic Champion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
    23. "Basketball Men's Basketball Medalists". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    24. "Basketball at the 1948 London Summer Games: Men's Basketball Final Round". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    25. Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 637
    26. Melody Merin (30 May 2008). "Asian Americans First Won Olympic Gold 60 Years Ago". america.gov. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    27. "Ilona Elek". The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    28. "Portraits: The Great "Edoardo Mangiarotti"". schermaonline.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    29. "Edoardo Mangiarotti". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    30. "London, 1948". FIFA. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
    31. "Modern Pentathlon at the 1948 London Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    32. 1 2 "1948 London Olympic Sailing Competition". The International Sailing Federation. Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
    33. "Sailing at the 1948 London Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
    34. 1 2 "London 1948". olympic.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
    35. "Weightlifting at the 1948 London Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
    36. Patrick Watson (27 November 2008). "Help Wilkes now". Trinidad and Tobago Express. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
    37. "Weightlifting at the 1948 London Summer Games: Men's Featherweight". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
    38. Alan Hubbard (17 February 2008). "London 1948 to London 2012: Rags to riches for the 'high-class Del Boy' who dreamt of gold, not money". The Independent. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
    39. "A Political Refugee". The Guardian. 19 August 1948. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
    40. "The History and Technology of Technicolor". The American Widescreen Museum. 2003.
    41. Toney, James (20 December 2012). Sports Journalism: The Inside Track. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 8. ISBN   9781408178348.
    42. "Last remaining 1948 Olympic Games venue is saved". BBC Sport. 21 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
    43. Christopher Lyles (14 July 2008). "Countdown to the Beijing Olympics". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
    44. "'Wembley Way' built by German Prisoners of War". BBC News. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
    45. "'A very British Olympics'". BBC Sport. 18 October 2005. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
    46. "Medal Table". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
    Preceded by
    London (1944)
    cancelled due to World War II
    Summer Olympic Games
    London

    XIV Olympiad (1948)
    Succeeded by
    Helsinki