|Presented by||International Olympic Committee|
An Olympic medal is awarded to successful competitors at one of the Olympic Games. There are three classes of medal: gold, awarded to the winner; silver, awarded to the runner-up; and bronze, awarded to the third place. The granting of awards is laid out in detail in the Olympic protocols.
Medal designs have varied considerably since the Games in 1896, particularly in size of the medals for the Summer Olympic Games began with the 1928 Games and remained for many years, until its replacement at the 2004 Games in Athens as y surrounding the use of the Roman Colosseum rather than a building representing Greek roots. The medals of the Winter Olympic Games never had a common design, but regularly feature snowflakes and the event where the medal has been won.
In addition to generally supporting their Olympic athletes, some countries provide sums of money and gifts to medal winners, depending on the classes and number of medals won.
Total medar a specific discipline, for a particular Games, or over all time. These totals always total event placements rather tory in a team event (such as relay race) equates to a single gold for such rankings even though each team member would receive a physical medal.
The olive wreath was the prize for the winner at the Ancient Olympic Games. It was an olive branch, off the wild-olive tree that grew at Olympia,intertwined to form a circle or a horse-shoe. According to Pausanias , it was introduced by Heracles as a prize for the winner of the running race to honour Zeus.
When the modern Olympic Games began in 1896 medals started to be given to successful olympian competitors. However, gold medals were not awarded at the inaugural Olympics in 1896 in Athens, Greece.The winners were instead given a silver medal and an olive branch, while runners-up received a laurel branch and a copper or bronze medal. In 1900, most winners received cups or trophies instead of medals.
The custom of the sequence of gold, silver, and bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri in the United States. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has retroactively assigned gold, silver and bronze medals to the three best-placed athletes in each event of the 1896 and 1900 Games.If there is a tie for any of the top three places all competitors are entitled to receive the appropriate medal according to IOC rules. Some combat sports (such as boxing, judo, taekwondo and wrestling) award two bronze medals per competition, resulting in, overall, more bronze medals being awarded than the other colours.
Medals are not the only awards given to competitors; every athlete placed first to eighth receives an Olympic diploma. Also, at the main host stadium, the names of all medal winners are written onto a wall.Finally, as noted below, all athletes receive a participation medal and diploma.
The IOC dictates the physical properties of the medals and has the final decision about the finished design. Specifications for the medals are developed along with the National Olympic Committee (NOC) hosting the Games, though the IOC has brought in some set rules:
The first Olympic medals in 1896 were designed by French sculptor Jules-Clément Chaplain and depicted Zeus holding Nike, the Greek goddess of victory, on the obverse and the Acropolis on the reverse.They were made by the Paris Mint, which also made the medals for the 1900 Olympic Games, hosted by Paris. This started the tradition of giving the responsibility of minting the medals to the host city. For the next few Olympiads , the host city also chose the medal design. Until 1912 the gold medals were made of solid gold.
In 1923 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) launched a competition for sculptors to design the medals for the Summer Olympic Games. Giuseppe Cassioli's Trionfo design was chosen as the winner in 1928.The obverse brought back Nike but this time as the main focus, holding a winner's crown and palm with a depiction of the Colosseum in the background. In the top right section of the medal , a space was left for the name of the Olympic host and the Games numeral. The reverse features a crowd of people carrying a triumphant athlete. His winning design was first presented at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. The competition saw this design used for 40 years until the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich became the first Games with a different design for the reverse side of the medal.
Cassioli's design continued to inspire the obverse of the medal for many more years, though recreated each time, with the Olympic host and numeral updated. The obverse remained true to the Trionfo design until the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain, where the IOC allowed an updated version to be created. For the next few events , they mandated the use of the Nike motif but allowed other aspects to change.
The trend ended after 2000, due to the negative reaction to the medal design for the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. The designer of the 2000 medal (Wojciech Pietranik) had originally featured the Sydney Opera House on the obverse instead of the traditional Roman Colosseum but the International Olympic Committee decided that the Colosseum should remain.The Greek press criticised the design for ignorance of the birthplace of the Olympic Games, pointing out that the long-standing feature on the front of medals was mistakenly depicting the Roman Colosseum rather than the Greek Parthenon. The Sydney Organising Committee decided to continue with the design as it was, noting that there was insufficient time to complete another version and that it would be too costly. This long-standing error had remained for 76 years until a new style depicting the Panathenaic Stadium was introduced at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. This new obverse design remains in use.
The German Olympic Committee, Nationales Olympisches Komitee für Deutschland, was the first Summer Games organisers to elect to change the reverse of the medal. The 1972 design was created by Gerhard Marcks, an artist from the Bauhaus, and features mythological twins Castor and Pollux.Since then the Organising Committee of the host city has been given the freedom of the design of the reverse, with the IOC giving final approval.
The IOC has the final decision on the specifications of each design for all Olympic medals, including the Summer Games, Winter Games, and Paralympic Games. There has been a greater variety of design for the Winter Games; unlike with the Summer Games, the IOC never mandated one particular design. The medal at the inaugural 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix, France did not even feature the Olympic rings. Nike was featured on the medals of the 1932 and 1936 Games but has only appeared on one medal design since then. One regular motif is the use of the snowflake, while laurel leaves and crowns appear on several designs. The Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius features on four Winter Games medals but does not appear on any Summer Games medal.
For three events in a row, hosts of the Winter Games included different materials in the medals: glass (1992), sparagmite (1994), and lacquer (1998). It was not until the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China that a Summer Olympic host chose to use something different, in this case , jade. While every Summer Olympic medal except for the 1900 Games has been circular, the shapes of the Winter Games have been considerably more varied. The Winter Games medals are also generally larger, thicker, and heavier than those for the Summer Games.
Details about the medals from each of the Summer Olympic Games:
|1896||Athens, Greece||Obverse: Zeus holding Nike |
Reverse: The Acropolis
|Jules-Clément Chaplain||Paris Mint||48||3.8||47|
|1900||Paris, France||Obverse: Winged goddess holding laurel branches; Paris in the background|
Reverse: A victorious athlete holding a laurel branch; the Acropolis in the background
Note: The only Summer Olympic medal that is not circular
|Frédérique Vernon||Paris Mint||59 x 41||3.2||53|
|1904||St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.||Obverse: Nike holding a laurel crown and a palm leaf|
Reverse: An athlete holding a laurel crown; Greek temple in the background
|Dieges & Clust||Dieges & Clust||37.8||3.5||21|
|1908||London, Great Britain||Obverse: An athlete receiving a laurel crown from two female figures|
Reverse: Saint George atop a horse
Edge: "Vaughton", event name and winner
|Bertram Mackennal||Vaughton & Sons||33||4.4||21|
|1912||Stockholm, Sweden||Obverse: An athlete receiving a laurel crown from two female figures|
Reverse: A herald opening the Games with a statue of Pehr Henrik Ling behind him
| Bertram Mackennal (obverse)|
Erik Lindberg (reverse)
|C.C. Sporrong & Co||33.4||1.5||24|
|1920||Antwerp, Belgium||Obverse: An athlete holding a laurel crown and a palm leaf|
Reverse: Statue of Silvius Brabo
Edge: Name, event, team, "Antwerp", and the date
|1924||Paris, France||Obverse: An athlete helping another to stand|
Reverse: A harp and various items of sports equipment
|André Rivaud||Paris Mint||55||4.8||79|
|1928||Amsterdam, Netherlands||Design: Trionfo|
Note: This obverse design, sometimes recreated, remains until 2004, the reverse design remained until 1972
|Giuseppe Cassioli||Dutch State Mint||55||3||66|
|1932||Los Angeles, U.S.||Design: Trionfo||Giuseppe Cassioli||Whitehead & Hoag||55.3||5.7||96|
|1936||Berlin, Germany||Design: Trionfo|
"B.H MAYER PFORZHEIM 990"
|Giuseppe Cassioli||B.H. Mayer||55||5||71|
|1948||London, Great Britain||Design: Trionfo||Giuseppe Cassioli||John Pinches||51.4||5.1||60|
|1952||Helsinki, Finland||Design: Trionfo|
Edge: 916 M / Y6 (Factory Stamp)
|Giuseppe Cassioli||Kultakeskus Oy||51||4.8||46.5|
|1956||Melbourne, Australia||Design: Trionfo||Giuseppe Cassioli||K.G. Luke||51||4.8||68|
|1960||Rome, Italy||Design: Trionfo|
Surround: A bronze laurel wreath and laurel leaf chain
|Giuseppe Cassioli||Artistice Fiorentini||68||6.5||211|
|1964||Tokyo, Japan||Design: Trionfo||Giuseppe Cassioli and Toshikaka Koshiba||Japan Mint||60||7.5||62|
|1968||Mexico City, Mexico||Design: Trionfo||Giuseppe Cassioli||60||6||130|
|1972||Munich, Germany||Obverse: Trionfo|
Reverse: Castor and Pollux, twin sons of Zeus and Leda
Edge: Winner's name and sport
| Giuseppe Cassioli (obverse)|
Gerhard Marcks (reverse)
|1976||Montreal, Quebec, Canada||Obverse: Trionfo|
Reverse: A stylised laurel crown and the Montreal Games logo
Edge: Name of the sport
|Giuseppe Cassioli (obverse)||Royal Canadian Mint||60||5.8||154|
|1980||Moscow, Russia||Obverse: Trionfo|
Reverse: A stylised Olympic flame and the Moscow Games logo
| Giuseppe Cassioli (obverse)|
Ilya Postol (reverse)
|1984||Los Angeles, U.S.||Obverse: Trionfo|
Reverse:An Olympic champion held aloft by a crowd
Note: The reverse returns to the Cassioli design
|Giuseppe Cassioli||Jostens, Inc||60||7.9||141|
|1988||Seoul, South Korea||Obverse: Trionfo|
Reverse: An outline of a dove carrying a laurel branch and the Seoul Olympic logo
|Giuseppe Cassioli (obverse)||Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation||60||7||152|
|1992||Barcelona, Spain||Obverse: Updated interpretation of Trionfo|
Reverse: Barcelona Games logo
|Xavier Corbero||Royal Mint of Spain||70||9.8||231|
|1996||Atlanta, U.S.||Obverse: Updated interpretation of Trionfo|
Reverse: A stylised olive branch, the Atlanta Games logo, and "Centennial Olympic Games"
Edge: "Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games"
|Malcolm Grear Designers||Reed & Barton||70||5||181|
|2000||Sydney, Australia||Obverse: Updated interpretation of Trionfo|
Reverse: The Sydney Opera House, Olympic Flame, and Olympic rings
Edge: Event name
|Wojciech Pietranik||Royal Australian Mint||68||5||180|
|2004||Athens, Greece||Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium in the background|
Reverse: The Olympic Flame, the opening lines of Pindar's Eighth Olympic Ode, and the Athens Games logo
|2008||Beijing, China||Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium in the background|
Reverse: a jade ring with the Beijing Games logo in the centre and the event details on the outer edge
|Xiao Yong||China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation||70||6||200|
|2012||London, United Kingdom||Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium in the background|
Reverse: The River Thames and the London Games logo with angled lines in the background
|David Watkins||Royal Mint||85||8–10||357–412|
|2016||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium in the background|
Reverse: The Rio 2016 logo and name, surrounded by a laurel leaf design in the form of the wreaths
Edge: The name of the event for which the medal was won is engraved by laser along the outside edge.
Note: For the first time, the medals are slightly thicker at their central point compared with their edges.
|Casa da Moeda do Brasil||85||6-11||500|
|2020||Tokyo, Japan||Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium in the background|
Reverse: The Tokyo 2020 logo and name, surrounded by rays of sun.
Details about the medals from each of the Winter Olympic Games:
|1924||Chamonix, France||Obverse: A skier holding skates and skis and the designer's name|
Reverse: Written information about the Games
|Raoul Bernard||Paris Mint||55||4||75|
|1928||St. Moritz, Switzerland||Obverse: A skater surrounded by snowflakes|
Reverse: Olive branches and host details
|Arnold Hunerwadel||Huguenin Frères||50.4||3||51|
|1932||Lake Placid, U.S.||Obverse: Nike with the Adirondack Mountains in the background|
Reverse: Laurel leaves and written host details
Shape: Circular but not with a straight edge
|1936||Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany||Obverse: Nike atop a horse-drawn chariot traversing an arch over winter sporting equipment|
Reverse: Large Olympic rings
|Richard Klein||Deschler & Sohn||100||4||324|
|1948||St. Moritz, Switzerland||Obverse: The Olympic torch with snowflakes in the background and the Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius|
Reverse: A snowflake and written host details
|Paul Andre Droz||Huguenin Frères||60.2||3.8||103|
|1952||Oslo, Norway||Obverse: The Olympic torch and the Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius|
Reverse: A pictogram of Oslo City Hall with three snowflakes and written host details
|Vasos Falireus and Knut Yvan||Th. Marthinsen||70||3||137.5|
|1956||Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy||Obverse: An "ideal woman" and written host details|
Reverse: A large snowflake with Pomagagnon in the background, the Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius, and further host details
|Costanttino Affer||Lorioli Bros.||60.2||3||120.5|
|1960||Squaw Valley, U.S.||Obverse: The head of a male and female with host details written around them|
Reverse: Large Olympic rings, the Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius, and the name of the sport
|Herff Jones||Herff Jones Company||55.3||4.3||95|
|1964||Innsbruck, Austria||Obverse: Torlauf Mountains, "Innsbruck 1964", and "Torlauf"|
Reverse: The Olympic rings above the emblem of Innsbruck with host details around them
| Martha Coufal (obverse)|
Arthur Zegler (reverse)
|1968||Grenoble, France||Obverse: Three snowflakes and the red rose emblem of Grenoble surrounded by host details|
Reverse: A stylised image of each sport
|Roger Excoffon||Paris Mint||61||3.3||124|
|1972||Sapporo, Japan||Obverse: Pictogram of lines in the snow|
Reverse: A snowflake, the Sun, and the Olympic rings
Shape: Square with rounded, wavy lines
| Yagi Kazumi (obverse)|
Ikko Tanaka (reverse)
|Mint Bureau of the Finance Ministry||57.3 x 61.3||5||130|
|1976||Innsbruck, Austria||Obverse: The Olympic rings above the emblem of Innsbruck with host details around them|
Reverse: The Alps, Bergisel, and the Olympic flame
| Martha Coufal (obverse)|
Arthur Zegler (reverse)
|1980||Lake Placid, U.S.||Obverse: The Olympic torch held in front of the Adirondack Mountains |
Reverse: A pine cone sprig and the Lake Placid logo
|Gladys Gunzer||Medallic Art Company||81||6.1||205|
|1984||Sarajevo, Yugoslavia||Obverse: Event logo with host details surrounding it|
Reverse: An athlete's head wearing a laurel crown
Shape: Circular but set in a large rounded rectangular shape
|Nebojša Mitrić||Zlatara Majdanpek and Zavod za izradu novčanica||71.1 x 65.1||3.1||164|
|1988||Calgary, Alberta, Canada||Obverse: Event logo with host details surrounding it|
Reverse: Two people, one wearing a laurel and the other wearing a headdress made up of winter sports equipment
|1992||Albertville, France||Obverse: Glass set into the metal, showing the Olympic rings in front of mountains|
Reverse: Rear side of glass section
|René Lalique||René Lalique||92||9.1||169|
|1994||Lillehammer, Norway||Sparagmite partially covered in gold, one side showing the Olympic rings and host details, the other depicting the sport in which the medal was won and the Games emblem||Ingjerd Hanevold||Th. Marthinsen||80||8.5||131|
|1998||Nagano, Japan||Obverse: Partly lacquered, shows the Games emblem|
Reverse: Mainly lacquer, containing the Games emblem over the Shinshu mountains
|Takeshi Ito||Kiso Kurashi Craft Center||80||8||261|
|2002||Salt Lake City, U.S.||Obverse: An athlete carrying the Olympic torch steps out of flames|
Reverse: Nike holding a victory leaf surrounded by event details
Shape: Irregular circle, like the rocks in Utah's rivers
|Scott Given , Axiom Design||O.C. Tanner||85||10||567|
|2006||Turin, Italy||Obverse: Graphic elements of the Games|
Reverse: Pictogram of the specific event
Shape: Circular with a hole representing a piazza
|2010||Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada||Obverse: An individually cropped section of a large First Nations artwork (orca or raven), making each medal unique|
Reverse: Emblem of the Games and event details
Shape: Circular but with undulations stopping it from being flat
|Corrine Hunt and Omer Arbel||Royal Canadian Mint||100||6||500–576|
|2014||Sochi, Russian Federation||Obverse: "Patchwork quilt" design representing different regions of Russia|
Reverse: Name of the competition in English and the Sochi logo
|ADAMAS||ADAMAS||100||10||460, 525, 531|
|2018||Pyeongchang County, South Korea||Hangul "symbolising the effort of athletes from around the world"||Lee Suk-woo||92.5||586, 580, 493|
Since the beginning of the modern Olympics the athletes and their support staffs, event officials, and certain volunteers involved in planning and managing the games have received commemorative medals and diplomas. Like the winners' medals, these are changed for each Olympiad, with different ones issued for the summer and winter games.
The presentation of the medals and awards changed significantly until the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles brought in what has now become standard. Before 1932 all the medals were awarded at the closing ceremony, with the athletes wearing evening dress for the first few Games. Originally the presenting dignitary was stationary while the athletes filed past to receive their medals. The victory podium was introduced upon the personal instruction in 1931 of Henri de Baillet-Latour, who had seen one used at the 1930 British Empire Games.The winner is in the middle at a higher elevation, with the silver medallist to the right and the bronze to the left. At the 1932 Winter Olympics, medals were awarded in the closing ceremony, with athletes for each event in turn mounting the first-ever podium. At the Summer Olympics, competitors in the Coliseum received their medals immediately after each event for the first time; competitors at other venues came to the Coliseum the next day to receive their medals. Later Games have had a victory podium at each competition venue.
The 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy were the first in which the medals were placed around the neck of the athletes. The medals hung from a chain of laurel leaves, while they are now hung from a coloured ribbon.When Athens hosted the 2004 Summer Olympics the competitors on the podium also received an olive wreath crown. In the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, each medalist received a wooden statuette of the Olympic logo.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are normally held every four years, alternating between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years in the four-year period.
The Summer Olympic Games also known as the Games of the Olympiad, are a major international multi-sport event normally held once every four years. The Games were first held in 1896 in Athens, Greece, and were most recently held in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) organises the Games and oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third place; this tradition began in 1904. The Winter Olympic Games were created out of the success of the Summer Olympics.
The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by French aristocrat Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture.
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives a gold medal and the third place a bronze medal. More generally, silver is traditionally a metal sometimes used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones.
A bronze medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of bronze awarded to the third-place finisher of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives a gold medal and the second place a silver medal. More generally, bronze is traditionally the most common metal used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones. The practice of awarding bronze third place medals began at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, Missouri, before which only first and second places were awarded.
The 2004 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, were a summer multi-sport event held in Athens, the capital city of Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004. A total of 10,625 athletes from 201 countries represented by National Olympic Committees participated in these games, competing in 301 events in 28 sports. Kiribati and Timor Leste competed for the first time in these Olympic Games.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union from 19 July to 3 August. A total of 5,179 athletes representing 80 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in 203 events in 22 sports. They were the first Games to be staged in a communist nation.
The 1948 Summer Olympics was an international multi-sport event held from July 29 through August 14, 1948, in London, United Kingdom. It was the first Olympic Games to take place in twelve years, due to the Second World War, with London being chosen as the host city in May 1946. London had previously hosted the 1908 Summer Olympics, and was due to have hosted the event in 1944. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes, 3,714 men and 385 women, in 19 sport disciplines. Following the Second World War, Germany and Japan remained under military occupation and had not yet formed their National Olympic Committee, and so were not invited. The only major Axis power to take part in the Games was Italy. The Soviet Union was invited to compete, but chose not to send any athletes, sending observers instead to prepare for the 1952 Summer Olympics. Following the threats of a boycott from Arab countries should an Israeli team fly their flag at the opening ceremony, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) excluded Israel from the Games on a technicality.
The 1904 Summer Olympics were held in St. Louis, Missouri, United States from July 1 to November 23, 1904, as part of the St. Louis World's Fair. A total of 651 athletes from 12 nations participated in 94 events in 16 sports at these games. This list includes medals awarded in each of those events, excluding those awarded in the sport of water polo, which is mentioned in the games reports for the 1904 Summer Olympics but which currently is not included in the International Olympic Committee's medal database. The United States won all three medals in that competition, with a New York team taking first place, a Chicago team taking second, and a team from Missouri taking third.
The 1900 Summer Olympics were held in Paris, France, from May 14 to October 28, 1900, as part of the 1900 World's Fair. A total of 997 athletes representing 24 nations participated in 95 events in 19 sports at these games. Women competed in the Olympics for the first time during the 1900 games. 21 of the 24 participating nations earned medals, in addition to 12 medals won by teams made up of athletes from multiple nations. The host nation of France flooded the field, comprising over 72% of all the athletes ; given that, America dominated athletically, winning the second-most gold (19), silver (14), and bronze (14) medals, while fielding fewer than 8% of the athletes.
The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were a summer multi-sport event held in Athens, the capital of Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896, and were the first Olympic Games of the Modern era. A total of 241 athletes from 14 nations participated in 43 events in nine sports at these games.
The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games, and known at the time as Semaine Internationale des Sports d'Hiver, was a winter multi-sport event held in Chamonix, France, from 25 January to 5 February 1924. Norway topped the table, collecting seventeen medals in total, including four gold, three of which were won by Thorleif Haug in the Nordic combined and cross-country skiing events. Norway also achieved two podium sweeps, winning all three medals in both the 50 km cross-country skiing and the Nordic combined. This remained a record at the Winter Olympics until 2014.
Hungary first participated at the Olympic Games at the inaugural 1896 Games, and has sent athletes to compete in most Summer Olympic Games and every Winter Olympic Games since then. The nation was not invited to the 1920 Games for its role in World War I, and was part of the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics.
Athletes from the United Kingdom, all but three of its overseas territories, and the three Crown dependencies, compete in the Olympic Games as part of the team Great Britain and Northern Ireland or Team GB. It has sent athletes to every Summer and Winter Games, along with France and Switzerland, since the start of the Olympics' modern era in 1896, including the 1980 Summer Olympics, which were boycotted by a number of other Western nations. From 1896 to 2018 inclusive, Great Britain & NI has won 851 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, and another 32 at the Winter Olympic Games. It is the only national team to have won at least one Gold Medal at every Summer Games, lying third globally in the winning of total medals, surpassed only by the United States and the former Soviet Union, and fourth behind Germany when considering gold medal totals.
Greece has a long presence at the Olympic Games, as they have competed at every Summer Olympic Games, one of only four countries to have done so, and most of the Winter Olympic Games. Greece has hosted the Games twice, both in Athens. As the home of the Ancient Olympic Games it was a natural choice as host nation for the revival of the modern Olympic Games in 1896, while Greece has also hosted the 2004 Summer Olympics. During the parade of nations at the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games, Greece always enters the stadium first and leads the parade to honor its status as the birthplace of the Olympics, with the notable exception of 2004 when Greece entered last as the host nation. Before the Games the Olympic Flame is lit in Olympia, the site of the Ancient Olympic Games, in a ceremony that reflects ancient Greek rituals and initiates the Olympic torch relay. The flag of Greece is always hoisted in the closing ceremony, along with the flags of the current and the next host country.
Canada has competed at 23 Summer Olympic Games, missing only the inaugural 1896 Summer Olympics and the boycotted 1980 Summer Olympics. The nation made its debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics. Canada competes under the IOC country code CAN.
Russia, also known as the Russian Federation, has competed at the modern Olympic Games on many occasions, but as different nations in its history. As the Russian Empire, the nation first competed at the 1900 Games, and returned again in 1908 and 1912. After the Russian revolution in 1917, and the subsequent establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922, it would be thirty years until Russian athletes once again competed at the Olympics, as the Soviet Union at the 1952 Summer Olympics. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia competed as part of the Unified Team in 1992, and finally returned once again as Russia at the 1994 Winter Olympics.
The Olympic medal table is a method of sorting the medal placements of countries in the modern-day Olympics and Paralympics. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) does not officially recognize a ranking of participating countries at the Olympic Games. Nevertheless, the IOC does publish medal tallies for information purposes, showing the total number of Olympic medals earned by athletes representing each country's respective National Olympic Committee. The convention used by the IOC is to sort by the number of gold medals the athletes from a country have earned. In the event of a tie in the number of gold medals, the number of silver medals is taken into consideration, and then the number of bronze medals. If two countries have an equal number of gold, silver, and bronze medals, they are ordered in the table alphabetically by their IOC country code.
Giuseppe Cassioli was an Italian painter and sculptor known for his Summer Olympic Games medal design. Many of his paintings are on display at the Museo Cassioli di Pittura senese dell'Ottocento in Asciano, Tuscany.
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