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Enerhaugen med St. Hallvard kirke.jpg
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Flag of Oslo.svg
Unanimiter et constanter(Latin)
"United and constant"
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Location within Norway
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Oslo (Europe)
Coordinates: 59°54′50″N10°45′8″E / 59.91389°N 10.75222°E / 59.91389; 10.75222 Coordinates: 59°54′50″N10°45′8″E / 59.91389°N 10.75222°E / 59.91389; 10.75222
Country Flag of Norway.svg Norway
District Østlandet
County Oslo
   Mayor Marianne Borgen (SV)
   Governing mayor Raymond Johansen (AP)
   Capital city, county and municipality 480.75 km2 (185.62 sq mi)
  Land454.12 km2 (175.34 sq mi)
  Water26.64 km2 (10.29 sq mi)
Elevation23 m (75 ft)
 (27 February 2020) [2] [3] [4]
   Capital city, county and municipality 693,491 Increase2.svg
   Metro 1,588,457
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
0001 – 1299 [7]
HDI (2018)0.968 [8]
very high · 1st
Website www.oslo.kommune.no
Oslo kommune
Norway Counties Oslo Position.svg
Oslo within
NO 0301 Oslo.svg
Oslo surrounded by Viken county
Country Norway
County Oslo
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code NO-0301
Official language form Neutral [9]

Oslo ( /ˈɒzl/ OZ-loh, also US: /ˈɒsl/ OSS-loh, [10] [11] locally  [ˈʊ̂ʂlʊ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), rarely [ˈʊ̂slʊ, ˈʊ̀ʂlʊ] ) is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. As of 27 February 2020, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 693,491, while the population of the city's urban area was 1,019,513, as of 4 November 2019. [12] [13] The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. [14]


During the Viking Age the area was part of Viken. Oslo was founded as a city at the end of the Viking Age in the year 1040 under the name Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada. The city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality ( formannskapsdistrikt ) on 1 January 1838. The city functioned as the capital of Norway during the 1814–1905 union between Sweden and Norway. From 1877, the city's name was spelled Kristiania in government usage, a spelling that was adopted by the municipal authorities only in 1897. In 1925 the city, after incorporating the village retaining its former name, was renamed Oslo. In 1948 Oslo merged with Aker, a municipality which surrounded the capital and which was 27 times larger, thus creating the modern, vastly enlarged Oslo municipality.

Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping. It is an important centre for maritime industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and maritime insurance brokers. Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme.

Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008. [15] It was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. [16] A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. [17] In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)'s Worldwide Cost of Living study. [18] Oslo was ranked as the 24th most liveable city in the world by Monocle magazine. [19]

Oslo’s population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time. [20] This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but also from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, [21] and in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included. [22]

Urban region

As of 27 February 2020, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 693,491. [12] The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Viken (municipalities of Asker, Bærum, Lillestrøm, Enebakk, Rælingen, Lørenskog, Nittedal, Gjerdrum, Nordre Follo); the total population of this agglomeration is 1,019,513. [23] [24] The city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, and southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y" (on maps, satellite pictures, or from high above the city).

To the north and east, wide forested hills (Marka) rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality (bykommune) of Oslo and county [ fylke ] of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 (50 sq mi) is built-up and 7 km2 (2.7 sq mi) is agricultural. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi).[ citation needed ]

The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948 (and simultaneously transferred from Akershus county to Oslo county). Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county.


As defined in January 2004 by the city council [25] [note]

BoroughsInhabitants (2020) [26] Area in km2number
Alna 49,80113.712
Bjerke 33,4227.79
Frogner 59,2698.35
Gamle Oslo 58,6717.51
Grorud 27,7078.210
Grünerløkka 62,4234.82
Nordre Aker 52,32713.68
Nordstrand 52,45916.914
Sagene 45,0893.13
St. Hanshaugen 38,9453.64
Stovner 33,3168.211
Søndre Nordstrand 39,06618.415
Ullern 34,56996
Vestre Aker 50,15716.67
Østensjø 50,80612.213

In addition is Marka (1610 residents, 301.1 km2), that is administered by several boroughs; and Sentrum (1471 residents, 1.8 km2) that is partially administered by St. Hanshaugen, and in part directly by the city council. As of 27 February 2020, 2386 residents were not allocated to a borough.

Name and seal

After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. The old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was eventually included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" (literally "the Old town") to avoid confusion. [27] [28] [29] The Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo. The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo gate (Oslo street) [30] and Oslo hospital. [31]


The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate. It is certainly derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — originally the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists generally interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered equally likely. [32]

Erroneously, it was once assumed that Oslo meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the very name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros (cf. Nidaros). [33] The name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his [idea about] etymology for Oslo. [34]


Oslo is one of very few cities in Norway, besides Bergen and Tønsberg, that does not have a formal coat of arms, but which uses a city seal instead. [35] The seal of Oslo shows the city's patron saint, St. Hallvard, with his attributes, the millstone and arrows, with a naked woman at his feet. He is seated on a throne with lion decorations, which at the time was also commonly used by the Norwegian kings. [36]

Other names

Oslo has various nicknames and names in other languages. The city is sometimes known under the nickname "The Tiger City" (Norwegian : Tigerstaden), probably inspired by an 1870 poem by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson which referenced then-Christiania in central Oslo. The nickname is mostly used by Norwegians from out of town, and rarely by people from the Oslo region. [37]


Oslo timeline (major events)
See also expanded timeline
CA. 1000 ADFirst traces of buildings. The St. Clement's Church is built.
CA. 1050 ADOslo marked as a city. Mariakirken is built.
1152/53 ADThe Cathedral school is established
1299 ADOslo becomes the capital of Norway
CA. 1300Construction of Akershus Fortress starts.
1350 ADAround 3/4 of the population dies under the Black Death.
1352 AD St. Hallvard's Cathedral and the other Sogne Churches are burned to the ground in a major fire
1624 ADAnother major fire, the city is rebuilt and renamed Christiania by Christian IV.
1686 ADFire ruins 1/4 of the city.
1697 AD Domkirken is finished and opened
1716 ADThe city and the fortress conquered by Karl XII.
1813 The University is opened.
1825The foundations of Slottet are finished.
1836The National Gallery is finished.
1837 Christiania Theatre is opened. Christiania and Aker get a Mayor and kommunestyre.
1854Oslo gets its first railway, which leads to Eidsvoll.
1866 Stortinget is completed.
1878City expanded. Frogner, Majorstuen, Torshov, Kampen and Vålerenga are populated and rebuilt. 113 000 citizens.
1892The first Holmenkollbakken is finished.
1894The city gets its first electrical track.
1899 Nationaltheateret is finished.
1925City renamed as Oslo.
1927 The Monolith is raised.
1928Oslo first Metro line, Majorstuen-Besserud is opened.
1950 Oslo City Hall opened.
1963The Munch Museum is opened.
1980Metro line under the city, Oslo Central Station and Nationaltheatret Station opened.
1997Population over 500 000.
1998 Rikshospitalet opened. New railway line to Gardermoen.
2000The city celebrates thousand-years jubilee.
2008 Oslo Opera House is opened.
2011Several buildings in the Regjeringskvartalet are heavily damaged during a terrorist attack, resulting in 8 deaths. 69 people are massacred on the nearby Utøya island.
2018The city's urban area passed one million people for the first time.

During the Viking Age the area that includes modern Oslo was located in Viken, the northernmost province of Denmark. Control over the area shifted between Danish and Norwegian kings in the Middle Ages, and Denmark continued to claim the area until 1241.

According to the Norse sagas, Oslo was founded around 1049 by Harald Hardrada. [38] Recent archaeological research however has uncovered Christian burials which can be dated to prior to AD 1000, evidence of a preceding urban settlement.[ citation needed ] This called for the celebration of Oslo's millennium in 2000.

It has been regarded as the capital city since the reign of Haakon V of Norway (1299–1319), the first king to reside permanently in the city. He also started the construction of the Akershus Fortress and the Oslo Kongsgård. A century later, Norway was the weaker part in a personal union with Denmark, and Oslo's role was reduced to that of provincial administrative centre, with the monarchs residing in Copenhagen. The fact that the University of Oslo was founded as late as 1811 had an adverse effect on the development of the nation. [39]

Oslo was destroyed several times by fire, and after the fourteenth calamity, in 1624, Christian IV of Denmark and Norway ordered it rebuilt at a new site across the bay, near Akershus Castle and given the name Christiania. Long before this, Christiania had started to establish its stature as a centre of commerce and culture in Norway. The part of the city built starting in 1624 is now often called Kvadraturen because of its orthogonal layout in regular, square blocks. [40] The last Black Death outbreak in Oslo occurred in 1654. [41] In 1814 Christiania once more became a real capital when the union with Denmark was dissolved.

Many landmarks were built in the 19th century, including the Royal Palace (1825–1848), Storting building (the Parliament) (1861–1866), the University, National Theatre and the Stock Exchange. Among the world-famous artists who lived here during this period were Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun (the latter was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature). In 1850, Christiania also overtook Bergen and became the most populous city in the country. In 1877 the city was renamed Kristiania. The original name of Oslo was restored in 1925. [42]


Under the reign of Olaf III of Norway, Oslo became a cultural centre for Eastern Norway. Hallvard Vebjørnsson became the city's patron saint and is depicted on the city's seal.

In 1174, Hovedøya Abbey was built. The churches and abbeys became major owners of large tracts of land, which proved important for the city's economic development, especially before the Black Death.

On 25 July 1197, Sverre of Norway and his soldiers attacked Oslo from Hovedøya. [43]

During the Middle Ages, Oslo reached its heights in the reign of Haakon V of Norway. He started building Akershus Fortress and was also the first king to reside permanently in the city, which helped to make Oslo the capital of Norway.

In the end of the 12th century, Hanseatic League traders from Rostock moved into the city and gained major influence in the city. The Black Death came to Norway in 1349 and, like other cities in Europe, the city suffered greatly. The churches' earnings from their land also dropped so much that the Hanseatic traders dominated the city's foreign trade in the 15th century.

17th century

Over the years, fire destroyed major parts of the city many times, as many of the city's buildings were built entirely of wood. After the last fire in 1624, which lasted for three days, Christian IV of Denmark decided that the old city should not be rebuilt again. His men built a network of roads in Akershagen near Akershus Castle. He demanded that all citizens should move their shops and workplaces to the newly built city Christiania, named as an honor to the king.

The transformation of the city went slowly for the first hundred years. Outside the city, near Vaterland and Grønland near Old Town, Oslo, a new, unmanaged part of the city grew up filled with citizens of low class status.

18th century

In the 18th century, after the Great Northern War, the city's economy boomed with shipbuilding and trade. The strong economy transformed Christiania into a trading port.

19th century

In 1814 the former provincial town of Christiania became the capital of the independent Kingdom of Norway, in a personal union with Sweden. Several state institutions were established and the city's role as a capital initiated a period of rapidly increasing population. The government of this new state needed buildings for its expanding administration and institutions. Several important buildings were erected – The Bank of Norway (1828), the Royal Palace (1848), and the Storting (1866). Large areas of the surrounding Aker municipality were incorporated in 1839, 1859 an 1878. The 1859 expansion included Grünerløkka, Grønland and Oslo. At that time the area called Oslo (now Gamlebyen or Old Town) was a village or suburb outside the city borders east of Aker river. [44] The population increased from approximately 10 000 in 1814 to 230 000 in 1900. Christiania expanded its industry from 1840, most importantly around Akerselva. There was a spectacular building boom during the last decades of the 19th century, with many new apartment buildings and renewal of the city center, but the boom collapsed in 1899.


In 1948, Oslo merged with Aker, a municipality which surrounded the capital and which was 27 times larger, thus creating the modern, vastly enlarged Oslo municipality. At the time, Aker was a mostly affluent, green suburban community, and the merger was unpopular in Aker. [45]

The municipality developed new areas such as Ullevål garden city (1918–1926) and Torshov (1917–1925). City Hall was constructed in the former slum area of Vika from 1931 to 1950. The municipality of Aker was incorporated into Oslo in 1948, and suburbs were developed, such as Lambertseter (from 1951). Aker Brygge was constructed on the site of the former shipyard Akers Mekaniske Verksted, from 1982 to 1998.

The city and municipality used the name Kristiania until 1 January 1925 when the name changed to Oslo. Oslo was the name of an eastern suburb - it had been the site of the city centre, until the devastating 1624 fire. King Christian IV of Denmark ordered a new city built with his own name; Oslo remained a poor suburb outside the city border. In the early-20th century, Norwegians argued that a name memorialising a Danish king was inappropriate as the name of the capital of Norway, which became fully independent in 1905. [46]

In the 2011 Norway terror attacks, Oslo was hit by a bomb blast that ripped through the Government quarter, damaging several buildings including the building that houses the Office of the Prime Minister. Eight people died in the bomb attack.


Satellite image of Oslo, July 2018. Oslo by Sentinel-2.jpg
Satellite image of Oslo, July 2018.
A map of the urban areas of Oslo in 2005. The grey area in the middle indicates Oslo's city centre. Tettstedet Oslo 2005.png
A map of the urban areas of Oslo in 2005. The grey area in the middle indicates Oslo's city centre.

Oslo occupies an arc of land at the northernmost end of the Oslofjord. The fjord, which is nearly bisected by the Nesodden peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all other directions Oslo is surrounded by green hills and mountains. There are 40 islands within the city limits, the largest being Malmøya (0.56 km2 or 0.22 sq mi), and scores more around the Oslofjord. Oslo has 343 lakes, the largest being Maridalsvannet (3.91 km2 or 1.51 sq mi). This is also a main source of drinking water for large parts of Oslo.

Although Eastern Norway has a number of rivers, none of these flow into the ocean at Oslo. Instead Oslo has two smaller rivers: Akerselva (draining Maridalsvannet, which flows into the fjord in Bjørvika), and Alna. The waterfalls in Akerselva gave power to some of the first modern industry of Norway in the 1840s. Later in the century, the river became the symbol of the stable and consistent economic and social divide of the city into an East End and a West End; the labourers' neighbourhoods lie on both sides of the river, and the divide in reality follows Uelands street a bit further west. River Alna flows through Groruddalen, Oslo's major suburb and industrial area. The highest point is Kirkeberget, at 629 metres (2,064 ft). Although the city's population is small compared to most European capitals, it occupies an unusually large land area, of which two-thirds are protected areas of forests, hills and lakes. Its boundaries encompass many parks and open areas, giving it an airy and green appearance. [ citation needed ]

Tjuvholmen Aker brygge.jpg


Oslo has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb) [47] with warm summers and cold winters. Due to oceanic influences, winters are less cold than more continental areas at same latitude but still cold enough to be continental. Oslo has a significant amount of rainfall during the year. This is true even for the driest month. [47] Because of the city's northern latitude, daylight varies greatly, from more than 18 hours in midsummer, when it never gets completely dark at night (no darker than nautical twilight), to around 6 hours in midwinter. [48] Oslo sits right on the border between hardiness zones 7a and 7b.

May 2018 saw hotter than average temperatures throughout the month. [49] On 30 May 2018 the city saw temperatures rise to 31.1 °C (88.0 °F), making it the hottest May temperature on Oslo records. [50] [51] On 27 July 2018 the temperature in Oslo rose to 34.6 °C (94.3 °F), the hottest ever recorded since 1937, when the weather observations for Oslo have been conducted in the university area at Blindern. However, the warmest temperature ever recorded in the city of Oslo was 35 °C (95 °F) in July 1901. [52] In January, three out of four days are below freezing (0 °C [32 °F]), on average one out of four days is colder than −10 °C (14 °F). [53] The coldest temperature recorded is −29.6 °C (−21.3 °F), on 21 January 1841, while the coldest ever recorded at Blindern is −26 °C (−14.8 °F) in January 1941.

Climate data for Oslo Blindern (1981–2010 normals; extremes since 1937)
Record high °C (°F)12.5
Average high °C (°F)−0.4
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.9
Average low °C (°F)−5.3
Record low °C (°F)−26.0
Average precipitation mm (inches)54.9
Average precipitation days9.
Mean monthly sunshine hours 45.778.7130.5163.8243.5229.7242.1210.9147.389.665.939.41,687.1
Average ultraviolet index 0113455431002
Source: Météo Climat [54] [55] and Weather Atlas [56]

Parks and recreation areas

Frogner Park Frogner Park with Vigeland Sculpture Arrangement.jpg
Frogner Park

Oslo has many parks and green areas within the city core, as well as outside it.

Oslo (with neighbouring Sandvika-Asker) is built in a horseshoe shape on the shores of the Oslofjord and limited in most directions by hills and forests. As a result, any point within the city is relatively close to the forest. There are two major forests bordering the city: Østmarka (literally "Eastern Forest", on the eastern perimeter of the city), and the very large Nordmarka (literally "Northern Forest", stretching from the northern perimeter of the city deep into the hinterland).

The lake's altitude above sea level is 183 metres. The water is in a popular hiking area. Near the water itself, it is great for barbecues, swimming, beach volleyball and other activities.

The municipality operates eight public swimming pools. [60] Tøyenbadet is the largest indoor swimming facility in Oslo and one of the few pools in Norway offering a 50-metre main pool. Another in that size is the outdoor pool Frognerbadet.


Oslo's cityscape is being redeveloped as a modern city with various access-points, an extensive metro-system with a new financial district and a cultural city. In 2008, an exhibition was held in London presenting the award-winning Oslo Opera House, the urban regeneration scheme of Oslo's seafront, Munch/Stenersen and the new Deichman Library. Most of the buildings in the city and in neighbouring communities are low in height with only the Plaza, Posthuset and the highrises at Bjørvika considerably taller. [61]


Fjordbyen is a large construction project in the seaside of central Oslo, stretching from Bygdoy in the west to Ormoya in the east. Some areas include: Bjorvika, Aker brygge, Tjuvholmen, the cental station area Fjordbyen.gif
Fjordbyen is a large construction project in the seaside of central Oslo, stretching from Bygdøy in the west to Ormøya in the east. Some areas include: Bjørvika, Aker brygge, Tjuvholmen, the cental station area

Oslo's architecture is very diverse. The architect Carl Frederik Stanley (1769–1805), who was educated in Copenhagen, spent some years in Norway around the turn of the 19th century. He did minor works for wealthy patrons in and around Oslo, but his major achievement was the renovation of the Oslo Katedralskole, completed in 1800. [62] He added a classical portico to the front of an older structure, and a semicircular auditorium that was sequestered by Parliament in 1814 as a temporary place to assemble, now preserved at Norsk Folkemuseum as a national monument.

When Christiania was made capital of Norway in 1814, there were practically no buildings suitable for the many new government institutions. An ambitious building program was initiated, but realised very slowly because of economic constraints. The first major undertaking was the Royal Palace, designed by Hans Linstow and built between 1824 and 1848. Linstow also planned Karl Johans gate, the avenue connecting the Palace and the city, with a monumental square halfway to be surrounded by buildings for University, the Parliament (Storting) and other institutions. Only the university buildings were realised according to this plan. Christian Heinrich Grosch, one of the first architects educated completely within Norway, designed the original building for the Oslo Stock Exchange (1826–1828), the local branch of the Bank of Norway (1828), Christiania Theatre (1836–1837), and the first campus for the University of Oslo (1841–1856). For the university buildings, he sought the assistance of the renowned German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. German architectural influence persisted in Norway, and many wooden buildings followed the principles of Neoclassicism. In Oslo, the German architect Alexis de Chateauneuf designed Trefoldighetskirken, the first neo-gothic church, completed by von Hanno in 1858.

A number of landmark buildings, particularly in Oslo, were built in the Functionalist style (better known in the US and Britain as Modernist), the first being Skansen restaurant (1925–1927) by Lars Backer, demolished in 1970. Backer also designed the restaurant at Ekeberg, which opened in 1929. Kunstnernes Hus art gallery by Gudolf Blakstad and Herman Munthe-Kaas (1930) still shows the influence of the preceding classicist trend of the 1920s. The redevelopment of Oslo Airport (by the Aviaplan consortium) at Gardermoen, which opened in 1998, was Norway's largest construction project to date.

Politics and government

Oslo city council 2019-2023 [63] Vote [64]
Conservative 1525.4% Decrease2.svg
Labour 1220.0% Decrease2.svg
Green 915.3% Increase2.svg
Socialist Left 69.1% Increase2.svg
Liberal 45.8% Decrease2.svg
Red 47.2% Increase2.svg
People's Action 35.8% Increase2.svg
Progress 35.3% Decrease2.svg
Centre 12.2% Increase2.svg
Christian Democratic 11.7% Decrease2.svg
Independent 1

Oslo is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government. Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister, are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet, a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament, the Storting.

Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo is represented in the Storting by nineteen members of parliament. The Conservative Party is the most represented party in Oslo with six members, the Labour Party has five, the Progress Party, the Liberals and the Socialist Left Party have two each; the Green Party and the Red Party have one each.

The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986. The supreme authority of the city is the City Council (Bystyret), which has 59 seats. Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees, each having its own areas of responsibility. The largest parties in the City Council after the 2015-elections are the Labour Party and the Conservatives, with 20 and 19 representatives respectively.

2015 elections

The Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but following the implementation of parliamentarism, the mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting at the national level. The Mayor of Oslo is Marianne Borgen.

Since the local elections of 2015, the city government has been a coalition of the Labour Party, the Green Party and the Socialist Left. Based mostly on support from the Red Party, the coalition maintains a workable majority in the City Council. Following the local elections of 2019, the centre-left coalition remained in government.

The Governing Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City government. The post was created with the implementation of parliamentarism in Oslo and is similar to the role of the prime minister at the national level. The governing mayor is Raymond Johansen. [65]


Office buildings and apartments in Bjorvika, part of the redesign of former dock and industrial land in Oslo known as The Barcode Project. Oslo at night.jpg
Office buildings and apartments in Bjørvika, part of the redesign of former dock and industrial land in Oslo known as The Barcode Project.

Oslo has a varied and strong economy and was ranked number one among European large cities in economic potential in the fDi Magazine report European Cities of the Future 2012. [16] It was ranked 2nd in the category of business friendliness, behind Amsterdam.

Oslo is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately 1980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector. Some of them are the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers. [66] Det Norske Veritas, headquartered at Høvik outside Oslo, is one of the three major maritime classification societies in the world, with 16.5% of the world fleet to class in its register. [67] The city's port is the largest general cargo port in the country and its leading passenger gateway. Close to 6,000 ships dock at the Port of Oslo annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers.

The GDP of Oslo totalled 64 billion (€96,000 per capita) in 2016, which amounted to 20% of the national GDP. [68] This compares with NOK166 billion (US$17 billion) in 1995. The metropolitan area, bar Moss and Drammen, contributed 25% of the national GDP in 2003 and was also responsible for more than one quarter of tax revenues. In comparison, total tax revenues from the oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounted to about 16%. [69]

Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world. [70] As of 2006, it is ranked tenth according to the Worldwide Cost of Living Survey provided by Mercer Human Resource Consulting [71] and first according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. [70] The reason for this discrepancy is that the EIU omits certain factors from its final index calculation, most notably housing. In the 2015 update [72] of the EIU's Worldwide Cost of Living survey, Oslo now ranks as the third most expensive city in the world. [73] Although Oslo does have the most expensive housing market in Norway, it is comparably cheaper than other cities on the list in that regard. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city. Oslo hosts 2654 of the largest companies in Norway. Within the ranking of Europe's largest cities ordered by their number of companies Oslo is in fifth position. A whole group of oil and gas companies is situated in Oslo.

According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August 2006, [74] Oslo and London were the world's most expensive cities.


Oslo is a compact city. It is easy to move around by public transportation and rentable city bikes are accessible to all, all over the city centre. In 2003, Oslo received The European Sustainable City Award and in 2007 Reader's Digest ranked Oslo as number two on a list of the world's greenest, most liveable cities. [75] [76]

The City of Oslo has set the goal of becoming a low carbon city, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions 95% from 1990 levels by 2030. [77] The climate action plan for the Port of Oslo includes refitting ferry boats, implementing a low-carbon contracting process, and installing shore power for vessels which are docked. [78] [79]


The faculty of Law, University of Oslo. Universitetet i Oslo sentrum.jpg
The faculty of Law, University of Oslo.
Norwegian School of Management (BI) main building. BI Norwegian School of Management Nydalen Oslo.jpg
Norwegian School of Management (BI) main building.
University of Oslo Library UiO 004.jpg
University of Oslo Library

Institutions of higher education

The level of education and productivity in the workforce is high in Norway. Nearly half of those with education at tertiary level in Norway live in the Oslo region, placing it among Europe's top three regions in relation to education. In 2008, the total workforce in the greater Oslo region (5 counties) numbered 1,020,000 people. The greater Oslo region has several higher educational institutions and is home to more than 73,000 students. The University of Oslo is the largest institution for higher education in Norway with 27,400 students and 7,028 employees in total. [85]


Oslo has a large and varied number of cultural attractions, which include several buildings containing artwork from Edvard Munch and various other international artists but also several Norwegian artists. Several world-famous writers have either lived or been born in Oslo. Examples are Knut Hamsun and Henrik Ibsen. The government has recently invested large amounts of money in cultural installations, facilities, buildings and festivals in the City of Oslo. Bygdøy, outside the city centre is the centre for history and the Norwegian Vikings' history. The area contains many parks and seasites and many museums. Examples are the Fram Museum, Vikingskiphuset and the Kon-Tiki Museum. Oslo hosts the annual Oslo Freedom Forum, a conference described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum." [86] Oslo is also known for giving out the Nobel Peace Prize every year.


Grønland, the central areas around Youngstorget and Torggata, Karl Johans gate (the main pedestrian thoroughfare), Aker Brygge and Tjuvholmen, Sørenga, and the boroughs of Frogner, Majorstuen, St. Hanshaugen / Bislett, and Grünerløkka all have a high concentration of cafes and restaurants. There are several food markets, the largest being Mathallen Food Hall at Vulkan with more than 30 specialty shops, cafés, and eateries. [87]

As of March 2018 six Oslo restaurants were mentioned in the Michelin Guide. Maaemo is the only Norwegian restaurant ever to have been awarded three Michelin stars. Statholdergaarden, Kontrast, and Galt each have one star. Only two restaurants in Oslo have a BIB gourmand mention: Restaurant Eik and Smalhans. [88]

Museums, galleries

Munch Museum Munch-museet-jody.JPG
Munch Museum

Oslo houses several major museums and galleries. The Munch Museum contains The Scream and other works by Edvard Munch, who donated all his work to the city after his death. [89] The city council is planning a new Munch Museum which is most likely to be built in Bjørvika, in the southeast of the city. [90] The museum will be named Munch/Stenersen. [90] 50 different museums are located around the city. [91]

Folkemuseet is located on the Bygdøy peninsula and is dedicated to Folk art, Folk Dress, Sami culture and the viking culture. The outdoor museum contains 155 authentic old buildings from all parts of Norway, including a Stave Church. [92]

The Vigeland Museum located in the large Frogner Park, is free to access and contains over 212 sculptures by Gustav Vigeland including an obelisk and the Wheel of Life. [93] Another popular sculpture is Sinnataggen, a baby boy stamping his foot in fury. This statue is very well known as an icon in the city. [94] There is also a newer landscaped sculpture park, Ekebergparken Sculpture Park, with works by Norwegian and international artists such as Salvador Dalí. [95]

Historic buildings at Norsk Folkemuseum Telemarkstunet Norsk Folkemuseum 0.jpg
Historic buildings at Norsk Folkemuseum

The Viking Ship Museum features three Viking ships found at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune and several other unique items from the Viking Age. [96]

The Oslo City Museum holds a permanent exhibition about the people in Oslo and the history of the city. [97]

The Kon-Tiki Museum houses Thor Heyerdahl's Kontiki and Ra2. [98]

The National Museum holds and preserves, exhibits and promotes public knowledge about Norway's most extensive collection of art. [99] The Museum shows permanent exhibitions of works from its own collections but also temporary exhibitions that incorporate work loaned from elsewhere. [99] The National Museums exhibition avenues are the National Gallery, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the National Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the National Museum of Architecture. [99] A new National Museum in Oslo will open in 2020 located at Vestbanen behind the Nobel Peace Center. [100]

The Nobel Peace Center is an independent organisation opened on 11 June 2005 by the King Harald V as part of the celebrations to mark Norway's centenary as an independent country. [101] The building houses a permanent exhibition, expanding every year when a new Nobel Peace Prize winner is announced, containing information of every winner in history. The building is mainly used as a communication centre. [101]

Music and events

Nobel Peace Center Nobel peace center.jpg
Nobel Peace Center

Many festivals are held in Oslo, such as Oslo Jazz festival, a six-day jazz festival which has been held annually in August for the past 25 years. [102] Oslo's biggest rock festival is Øyafestivalen or simply "Øya". It draws about 60,000 people to the Tøyen Park east in Oslo and lasts for four days. [103]

The Oslo International Church Music Festival [104] has been held annually since 2000. The Oslo World Music Festival showcases people who are stars in their own country but strangers in Norway. The Oslo Chamber Music Festival is held in August every year and world-class chambers and soloists gather in Oslo to perform at this festival. The Norwegian Wood Rock Festival is held every year in June in Oslo.

The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is headed by the Institute; the award ceremony is held annually in The City Hall on 10 December. [105] Even though Sami land is far away from the capital, the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History marks the Sami National Day with a series of activities and entertainment.

The World Cup Biathlon in Holmenkollen is held every year and here male and female competitors compete against each other in Sprint, Pursuit and Mass Start disciplines. [106]

Other examples of annual events in Oslo are Desucon, a convention focusing on Japanese culture [107] and Færderseilasen, the world's largest overnight regatta with more than 1100 boats taking part every year. [108]

Rikard Nordraak, composer of the national anthem of Norway, was born in Oslo in 1842.

Norway's principal orchestra is the Oslo Philharmonic, based at the Oslo Concert Hall since 1977. Although it was founded in 1919, the Oslo Philharmonic can trace its roots to the founding of the Christiania Musikerforening (Christiania Musicians Society) by Edvard Grieg and Johan Svendsen in 1879. [109]

Oslo has hosted the Eurovision Song Contest twice, in 1996 and 2010.

Performing arts

The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway Nationaltheatret Oslo Front at Night.jpg
The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway

Oslo houses over 20 theatres, such as the Norwegian Theatre and the National Theatre located at Karl Johan Street. The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway and is situated between the royal palace and the parliament building, Stortinget. [110] The names of Ludvig Holberg, Henrik Ibsen and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson are engraved on the façade of the building over the main entrance. This theatre represents the actors and play-writers of the country but the songwriters, singers and dancers are represented in the form of a newly opened Oslo Opera House, situated in Bjørvika. The Opera was opened in 2008 and is a national landmark, designed by the Norwegian architectural firm, Snøhetta. There are two houses, together containing over 2000 seats. The building cost 500 million euro to build and took five years to build and is known for being the first Opera House in the world to let people walk on the roof of the building. The foyer and the roof are also used for concerts as well as the three stages. [111]


Most great Norwegian authors have lived in Oslo for some period in their life. For instance, Nobel Prize-winning author Sigrid Undset grew up in Oslo, and described her life there in the autobiographical novel Elleve år (1934; translated as The Longest Years; New York 1971).

The playwright Henrik Ibsen is probably the most famous Norwegian author. Ibsen wrote plays such as Hedda Gabler , Peer Gynt , A Doll's House and The Lady from the Sea . The Ibsen Quotes project completed in 2008 is a work of art consisting of 69 Ibsen quotations in stainless steel lettering which have been set into the granite sidewalks of the city's central streets. [112]

In recent years, novelists like Lars Saabye Christensen, Tove Nilsen, Jo Nesbø and Roy Jacobsen have described the city and its people in their novels. Early 20th-century literature from Oslo include poets Rudolf Nilsen and André Bjerke.


The newspapers Aftenposten , Dagbladet , Verdens Gang , Dagens Næringsliv , Finansavisen , Dagsavisen , Morgenbladet , Vårt Land, Nationen and Klassekampen are published in Oslo. The main office of the national broadcasting company NRK is located at Marienlyst in Oslo, near Majorstuen, and NRK also has regional services via both radio and television. TVNorge (TVNorway) is also located in Oslo, while TV 2 (based in Bergen) and TV3 (based in London) operate branch offices in central Oslo. There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies. A number of magazines are produced in Oslo. The two dominant companies are Aller Media and Hjemmet Mortensen AB.


Bislett Stadium during a friendly between Lyn Oslo and Liverpool F.C. LIverpool VS Lyn Bislett Stadion.jpg
Bislett Stadium during a friendly between Lyn Oslo and Liverpool F.C.
Public beach within the city Kavringen brygge, Oslo.jpg
Public beach within the city

Oslo is home to the Holmenkollen National Arena and Holmenkollbakken, the country's main biathlon and Nordic skiing venues. It hosts annual world cup tournaments, including the Holmenkollen Ski Festival. Oslo hosted the Biathlon World Championships in 1986, 1990, 2000, 2002 and 2016. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been hosted in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011, as well as the 1952 Winter Olympics.

Oslo is the home of several football clubs in the Norwegian league system. Vålerenga, Lyn and Skeid have won both the league and the cup, while Mercantile SFK and Frigg have won the cup.

Ullevål Stadion is the home arena for the Norway national team and the Football Cup Final. The stadium has previously hosted the finals of the UEFA Women's Championship in 1987 and 1997, and the 2002 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship. [113] Røa IL is Oslo's only team in the women's league, Toppserien. Each year, the international youth football tournament Norway Cup is held on Ekebergsletta and other places in the city.

Due to the cold climate and proximity to major forests bordering the city, skiing is a popular recreational activity in Oslo. The Tryvann Ski Resort is the most used ski resort in Norway. [114] The most successful ice hockey team in Norway, Vålerenga Ishockey, is based in Oslo. Manglerud Star is another Oslo-team who play in the top league.

Bislett Stadium is the city's main track and field venue, and hosts the annual Bislett Games, part of Diamond League. Bjerke Travbane is the main venue for harness racing in the country. Oslo Spektrum is used for large ice hockey and handball matches. Nordstrand HE and Oppsal IF plays in the women's GRUNDIGligaen in handball, while Bækkelaget HE plays in the men's league. Jordal Amfi, the home of the ice hockey team Vålerenga Ishockey, and the national team. The 1999 IIHF World Championship in ice hockey were held in Oslo, as have three Bandy World Championships, in 1961, 1977 and 1985. The UCI Road World Championships in bicycle road racing were hosted 1993.

Oslo is also home to the Oslo Pretenders Sportsklubb, a club that hosts a baseball, softball, basketball, and disc golf teams. The baseball team has won 21 Norwegian Cup Championships and 18 Norwegian Baseball League titles. They participate in the European Cup. [115]

Oslo was bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, but later withdrew on 2 October 2014.


In 2018 Oslo is named one of Lonely Planet's Top Ten Cities. The travel guide's best-selling yearbook Best in Travel has selected Oslo as one of the ten best cities in the world to visit in 2018, citing the Norwegian capital's "innovative architecture and unmissable museums alongside cool bars, bistros and cafés". [116]


Norway Supreme Court Norges Hoyesterett Supreme Court of Norway.jpg
Norway Supreme Court

Oslo Police District is Norway's largest police district with over 2,300 employees. Over 1,700 of those are police officers, nearly 140 police lawyers and 500 civilian employees. Oslo Police District has five police stations located around the city at Grønland, Sentrum, Stovner, Majorstuen and Manglerud. The National Criminal Investigation Service is located in Oslo, which is a Norwegian special police division under the NMJP. PST is also located in the Oslo District. PST is a security agency which was established in 1936 and is one of the non-secret agencies in Norway.

Oslo police stated that the capital is one of Europe's safest. Statistics have shown that crime in Oslo is on the rise,[ when? ] and some media have reported that there are four times as many thefts and robberies in Oslo than in New York City per capita. [117] [118] According to the Oslo Police, they receive more than 15,000 reports of petty thefts annually. Fewer than one in a hundred cases get solved. [119]

On 22 July 2011, Oslo was the site of one of two terrorist attacks: the bombing of Oslo government offices. [120]


Airports around OsloAirportIATA/ICAOPassengers (2018)
OslDomEn.JPG Gardermoen OSL/ENGM28,518,584
Sandefjord Lufthavn.jpg Torp TRF/ENTO1,963,000
Incheckning Moss Airport, Rygge.JPG Rygge
(closed 2016)
Oslo Central Station Oslo S aerial.jpg
Oslo Central Station

Oslo has Norway's most extensive public transport system, managed by Ruter. [121] This includes the six-line Oslo Metro, [122] the world's most extensive metro per resident, the six-line Oslo Tramway [123] and the eight-line Oslo Commuter Rail. [124] The tramway operates within the areas close to the city centre, while the metro, which runs underground through the city centre, operates to suburbs further away; this includes two lines that operate to Bærum, and the Ring Line which loops to areas north of the centre. [125] Oslo is also covered by a bus network consisting of 32 city lines, as well as regional buses to the neighboring county of Akershus. [126]

Oslo Central Station acts as the central hub, [127] and offers rail services to most major cities in southern Norway as well as Stockholm and Gothenburg in Sweden. [128] The Airport Express Train operates along the high-speed Gardermoen Line. The Drammen Line runs under the city centre in the Oslo Tunnel. [129] Some of the city islands and the neighbouring municipality of Nesodden are connected by ferry. [130] Daily cruiseferry services operate to Copenhagen and Frederikshavn in Denmark, and to Kiel in Germany. [131]

Many of the motorways pass through the downtown and other parts of the city in tunnels. The construction of the roads is partially supported through a toll ring. The major motorways through Oslo are European Route E6 and E18. There are three beltways, the innermost which are streets and the outermost, Ring 3 which is an expressway.

The main airport serving the city is Gardermoen Airport, located in Ullensaker, 47 kilometres (29 mi) from the city centre of Oslo. [132] It acts as the main international gateway to Norway, [133] and is the sixth-largest domestic airport in Europe. [134] Gardermoen is a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Widerøe. Oslo is also served by a secondary airport, which serve some low-cost carriers, such as Ryanair: Torp Airport, 110 kilometres (68 mi) from the city. [135]


Population of Oslo from 1801-2006, with yearly data from 1950-2006. Oslo population.svg
Population of Oslo from 1801–2006, with yearly data from 1950–2006.
Historical population
Source: Statistics Norway. [23] [136]
Number of minorities (1st and 2nd gen.)
in Oslo by country of origin in 2017
NationalityPopulation (2017)
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 21,010
Flag of Poland.svg Poland 16,624
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia 15,137
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 13,018
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq 8,015
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 7,064
Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco 6,830
Flag of Iran.svg Iran 6,306
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 6,298
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam 6,276
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines 6,164
Flag of India.svg  India 5,671
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 3,852
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 3,813
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 3,802
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 3,787
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia-Herzegovina 3,436
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ethiopia 3,346
Flag of Eritrea.svg Eritrea 3,277
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 3,059
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 3,057
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2,988
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 2,941
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 2,876
Flag of France.svg  France 2,315

The population of Oslo was by 2010 increasing at a record rate of nearly 2% annually (17% over the last 15 years), making it the fastest-growing Scandinavian capital. [138] In 2015, according to Statistics Norway annual report, there were 647,676 permanent residents in the Oslo municipality, of which 628,719 resided in the city proper. There were also 1,019,4513 in the city's urban area [3] [23] [24] and an estimated 1.71 million in the Greater Oslo Region, within 100 km (62 mi) of the city centre. [14]

According to the most recent census 432,000 Oslo residents (70.4% of the population) were ethnically Norwegian, an increase of 6% since 2002 (409,000). [139] Oslo has the largest population of immigrants and Norwegians born to immigrant parents in Norway, both in relative and absolute figures. Of Oslo's 624,000 inhabitants, 189,400 were immigrants or born to immigrant parents, representing 30.4 percent of the capital's population. All suburbs in Oslo were above the national average of 14.1 percent. The suburbs with the highest proportions of people of immigrant origin were Søndre Nordstrand, Stovner and Alna, where they formed around 50 percent of the population. [140]

Pakistanis make up the single largest ethnic minority, followed by Poles, Somalis, and Swedes. Other large immigrant groups are people from Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Turkey, Morocco, Iraq & Kurdistan region and Iran & Kordestan province. [141] [142] [143] [144]

In 2013, 40% of Oslo's primary school pupils were registered as having a first language other than Norwegian or Sami. [145] The western part of the city is predominantly ethnic Norwegian, with several schools having less than 5% pupils with an immigrant background.[ citation needed ] The eastern part of Oslo is more mixed, with some schools up to 97% of immigrant background. [146] Schools are also increasingly divided by ethnicity, with white flight being present in some of the northeastern suburbs of the city. [147] [148] In the borough of Groruddalen in 2008 for instance, the ethnic Norwegian population decreased by 1,500, while the immigrant population increased by 1,600. [149]

Religion in Oslo (1.1.2019) [150] [151]
Church of Norway
Other Christian denominations
Other religions
Life stance communities

Oslo has numerous religious communities. In 2019, 48.7% of the population were members of the Church of Norway, lower than the national average of 69.9%. [152] Members of other Christian denominations make up 8.4% of the population. Islam was followed by 9.5% and Buddhism by 0.6% of the population. Adherents of other religions formed 1.1% of the population. Life stance communities, mainly the Norwegian Humanist Association, were represented by 2.8% of the population. 28.9% of the Oslo population were unaffiliated with any religion or life stance community. [150] [151]

Notable residents

{(22 Pro-Wins: LPGA•15 & LET•7 w/2 Major Championships (2007•LPGA Championship & 2013•Avian Champ)}

International relations

Twin towns – partner cities – and regions

Oslo has cooperation agreements with the following cities/regions: [156]

Oslo was formerly twinned with Madison, Wisconsin, Tel Aviv and Vilnius, but has since abolished the concept of twin cities.

Christmas trees as gifts

Oslo has a tradition of sending a Christmas tree every year to the cities of Washington, D.C.; New York; London; Edinburgh; Rotterdam; Antwerp and Reykjavík. [157] Since 1947, Oslo has sent a 65-to-80-foot-high (20-to-24-metre), 50 to 100-year-old spruce, as an expression of gratitude toward Britain for its support of Norway during World War II. [158] [159]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Grorud Line

The Grorud Line is a 13.0-kilometer long (8.1 mi) line on the Oslo Metro between Tøyen and Vestli in Oslo, Norway. Built as a mix of underground, at ground level and as an elevated line, it runs through the northern part of Groruddalen, serving such neighborhoods as Grorud, Romsås and Stovner. Line 5 runs along the entire line four times per hour. Line 4 runs between Vestli and Økern before branching off on the Løren Line to get onto the Ring Line. With 40,000 daily riders, the Grorud Line is the busiest branch of the metro.

Furuset Line

The Furuset Line is a 5.6-kilometer (3.5 mi) long line on the Oslo Metro between Hellerud and Ellingsrudåsen in Oslo, Norway. Running mostly underground, it passes through the southern part of Groruddalen, serving neighborhoods in the boroughs of Alna and Furuset. The line is served by Line 2 of the metro with four or eight trains per hour. The line is owned by Kollektivtransportproduksjon and operated by Oslo T-banedrift on contract with Ruter using MX3000 trains.

Sognsvann Line

The Sognsvann Line is a rapid transit line on the Oslo Metro of Norway. It branches from the Common Tunnel at Majorstuen and runs 6.0 kilometers (3.7 mi) to Sognsvann. After Ullevål stadion, the Ring Line branches off. The Sognsvann Line serves the northwestern and northern neighborhoods of Oslo, mostly within the borough of Nordre Aker. The line is owned and maintained by Kollektivtransportproduksjon and has nine stations. The western end of line 5 serves the entire line. Line 4 and the eastern end of line 5 serve the southern part of the line up to Ullevål stadion before branching off and continuing along the Ring Line. This gives an average five-minute headway on the southern part and an average fifteen-minute headway on the northern part of the line.

Ring Line (Oslo) Oslo

The Ring Line is the newest rapid transit loop line of the Oslo Metro of Oslo, Norway. It connects to the Sognsvann Line in the west and the Grorud Line in the east; along with these two lines and the Common Tunnel, the Ring Line creates a loop serving both the city centre and Nordre Aker borough. The 5.0 kilometres (3.1 mi)-long line has three stations: Nydalen, Storo and Sinsen. Four-fifths of the line runs within two tunnels, with the 1.0-kilometer (0.62 mi) section between Storo and Sinsen, including both stations, being the only at-grade part. The line connects to the Grorud Line north of Carl Berners plass and with the Sognsvann Line north of Ullevål stadion.

Storo station Oslo metro station

Storo is a rapid transit station on the Ring Line of the Oslo Metro, and a tram station on the Grünerløkka–Torshov Line of the Oslo Tramway. It is located at Storo in the Nordre Aker borough of Oslo, Norway. The tram station opened on 28 November 1902, and the rapid transit station on 20 August 2003. Metro lines 4, 5 and 6 run to the station, with line 5 terminating there. The tram station serves lines 11, 12 and 18. The station is within walking distance of Grefsen Station on the Gjøvik Line. The station also functions as a bus hub, being located along Ring 3. Storo is a mixed commercial and residential area, and a shopping center is located just north of the subway station.

Aker is a former independent municipality in Akershus, Norway, that constitutes the vast majority of the territory of the modern city of Oslo.

Bjørvika neighborhood in Oslo, Norway

Bjørvika is a neighborhood in the Sentrum borough of Oslo, Norway. The area is an inlet in the inner Oslofjord, situated between Gamlebyen and Akershus Fortress. It serves as an outlet for the river Akerselva. Since the 2000s, it has been undergoing urban redevelopment, being transformed from a container port. When completed, the Bjørvika neighborhood will be a new cultural and urban center in Oslo. The multi-purpose medium-rises of the Barcode Project dominates the skyline to the north; to the east the residential area of Sørenga is under construction. The National Opera is located at Bjørvika, and both the Oslo Public Library and the Munch/Stenersen museum is currently under construction here, the latter replacing the existing Munch Museum in 2020.

Løren Line

The Løren Line is a 1.6-kilometer (1.0 mi) line of the Oslo Metro. Located entirely underground, it runs through the neighborhoods of Sinsen, Løren and Økern in Bjerke, creating a connection between the Ring Line with the Grorud Line. The line features one station, Løren. It is served by metro trains which run down the Grorud Line and then connect to the Ring Line. It allows for higher capacity on the metro as more passengers a transported via the Ring Line instead of through the congested Common Tunnel. Construction started in June 2013 and the line opened on 3 April 2016.

Vika Line

The Vika Line is a light rail section of the Oslo Tramway in Oslo, Norway. It runs between Wessels plass, through the neighborhood of Vika and Aker Brygge, before arriving at Solli. The section is served by SL79 trams on line 12. The line is owned by the municipal company Kollektivtransportproduksjon, and operated by its subsidiary Oslo Sporvognsdrift.

History of the Oslo Tramway and Metro aspect of history

The history of the Oslo Tramway and Oslo Metro in Oslo, Norway, starts in 1875, when Kristiania Sporveisselskab (KSS) opened two horsecar lines through the city centre. In 1894, Kristiania Elektriske Sporvei (KES) built the first electric street tramways, which ran west from the city centre. Within six years, all tramways were electric. The city council established Kristiania Kommunale Sporveie (KKS) in 1899, which built three lines before it was sold to KSS six years later. Both KSS and KES were taken over by the municipality in 1924, becoming Oslo Sporveier. The company gradually expanded the city tram network, which reached its peak length in 1939.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Oslo, Norway.


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