Formula One

Last updated

Formula One
F1.svg
Category Single-seater
CountryInternational
Inaugural season 1950
Drivers20
Constructors10
Engine suppliers
Tyre suppliers Flag of Italy.svg P Pirelli
Drivers' champion Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Lewis Hamilton
(5th title)
Constructors' champion Flag of Germany.svg Mercedes
(5th title)
Official website formula1.com
Motorsport current event.svg Current season

Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950. The word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. [1] A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix (French  for 'grand prizes' or 'great prizes'), which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads.

Auto racing motorsport involving the racing of cars for competition

Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile international sport governing body

The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. To the general public, the FIA is mostly known as the governing body for many auto racing events. The FIA also promotes road safety around the world.

The Formula One Group is a group of companies responsible for the promotion of the FIA Formula One World Championship, and the exercising of the sport's commercial rights.

Contents

The results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA. [2] The races must run on tracks graded "1" (formerly "A"), the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. [2] Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets.

The FIA Super Licence is a driver's qualification allowing the holder to compete in the Formula One World Championship.

Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to very high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce. The cars underwent major changes in 2017, [3] allowing wider front and rear wings, and wider tyres, resulting in peak cornering forces closing in on 6.5 lateral g and top speeds of up to approximately 350 km/h (215 mph). [4] [5] As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are very dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and also on aerodynamics, suspension, and tyres.

A Formula One car is a single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel racing car with substantial front and rear wings, and an engine positioned behind the driver, intended to be used in competition at Formula One racing events. The regulations governing the cars are unique to the championship. The Formula One regulations specify that cars must be constructed by the racing teams themselves, though the design and manufacture can be outsourced.

Road racing Form of motorsport racing on tracks that contain both right and left turns

Road racing is a form of motorsport racing held on a paved road surfaces. The races can be held either on a closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. Originally, road races were held almost entirely on public roads however, public safety concerns eventually led to most races being held on purpose built racing circuits.

Downforce

Downforce is a downwards thrust created by the aerodynamic characteristics of a car. The purpose of downforce is to allow a car to travel faster through a corner by increasing the vertical force on the tires, thus creating more grip.

While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2019 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing, building, and maintaining cars, pay, transport—being US$120 million, [6] Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, [7] and its financial and political battles are widely reported. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets (in the hundreds of millions for the constructors). On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition of Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $8 billion. [8] [9]

Liberty Media American mass media company

Liberty Media Corporation is an American mass media company controlled by chairman John C. Malone, who owns a majority of the voting shares.

CVC Capital Partners private equity firm


CVC Capital Partners is a leading British private equity firm with approximately US$111 billion in secured commitments since inception across European and Asian private equity, credit and growth funds. In total, the CVC Group manages US$70 billion of assets. Since 1981, CVC has completed over 300 investments across a wide range of industries and countries. CVC was founded in 1981 and today has over 400 employees working across its network of 24 offices throughout Europe, Asia and the Americas.

History

Formula One's former 'flying one' logo, used from 1993 to 2017 Formula One Logo (1987-2017).svg
Formula One's former 'flying one' logo, used from 1993 to 2017

The Formula One series originated with the European Championship of Grand Prix motor racing ( q.v. for pre-1947 history) of the 1920s and 1930s. The formula is a set of rules that all participants' cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. The first one, the first Formula 1 race ever, was the Turin Grand Prix. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947. The first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. [10] On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit. The new logo replaced F1's iconic 'flying one', which had been the sport's trademark since 1993. [11]

The European Drivers' Championship was an annual competition in auto racing that existed prior to the establishment of the Formula One world championship in 1950. It was established in 1931 and ran until the end of 1939 with a hiatus from 1933–34, and awarded points to drivers based on the results of selected Grand Prix races, the so-called Grandes Épreuves. The championship was discontinued because of the outbreak of World War II in 1939, and no champion was officially declared for the last season.

Formula racing auto racing on circuits using open wheel cars built to specified formula

Formula racing is any of several forms of open-wheeled single-seater motorsport road racing. The origin of the term lies in the nomenclature that was adopted by the FIA for all of its post-World War II single-seater regulations, or formulae. The best known of these formulae are Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Three and Formula Four. Common usage of "formula racing" encompasses other single-seater series, including the GP2 Series, which replaced Formula 3000.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Return of racing

Juan Manuel Fangio's 1951 title-winning Alfa Romeo 159 Alfa-Romeo-159-(1951).jpg
Juan Manuel Fangio's 1951 title-winning Alfa Romeo 159

After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, and 1957 (His record of five World Championship titles stood for 45 years until German driver Michael Schumacher took his sixth title in 2003), his streak interrupted (after an injury) by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete regularly, he was never able to win the world championship, and is now widely considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. [12] [13] Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One.

There have been 98 Formula One drivers from Italy including two World Drivers' Champions. Giuseppe "Nino" Farina won the first ever World Drivers' Championship and Alberto Ascari was the first double world champion. All three championships came in the early 1950s and very few Italian drivers have come close since Ascari's 1953 victory. Four of the most experienced Grand Prix drivers in history come from Italy. In 1989 and again for the following two years there were 13 drivers from Italy making it the most represented country ever in a season. Antonio Giovinazzi is currently the only Italian driver competing in the 2019 season, and is the first Italian in Formula One since 2017 when Giovinazzi himself competed in the opening two rounds. Prior to Giovinazzi, there were five consecutive seasons without an Italian driver, with 2012 marking the first season an Italian driver did not enter a Formula One race.

Giuseppe Farina Italian racecar driver

Emilio Giuseppe Farina was an Italian racing driver and first official Formula One World Champion. He gained the title in 1950. He was the Italian Champion in 1937, 1938 and 1939.

Alfa Romeo in Formula One Formula One activities of Alfa Romeo

Italian motor manufacturer Alfa Romeo has participated many times in Formula One. It currently participates as Alfa Romeo Racing while being operated by Sauber Motorsport AG. The brand has competed in motor racing as both a constructor and engine supplier sporadically between 1950 and 1987, and later as a commercial partner since 2015. The company's works drivers won the first two World Drivers' Championships in the pre-war Alfetta: Nino Farina in 1950; and Juan Manuel Fangio in 1951. Following these successes Alfa Romeo withdrew from Formula One.

This period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz, and Maserati; all of whom had competed before the war. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158. They were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre naturally aspirated engines. The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. [14] [15] When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. [16]

British dominance

An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without ever securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championship titles between 1958 and 1974. The iconic British Racing Green Lotus, with a revolutionary aluminium-sheet monocoque chassis instead of the traditional space-frame design, was the dominant car, and in 1968, the team broke new boundaries, when they were the first to carry advertising on their cars. [17]

Technological developments

Stirling Moss's Lotus 18 at the Nurburgring during 1961 MossLotusClimax19610806.jpg
Stirling Moss's Lotus 18 at the Nürburgring during 1961

The first major technological development, Bugatti's re-introduction of mid-engined cars (following Ferdinand Porsche's pioneering Auto Unions of the 1930s), occurred with the Type 251, which was unsuccessful. Australian Jack Brabham, world champion during 1959, 1960, and 1966, soon proved the mid-engined design's superiority. By 1961, all regular competitors had switched to mid-engined cars. The Ferguson P99, a four-wheel drive design, was the last front-engined F1 car to enter a world championship race. It was entered in the 1961 British Grand Prix, the only front-engined car to compete that year. [18]

During 1962, Lotus introduced a car with an aluminium-sheet monocoque chassis instead of the traditional space-frame design. This proved to be the greatest technological breakthrough since the introduction of mid-engined cars. During 1968, Lotus painted an Imperial Tobacco livery on their cars, thus introducing sponsorship to the sport. [19] [20]

Aerodynamic downforce slowly gained importance in car design from the appearance of aerofoils during the late 1960s. During the late 1970s, Lotus introduced ground-effect aerodynamics (previously used on Jim Hall's Chaparral 2J during 1970) that provided enormous downforce and greatly increased cornering speeds. So great were the aerodynamic forces pressing the cars to the track (up to five times the car's weight), extremely stiff springs were needed to maintain a constant ride height, leaving the suspension virtually solid, depending entirely on the tyres for any small amount of cushioning of the car and driver from irregularities of the road surface. [21]

Big business

Clay Regazzoni driving for Ferrari at the 1976 German Grand Prix Regazzoni, Clay am 31.07.1976 - Ferrari 312T.jpg
Clay Regazzoni driving for Ferrari at the 1976 German Grand Prix

Beginning in the 1970s, Bernie Ecclestone rearranged the management of Formula One's commercial rights; he is widely credited with transforming the sport into the multibillion-dollar business it now is. [22] [23] When Ecclestone bought the Brabham team during 1971, he gained a seat on the Formula One Constructors' Association and during 1978 he became its president. Previously, the circuit owners controlled the income of the teams and negotiated with each individually; however Ecclestone persuaded the teams to "hunt as a pack" through FOCA. [23] He offered Formula One to circuit owners as a package, which they could take or leave. In return for the package, almost all that was required was to surrender trackside advertising. [22]

The formation of the Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA) during 1979 set off the FISA–FOCA controversy, during which FISA and its president Jean-Marie Balestre disputed repeatedly with FOCA over television revenues and technical regulations. [24] The Guardian said of FOCA that Ecclestone and Max Mosley "used it to wage a guerrilla war with a very long-term aim in view". FOCA threatened to establish a rival series, boycotted a Grand Prix and FISA withdrew its sanction from races. [22] The result was the 1981 Concorde Agreement, which guaranteed technical stability, as teams were to be given reasonable notice of new regulations. [25] Although FISA asserted its right to the TV revenues, it handed the administration of those rights to FOCA. [26]

Stefan Bellof driving for Tyrrell at the 1984 Dallas Grand Prix Bellof Tyrrell 012 1984 Dallas F1.jpg
Stefan Bellof driving for Tyrrell at the 1984 Dallas Grand Prix

FISA imposed a ban on ground-effect aerodynamics during 1983. [27] By then, however, turbocharged engines, which Renault had pioneered in 1977, were producing over 700 bhp (520 kW) and were essential to be competitive. By 1986, a BMW turbocharged engine achieved a flash reading of 5.5  bar pressure, estimated to be over 1,300 bhp (970 kW) in qualifying for the Italian Grand Prix. The next year, power in race trim reached around 1,100 bhp (820 kW), with boost pressure limited to only 4.0 bar. [28] These cars were the most powerful open-wheel circuit racing cars ever. To reduce engine power output and thus speeds, the FIA limited fuel tank capacity in 1984, and boost pressures in 1988, before banning turbocharged engines completely in 1989. [29]

The development of electronic driver aids began during the 1980s. Lotus began to develop a system of active suspension, which first appeared during 1982 on the Lotus 91. By 1987, this system had been perfected and was driven to victory by Ayrton Senna in the Monaco Grand Prix that year. In the early 1990s other teams followed suit and semi-automatic gearboxes and traction control were a natural progression. The FIA, due to complaints that technology was determining the outcome of races more than driver skill, banned many such aids for 1994. This resulted in cars that were previously dependent on electronic aids becoming very "twitchy" and difficult to drive (particularly the Williams FW16). Many observers felt the ban on driver aids was in name only as they "proved difficult to police effectively". [30]

The teams signed a second Concorde Agreement during 1992 and a third in 1997, which expired on the last day of 2007. [31]

Stefan Johansson driving for Ferrari at the 1985 European Grand Prix 1985 European GP Stefan Johansson 01.jpg
Stefan Johansson driving for Ferrari at the 1985 European Grand Prix

On the track, the McLaren and Williams teams dominated the 1980s and 1990s, with Brabham also being competitive during the early part of the 1980s, winning two Drivers' Championships with Nelson Piquet. Powered by Porsche, Honda, and Mercedes-Benz, McLaren won sixteen championships (seven constructors' and nine drivers') in that period, while Williams used engines from Ford, Honda, and Renault to also win sixteen titles (nine constructors' and seven drivers'). The rivalry between racers Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost became F1's central focus during 1988, and continued until Prost retired at the end of 1993. Senna died at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix after crashing into a wall on the exit of the notorious curve Tamburello, having taken over Prost's lead drive at Williams that year. The FIA worked to improve the sport's safety standards since that weekend, during which Roland Ratzenberger also lost his life in an accident during Saturday qualifying. No driver had died of injuries sustained on the track at the wheel of a Formula One car for 20 years, until the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix where Jules Bianchi collided with a recovery vehicle after aquaplaning off the circuit. Since 1994, three track marshals have lost their lives, one at the 2000 Italian Grand Prix, [32] the second at the 2001 Australian Grand Prix [32] and the third at the 2013 Canadian Grand Prix.

Since the deaths of Senna and Ratzenberger, the FIA has used safety as a reason to impose rule changes that otherwise, under the Concorde Agreement, would have had to be agreed upon by all the teams – most notably the changes introduced for 1998. This so-called 'narrow track' era resulted in cars with smaller rear tyres, a narrower track overall, and the introduction of grooved tyres to reduce mechanical grip. There were to be four grooves on the front (three in the first year) and rear that ran through the entire circumference of the tyre. The objective was to reduce cornering speeds and to produce racing similar to rainy conditions by enforcing a smaller contact patch between tyre and track. This, according to the FIA, was to reduce cornering speeds in the interest of safety. [33]

Damon Hill driving for Williams at the 1995 Canadian Grand Prix Damon Hill 1995-2.jpg
Damon Hill driving for Williams at the 1995 Canadian Grand Prix

Results were mixed as the lack of mechanical grip resulted in the more ingenious designers clawing back the deficit with aerodynamic grip – pushing more force onto the tyres through wings and aerodynamic devices, which in turn resulted in less overtaking as these devices tended to make the wake behind the car 'dirty' (turbulent), preventing other cars from following closely due to their dependence on 'clean' air to make the car stick to the track. The grooved tyres also had the unfortunate side effect of initially being of a harder compound to be able to hold the grooved tread blocks, which resulted in spectacular accidents in times of aerodynamic grip failure as the harder compound could not grip the track as well.

Drivers from McLaren, Williams, Renault (formerly Benetton), and Ferrari, dubbed the "Big Four", won every World Championship from 1984 to 2008. The teams won every Constructors' Championship from 1979 to 2008 as well as placing themselves as the top four teams in the Constructors' Championship in every season between 1989 and 1997, and winning every race but one (the 1996 Monaco Grand Prix) between 1988 and 1997. Due to the technological advances of the 1990s, the cost of competing in Formula One increased dramatically. This increased financial burdens, combined with the dominance of four teams (largely funded by big car manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz), caused the poorer independent teams to struggle not only to remain competitive, but to stay in business, and forced several teams to withdraw. Since 1990, twenty-eight teams have withdrawn from Formula One. This has prompted former Jordan owner Eddie Jordan to say that the days of competitive privateers are over. [34]

Manufacturers' return

Michael Schumacher won five consecutive titles with Ferrari Michael Schumacher 2001 Canada.jpg
Michael Schumacher won five consecutive titles with Ferrari

Michael Schumacher and Ferrari won five consecutive Drivers' Championships (2000–2004) and six consecutive Constructors' Championships (1999–2004). Schumacher set many new records, including those for Grand Prix wins (91), wins in a season (thirteen of eighteen), and most Drivers' Championships (seven). [35] Schumacher's championship streak ended on 25 September 2005, when Renault driver Fernando Alonso became Formula One's youngest champion at that time (until Lewis Hamilton in 2008 and followed by Sebastian Vettel in 2010). During 2006, Renault and Alonso won both titles again. Schumacher retired at the end of 2006 after sixteen years in Formula One, but came out of retirement for the 2010 season, racing for the newly formed Mercedes works team, following the rebrand of Brawn GP.

During this period, the championship rules were changed frequently by the FIA with the intention of improving the on-track action and cutting costs. [36] Team orders, legal since the championship started during 1950, were banned during 2002, after several incidents, in which teams openly manipulated race results, generating negative publicity, most famously by Ferrari at the 2002 Austrian Grand Prix. Other changes included the qualifying format, the points scoring system, the technical regulations, and rules specifying how long engines and tyres must last. A "tyre war" between suppliers Michelin and Bridgestone saw lap times fall, although at the 2005 United States Grand Prix at Indianapolis, seven out of ten teams did not race when their Michelin tyres were deemed unsafe for use, leading to Bridgestone becoming the sole tyre supplier to Formula One for the 2007 season. During 2006, Max Mosley outlined a "green" future for Formula One, in which efficient use of energy would become an important factor. [37]

Since 1983, Formula One had been dominated by specialist race teams like Williams, McLaren, and Benetton, using engines supplied by large car manufacturers like Mercedes-Benz, Honda, Renault, and Ford. Starting in 2000, with Ford's creation of the largely unsuccessful Jaguar team, new manufacturer-owned teams entered Formula One for the first time since the departure of Alfa Romeo and Renault at the end of 1985. By 2006, the manufacturer teams—Renault, BMW, Toyota, Honda, and Ferrari—dominated the championship, taking five of the first six places in the Constructors' Championship. The sole exception was McLaren, which at the time was part-owned by Mercedes Benz. Through the Grand Prix Manufacturers Association (GPMA), they negotiated a larger share of Formula One's commercial profit and a greater say in the running of the sport. [38]

Manufacturers' decline and return of the privateers

In 2008 and 2009, Honda, BMW, and Toyota all withdrew from Formula One racing within the space of a year, blaming the economic recession. This resulted in the end of manufacturer dominance within the sport. The Honda F1 team went through a management buyout to become Brawn GP with the notable F1 designer Ross Brawn and Nick Fry running and owning the majority of the organisation. Brawn GP went through a painful size reduction, laying off hundreds of employees, but eventually won the year's world championships with Jenson Button and Rubens Barrichello. BMW F1 was bought out by the original founder of the team, Peter Sauber. The Lotus F1 Team [39] were another, formerly manufacturer-owned team that reverted to "privateer" ownership, together with the buy-out of the Renault team by Genii Capital investors. A link with their previous owners still survived however, with their car continuing to be powered by a Renault Power Unit until 2014.

McLaren also announced that it was to reacquire the shares in its team from Mercedes Benz (McLaren's partnership with Mercedes was reported to have started to sour with the McLaren Mercedes SLR road car project and tough F1 championships which included McLaren being found guilty of spying on Ferrari). Hence, during the 2010 season, Mercedes Benz re-entered the sport as a manufacturer after its purchase of Brawn GP, and split with McLaren after 15 seasons with the team. This left Mercedes, McLaren, and Ferrari as the only car manufacturers in the sport, although both McLaren and Ferrari began as racing teams rather than manufacturers.

Pedro de la Rosa 2012 Malaysia FP2.jpg
Kamui Kobayashi 2014 Singapore FP2.jpg
Esteban Ocon 2016 Malaysia FP2 1.jpg
The three teams that debuted in 2010 (Hispania Racing F1 Team/HRT Formula 1 Team, Lotus Racing/Team Lotus/Caterham F1 Team, and Virgin Racing/Marussia Virgin Racing/Marussia F1 Team/Manor Marussia F1 Team/Manor Racing MRT) all disappeared within seven years of their debuts

To compensate for the loss of manufacturer teams, four new teams were accepted entry into the 2010 season ahead of a much anticipated 'cost-cap' (see below). Entrants included a reborn Team Lotus – which was led by a Malaysian consortium including Tony Fernandes, the boss of Air Asia; Hispania Racing – the first Spanish Formula One team; as well as Virgin RacingRichard Branson's entry into the series following a successful partnership with Brawn the year before. They were also joined by the US F1 Team, which planned to run out of the United States as the only non-European based team in the sport. Financial issues befell the squad before they even made the grid. Despite the entry of these new teams, the proposed cost-cap was repealed and these teams – who did not have the budgets of the midfield and top-order teams – ran around at the back of the field until they inevitably collapsed; HRT in 2012, Caterham (formerly Lotus) in 2014 and Manor (formerly Virgin then Marussia), having survived falling into administration in 2014, went under at the end of 2016.

A rule shake-up in 2014, meant Mercedes emerged as the dominant force, with Lewis Hamilton winning the championship closely followed by his main rival and teammate, Nico Rosberg, with the team winning 16 out of the 19 races that season (all other victories coming from Daniel Ricciardo of Red Bull). 2014 also saw a financial crisis which resulted in the backmarker Marussia and Caterham teams being put into administration, alongside the uncertain futures of Force India and Sauber. Marussia returned under the Manor name in 2015, a season in which Ferrari were the only challenger to Mercedes, with Vettel taking victory in the three Grands Prix Mercedes did not win. [40]

The 2016 season began in dominant fashion for Nico Rosberg, winning the first 4 Grands Prix. His charge was halted by Max Verstappen, who took his maiden win in Spain in his debut race for Red Bull. After that, the reigning champion Lewis Hamilton decreased the point gap between him and Rosberg to only one point, before taking the championship lead heading into the summer break. Following the break, the 1–2 positioning remained constant until an engine failure for Hamilton in Malaysia left Rosberg in a commanding lead that he would not relinquish in the 5 remaining races. Having won the title by a mere 5 points, Rosberg retired from Formula One at season's end, becoming the first driver since Alain Prost in 1993 to retire after winning the Drivers Championship. The final team remaining from the 2010 new entries process, Manor Racing, withdrew from the sport following the 2016 season, having lost 10th in the Constructors' Championship to Sauber with one race remaining, leaving the grid at 20 cars as Liberty Media took control of the series in the off-season.

Renault returned to the sport in 2016 (pictured with Palmer) Jolyon Palmer - Renault F1 RS16 (29463209074).jpg
Renault returned to the sport in 2016 (pictured with Palmer)

Recent years have seen an increase in manufacturer presence in the sport. In 2016, Renault came back to the sport after buying back the Lotus F1 team and Haas joined the grid. In 2018, Aston Martin and Alfa Romeo became Red Bull and Sauber's title sponsors, respectively, with the latter officially entering the 2019 season as Alfa Romeo Racing.

Political disputes

FISA–FOCA war

The battle for control of Formula One was contested between the Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA), at the time an autonomous subcommittee of the FIA, and FOCA (the Formula One Constructors' Association).

The beginnings of the dispute are numerous, and many of the underlying reasons may be lost in history. The teams (excepting Ferrari and the other major manufacturers Renault and Alfa Romeo in particular) were of the opinion that their rights and ability to compete against the larger and better funded teams were being negatively affected by a perceived bias on the part of the controlling organisation (FISA) toward the major manufacturers.

In addition, the battle revolved around the commercial aspects of the sport (the FOCA teams were unhappy with the disbursement of proceeds from the races) and the technical regulations which, in FOCA's opinion, tended to be malleable according to the nature of the transgressor more than the nature of the transgression.

The war culminated in a FOCA boycott of the 1982 San Marino Grand Prix months later. In theory, all FOCA teams were supposed to boycott the Grand Prix as a sign of solidarity and complaint at the handling of the regulations and financial compensation (and extreme opposition to the accession of Balestre to the position of FISA president: both Colin Chapman of Lotus and Frank Williams of Williams stated clearly that they would not continue in Formula One with Balestre as its governor).[ original research? ] In practice, several of the FOCA teams backed out of the boycott, citing "sponsor obligations". Notable among these were the Tyrrell and Toleman teams.

FIA–FOTA dispute

During the 2009 season of Formula One, the sport was gripped in a governance crisis. The FIA President Max Mosley proposed numerous cost cutting measures for the following season, including an optional budget cap for the teams; [41] teams electing to take the budget cap would be granted greater technical freedom, adjustable front and rear wings and an engine not subject to a rev limiter. [41] The Formula One Teams Association (FOTA) believed that allowing some teams to have such technical freedom would have created a 'two-tier' championship, and thus requested urgent talks with the FIA. However, talks broke down and FOTA teams announced, with the exception of Williams and Force India, [42] [43] that 'they had no choice' but to form a breakaway championship series. [43]

Bernie Ecclestone, the former Chief executive of the Formula One Group Russian GP2016 cropped.jpg
Bernie Ecclestone, the former Chief executive of the Formula One Group

On 24 June, an agreement was reached between Formula One's governing body and the teams to prevent a breakaway series. It was agreed teams must cut spending to the level of the early 1990s within two years; exact figures were not specified, [44] and Max Mosley agreed he would not stand for re-election to the FIA presidency in October. [45] Following further disagreements, after Max Mosley suggested he would stand for re-election, [46] FOTA made it clear that breakaway plans were still being pursued. On 8 July, FOTA issued a press release stating they had been informed they were not entered for the 2010 season, [47] and an FIA press release said the FOTA representatives had walked out of the meeting. [48] On 1 August, it was announced FIA and FOTA had signed a new Concorde Agreement, bringing an end to the crisis and securing the sport's future until 2012. [49]

Outside the World Championship

The terms "Formula One race" and "World Championship race" are now effectively synonymous; since 1984, every Formula One race has counted towards an official FIA World Championship, and every World Championship race has been held to Formula One regulations. [50] In the earlier history of Formula One, many races took place outside the World Championship, and local championships run to Formula One regulations also occurred. These events often took place on circuits that were not always suitable for the World Championship, and featured local cars and drivers as well as those competing in the championship. [10]

European non-championship racing

In the early years of Formula One, before the world championship was established, there were around twenty races held from late Spring to early Autumn in Europe, although not all of these were considered significant. Most competitive cars came from Italy, particularly Alfa Romeo. After the start of the world championship, these non-championship races continued. In the 1950s and 1960s, there were many Formula One races which did not count for the World Championship; in 1950 a total of twenty-two Formula One races were held, of which only six counted towards the World Championship. [50] In 1952 and 1953, when the world championship was run to Formula Two regulations, non-championship events were the only Formula One races that took place.

Some races, particularly in the UK, including the Race of Champions, Oulton Park International Gold Cup and the International Trophy, were attended by the majority of the world championship contenders. Other smaller events were regularly held in locations not part of the championship, such as the Syracuse and Danish Grands Prix, although these only attracted a small amount of the championship teams and relied on private entries and lower Formula cars to make up the grid. [10] These became less common through the 1970s and 1983 saw the last non-championship Formula One race; the 1983 Race of Champions at Brands Hatch, won by reigning World Champion Keke Rosberg in a Williams-Cosworth in a close fight with American Danny Sullivan. [10]

South African Formula One championship

South Africa's flourishing domestic Formula One championship ran from 1960 through to 1975. The frontrunning cars in the series were recently retired from the world championship although there was also a healthy selection of locally built or modified machines. Frontrunning drivers from the series usually contested their local World Championship Grand Prix, as well as occasional European events, although they had little success at that level.[ citation needed ]

British Formula One Championship

The DFV helped make the UK domestic Formula One championship possible between 1978 and 1980. As in South Africa a decade before, second hand cars from manufacturers like Lotus and Fittipaldi Automotive were the order of the day, although some, such as the March 781, were built specifically for the series. In 1980, the series saw South African Desiré Wilson become the only woman to win a Formula One race when she triumphed at Brands Hatch in a Wolf WR3. [51]

Racing and strategy

Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button scored a 1-2 finish at the 2010 Canadian Grand Prix McLaren duo 1-2 finish 2010 Canada (cropped).jpg
Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button scored a 1–2 finish at the 2010 Canadian Grand Prix

A Formula One Grand Prix event spans a weekend. It begins with two free practice sessions on Friday (except in Monaco, where Friday practices are moved to Thursday), and one free practice on Saturday. Additional drivers (commonly known as third drivers) are allowed to run on Fridays, but only two cars may be used per team, requiring a race driver to give up his seat. A qualifying session is held after the last free practice session. This session determines the starting order for the race on Sunday. [52] [53]

Tyre rules

The new rule for F1 tyres that was introduced in 2016 was that Pirelli could select three different tyres for each race, and each team could choose the tyre from those three depending on the strategies. This concept also continued in 2017 and in 2018 but with Pirelli's thicker and wider tyres that were tested extensively last year.

Tyre selections are announced over a month before each event, with rules stating Pirelli must announce compounds nine weeks before a European round and 15 weeks before a long-haul event. Drivers ordinarily select 10 of the 13 sets available for a race weekend, though Pirelli's new tyres means the Italian company will force each driver to stick to the same allocations for the first five races as it learns about the new tyre.

That means for the opening five races, drivers will have seven of the softest compound, four of the middle compound and two of the hardest compound available. Pirelli has backup compounds for introduction later in the season, if its initial batch proves to be too conservative in terms of performance or leads to greater levels of degradation than expected. [54]

Qualifying

A typical pitwall control centre, allowing team managers and strategists to communicate with their drivers and engineers BAR pitwall.jpg
A typical pitwall control centre, allowing team managers and strategists to communicate with their drivers and engineers

For much of the sport's history, qualifying sessions differed little from practice sessions; drivers would have one or more sessions in which to set their fastest time, with the grid order determined by each driver's best single lap, with the fastest on pole position. Grids were generally limited to 26 cars – if the race had more entries, qualification would also decide which drivers would start the race. During the early 1990s, the number of entries was so high that the worst-performing teams had to enter a pre-qualifying session, with the fastest cars allowed through to the main qualifying session. The qualifying format began to change in the early 2000s, with the FIA experimenting with limiting the number of laps, determining the aggregate time over two sessions, and allowing each driver only one qualifying lap.

A Jarno Trulli pit-stop, for Lotus at the 2011 Brazilian Grand Prix 2011 Brazil GP - Lotus pitstop.jpg
A Jarno Trulli pit-stop, for Lotus at the 2011 Brazilian Grand Prix

The current qualifying system was adopted in the 2006 season. Known as "knock-out" qualifying, it is split into three periods, known as Q1, Q2, and Q3. In each period, drivers run qualifying laps to attempt to advance to the next period, with the slowest drivers being "knocked out" of qualification (but not necessarily the race) at the end of the period and their grid positions set within the rearmost five based on their best lap times. Drivers are allowed as many laps as they wish within each period. After each period, all times are reset, and only a driver's fastest lap in that period (barring infractions) counts. Any timed lap started before the end of that period may be completed, and will count toward that driver's placement. The number of cars eliminated in each period is dependent on the total number of cars entered into the championship. [55] Currently, with 20 cars, Q1 runs for 18 minutes, and eliminates the slowest five drivers. During this period, any driver whose best lap takes longer than 107% of the fastest time in Q1 will not be allowed to start the race without permission from the stewards. Otherwise, all drivers proceed to the race albeit in the worst starting positions. This rule does not affect drivers in Q2 or Q3. In Q2, the 15 remaining drivers have 15 minutes to set one of the ten fastest times and proceed to the next period. Finally, Q3 lasts 12 minutes and sees the remaining ten drivers decide the first ten grid positions. At the beginning of the 2016 Formula 1 season, the FIA introduced a new qualifying format, whereby drivers were knocked out every 90 seconds after a certain amount of time had passed in each session. The aim was to mix up grid positions for the race, but due to unpopularity the FIA reverted to the above qualifying format for the Chinese GP, after running the format for only two races. [55]

Each car taking part in Q3 receives an 'extra' set of the softest available tyre. This set has to be handed in after qualifying, drivers knocked out in Q1 or Q2 can use this set for the race. The first ten drivers, i.e. the drivers through to Q3 must start the race on the tyre which set the fastest time in Q2, unless the weather requires the use of wet-weather tyres. In which case all of the rules about the tyres won't be followed. [56] [57] All of the drivers that did not participate in Q3 have free tyre choice for the start of the race. Any penalties that affect grid position are applied at the end of qualifying. Grid penalties can be applied for driving infractions in the previous or current Grand Prix, or for changing a gearbox or engine component. If a car fails scrutineering, the driver will be excluded from qualifying, but will be allowed to start the race from the back of the grid at the race steward's discretion.

Race

The race begins with a warm-up lap, after which the cars assemble on the starting grid in the order they qualified. This lap is often referred to as the formation lap, as the cars lap in formation with no overtaking (although a driver who makes a mistake may regain lost ground provided he has not fallen to the back of the field). The warm-up lap allows drivers to check the condition of the track and their car, gives the tyres a chance to warm up to increase traction, and also gives the pit crews time to clear themselves and their equipment from the grid.

Jacques Villeneuve qualifying at the 2005 United States Grand Prix in his Sauber C24 Jacques Villeneuve (Sauber) qualifying at US Grand Prix 2005.jpg
Jacques Villeneuve qualifying at the 2005 United States Grand Prix in his Sauber C24

Once all the cars have formed on the grid, a light system above the track indicates the start of the race: five red lights are illuminated at intervals of one second; they are all then extinguished simultaneously after an unspecified time (typically less than 3 seconds) to signal the start of the race. The start procedure may be abandoned if a driver stalls on the grid, signalled by raising his arm. If this happens, the procedure restarts: a new formation lap begins with the offending car removed from the grid. The race may also be restarted in the event of a serious accident or dangerous conditions, with the original start voided. The race may be started from behind the Safety Car if officials feel a racing start would be excessively dangerous, such as extremely heavy rainfall. As of the 2019 season, there will always be a standing restart. If due to heavy rainfall a start behind the safety car is necessary, then after the track has dried sufficiently, drivers will form up for a standing start. There is no formation lap when races start behind the Safety Car. [58]

Under normal circumstances, the winner of the race is the first driver to cross the finish line having completed a set number of laps. Race officials may end the race early (putting out a red flag) due to unsafe conditions such as extreme rainfall, and it must finish within two hours, although races are only likely to last this long in the case of extreme weather or if the safety car is deployed during the race.

In the 1950s, race distances varied from 300 km (190 mi) to 600 km (370 mi). The maximum race length was reduced to 400 km (250 mi) in 1966 and 325 km (202 mi) in 1971. The race length was standardised to the current 305 km (190 mi) in 1989. However, street races like Monaco have shorter distances, to keep under the two-hour limit.

Drivers may overtake one another for position over the course of the race. If a leader comes across a back marker (slower car) who has completed fewer laps, the back marker is shown a blue flag [59] telling him he is obliged to allow the leader to overtake him. The slower car is said to be "lapped" and, once the leader finishes the race, is classified as finishing the race "one lap down". A driver can be lapped numerous times, by any car in front of him. A driver who fails to finish a race, through mechanical problems, accident, or any other reason is said to have retired from the race and is "Not Classified" in the results. However, if the driver has completed more than 90% of the race distance, he will be classified.

Mercedes-AMG GT safety car leading the field around the circuit at reduced speed Safety Car with Sebastian Vettel 2015 Malaysia.jpg
Mercedes-AMG GT safety car leading the field around the circuit at reduced speed

Throughout the race, drivers may make pit stops to change tyres and repair damage (from 1994 to 2009 inclusive, they could also refuel). Different teams and drivers employ different pit stop strategies in order to maximise their car's potential. Three dry tyre compounds, with different durability and adhesion characteristics, are available to drivers. Over the course of a race, drivers must use two of the three available compounds. The different compounds have different levels of performance, and choosing when to use which compound is a key tactical decision to make. Different tyres have different colours on their sidewalls; this allows spectators to understand the strategies. Under wet conditions, drivers may switch to one of two specialised wet weather tyres with additional grooves (one "intermediate", for mild wet conditions, such as after recent rain, one "full wet", for racing in or immediately after rain). A driver must make at least one stop to use two tyre compounds; up to three stops are typically made, although further stops may be necessary to fix damage or if weather conditions change. If rain tyres are used, drivers are no longer obliged to use both types of dry tyres.

Race director
This role involves generally managing the logistics of each F1 Grand Prix, inspecting cars in parc fermé before a race, enforcing FIA rules and controlling the lights which start each race. As the head of the race officials, the race director also plays a large role in sorting disputes amongst teams and drivers. Penalties, such as drive-through penalties (and stop-and-go penalties), demotions on a pre-race start grid, race disqualifications, and fines can all be handed out should parties break regulations. Up to 2019, the race director in Formula One was Charlie Whiting, who died in March 2019. [60]
Safety car
In the event of an incident that risks the safety of competitors or trackside race marshals, race officials may choose to deploy the safety car. This in effect suspends the race, with drivers following the safety car around the track at its speed in race order, with overtaking not permitted. The safety car circulates until the danger is cleared; after it comes in, the race restarts with a "rolling start". Pit stops are permitted under the safety car. Mercedes-Benz supplies Mercedes-AMG models to Formula One to use as the safety cars. Since 2000, [61] the main safety car driver has been German ex-racing driver Bernd Mayländer. On the lap in which the safety car returns to the pits, the leading car takes over the role of the safety car until the first safety car line, which is usually a white line after the pit lane entrance. After crossing this line, drivers are allowed to start racing for track position once more.

Flags

FlagMeaning
SC Board

(Safety Car)

Shown in conjunction with a yellow flag to indicate that the  Safety Car  is on track. Full course yellow flag applies. Drivers must hold position.
VSC Board

(Virtual Safety Car)

Shown in conjunction with a yellow flag to indicate that the Virtual Safety Car is in use. During this time, the drivers are given maximum sector times that they must stay below. Full course double yellow flag applies. [62]
GreenNormal racing conditions apply. This is usually shown following a yellow flag to indicate that the hazard has been passed. A green flag is shown at all stations for the lap following the end of a full-course yellow (or safety car). A green flag is also shown at the start of a session.
YellowIndicates a hazard on or near the track (waved yellows indicate a hazard on the track, frozen yellows indicate a hazard near the track). Double waved yellows inform drivers that they must slow down as marshals are working on or near to the track and drivers should be prepared to stop.
Yellow & Red StripedSlippery track, due to oil, water or loose debris. Can be seen 'rocked' from side-to-side (not waved) to indicate a small animal on track.
BlueA blue flag indicates that the driver in front must let faster cars behind him pass because he is being lapped. If flag is missed 3 times the driver could be penalised.
WhiteIndicates that there is a slow carahead. Often waved at the end of the pit lane when a car is about to leave the pits.
Black & Orange CircleCar is damaged or has a mechanical problem, must return to the pit lane immediately.
Half Black Half WhiteWarns a driver for poor sportsmanship or dangerous behaviour. Can be followed by a Black flag upon further infringement. Accompanied by the driver's number.
BlackDriver is disqualified (usually accompanied by the driver's number). This can be issued after a Half Black Half White flag.
RedA red flag immediately halts a race or session when conditions become too dangerous to continue.
Chequered flagEnd of the practice, qualifying or racing session.

The format of the race has changed little through Formula One's history. The main changes have revolved around what is allowed at pit stops. In the early days of Grand Prix racing, a driver would be allowed to continue a race in his teammate's car should his develop a problem—in the modern era, cars are so carefully fitted to drivers that this has become impossible. In recent years, the emphasis has been on changing refuelling and tyre change regulations. From the 2010 season, refuelling—which was reintroduced in 1994—has not been allowed, to encourage less tactical racing following safety concerns. The rule requiring both compounds of tyre to be used during the race was introduced in 2007, again to encourage racing on the track. The safety car is another relatively recent innovation that reduced the need to deploy the red flag, allowing races to be completed on time for a growing international live television audience.

Points system

1st2nd3rd4th5th6th7th8th9th10thFL*
2518151210864211

*A driver must finish within the top ten to receive a point for setting the fastest lap of the race. In the event that the driver who set the fastest lap finishes outside of the top ten then the point for fastest lap will not be awarded for that race. [63]

Various systems for awarding championship points have been used since 1950. The current system, in place since 2010, awards the top ten cars points in the Drivers' and Constructors' Championships, with the winner receiving 25 points. If both cars of a team finish in the points, they both receive Constructors' Championship points. All points won at each race are added up, and the driver and constructor with the most points at the end of the season are crowned World Champions. Regardless of whether a driver stays with the same team throughout the season, or switches teams, all points earned by him count for the Drivers' Championship. [64]

A driver must be classified to receive points. To be classified, a driver need not finish the race, but complete at least 90% of the winner's race distance. Therefore, it is possible for a driver to receive points even if they retired before the end of the race. [65]

In the event that less than 75% of the race laps are completed by the winner, only half of the points listed in the table are awarded to the drivers and constructors. This has happened on only five occasions in the history of the championship, and it had a notable influence on the final standing of the 1984 season. The last occurrence was at the 2009 Malaysian Grand Prix when the race was called off after 31 laps due to torrential rain. [66]

Constructors

Ferrari (pictured with Sebastian Vettel) have competed in every season Sebastian Vettel 2017 Malaysia FP1 1.jpg
Ferrari (pictured with Sebastian Vettel) have competed in every season

Since 1981, [67] Formula One teams have been required to build the chassis in which they compete, and consequently the terms "team" and "constructor" became more or less interchangeable. This requirement distinguishes the sport from series such as the IndyCar Series which allows teams to purchase chassis, and "spec series" such as GP2, which require all cars be kept to an identical specification. It also effectively prohibits privateers, which were common even in Formula One well into the 1970s.

The sport's debut season, 1950, saw eighteen teams compete, but due to high costs many dropped out quickly. In fact, such was the scarcity of competitive cars for much of the first decade of Formula One that Formula Two cars were admitted to fill the grids. Ferrari is the oldest Formula One team, the only still-active team which competed in 1950.

McLaren (pictured with Ayrton Senna) won all but one race in 1988 with engine partner Honda Ayrton Senna 1988 Canada.jpg
McLaren (pictured with Ayrton Senna) won all but one race in 1988 with engine partner Honda
Renault (pictured here with Nico Hulkenberg) has had an active role in Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier since 1977 Niko Hulkenberg-Test Days 2018 Circuit Barcelona (1).jpg
Renault (pictured here with Nico Hülkenberg) has had an active role in Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier since 1977

Early manufacturer involvement came in the form of a "factory team" or "works team" (that is, one owned and staffed by a major car company), such as those of Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, or Renault. After having virtually disappeared by the early 1980s, factory teams made a comeback in the 1990s and 2000s and formed up to half the grid with Ferrari, Jaguar, BMW, Renault, Toyota, and Honda either setting up their own teams or buying out existing ones. Mercedes-Benz owned 40% of the McLaren team and manufactured the team's engines. Factory teams make up the top competitive teams; in 2008 wholly owned factory teams took four of the top five positions in the Constructors' Championship, and McLaren the other. Ferrari holds the record for having won the most Constructors' Championships (sixteen). However, by the end of the 2000s factory teams were once again on the decline with only Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz and Renault lodging entries to the 2010 championship.

Companies such as Climax, Repco, Cosworth, Hart, Judd and Supertec, which had no direct team affiliation, often sold engines to teams that could not afford to manufacture them. In the early years, independently owned Formula One teams sometimes also built their engines, though this became less common with the increased involvement of major car manufacturers such as BMW, Ferrari, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, Renault, and Toyota, whose large budgets rendered privately built engines less competitive. Cosworth was the last independent engine supplier. Beginning in 2007, the manufacturers' deep pockets and engineering ability took over, eliminating the last of the independent engine manufacturers. [68] It is estimated the major teams spend between €100 and €200 million ($125–$225 million) per year per manufacturer on engines alone. [69]

In the 2007 season, for the first time since the 1981 rule, two teams used chassis built by other teams. Super Aguri started the season using a modified Honda Racing RA106 chassis (used by Honda the previous year), while Scuderia Toro Rosso used the same chassis used by the parent Red Bull Racing team, which was formally designed by a separate subsidiary. The usage of these loopholes was ended for 2010 with the publication of new technical regulations, which require each constructor to own the intellectual property rights to their chassis, [70] which prevents a team using a chassis owned by another Formula One constructor. [71] The regulations continue to allow a team to subcontract the design and construction of the chassis to a third-party, an option used by the HRT team in 2010 and Haas currently.

Although teams rarely disclose information about their budgets, it is estimated they range from US$66 million to US$400 million each. [72]

Entering a new team in the Formula One World Championship requires a £25 million (about US$47 million) up-front payment to the FIA, which is then repaid to the team over the course of the season. As a consequence, constructors desiring to enter Formula One often prefer to buy an existing team: BAR's purchase of Tyrrell and Midland's purchase of Jordan allowed both of these teams to sidestep the large deposit and secure the benefits the team already had, such as TV revenue.

Drivers

2005 Canadian Grand Prix: Kimi Raikkonen leading Michael Schumacher, with Jarno Trulli (left) and Takuma Sato fighting for position Lap4 Canada2005.jpg
2005 Canadian Grand Prix: Kimi Räikkönen leading Michael Schumacher, with Jarno Trulli (left) and Takuma Sato fighting for position

Every team in Formula One must run two cars in every session in a Grand Prix weekend, and every team may use up to four drivers in a season. [53] A team may also run two additional drivers in Free Practice sessions, [53] which are often used to test potential new drivers for a career as a Formula One driver or gain experienced drivers to evaluate the car. [73] [74] Most modern drivers are contracted for at least the duration of a season, with driver changes taking place in between seasons, in comparison to early years where drivers often competed at an ad hoc basis from race to race. Each competitor must be in the possession of a FIA Super Licence to compete in a Grand Prix, [75] which is issued to drivers who have met the criteria of success in junior motorsport categories and having achieved 300 kilometres (190 mi) of running in a Formula One car. Drivers may also be issued a Super Licence by the World Motor Sport Council if they fail to meet the criteria. [75] Teams also contract test and reserve drivers, to stand in for regular drivers when necessary and develop the team's car; although with the reduction on testing the reserve drivers' role mainly takes places on a simulator, [76] such as rFactor Pro, [77] [78] which is used by most of the F1 teams. [79] [80] Although most drivers earn their seat on ability, commercial considerations also come into play with teams having to satisfy sponsors and financial demands.

Each driver chooses an unassigned number from 2 to 99 (excluding 17) [81] upon entering Formula One, and keeps that number during his time in the series. The number one is reserved for the reigning Drivers' Champion, who retains his previous number and may choose to (but doesn't have to) use it instead of the number one. [82] At the onset of the championship, numbers were allocated by race organisers on an ad-hoc basis from race to race, and competitors did not have a permanent number throughout the season. [83] Permanent numbers were introduced in 1973 to take effect in 1974, when teams were allocated numbers in ascending order based on the Constructors' Championship standings at the end of the 1973 season. The teams would hold those numbers from season to season with the exception of the team with the world Drivers' Champion, which would swap its numbers with the one and two of the previous champion's team. New entrants were allocated spare numbers, with the exception of the number 13 which had been unused since 1976. [84] As teams kept their numbers for long periods of time, car numbers became associated with a team, such as Ferrari's 27 and 28. [83] A different system was used from 1996 to 2013: at the start of each season, the current Drivers' Champion was designated number one, his teammate number two, and the rest of the teams assigned ascending numbers according to previous season's Constructors' Championship order. [85]

A total of 33 separate drivers have won the World Drivers' Championship, with Michael Schumacher holding the record for most championships with seven, as well as holding the race wins record. Juan Manuel Fangio and Lewis Hamilton have won the next most – five championships each. Jochen Rindt is the only posthumous World Champion, after his points total was not surpassed despite his fatal accident at the 1970 Italian Grand Prix, with 4 races still remaining in the season. Drivers from the United Kingdom have been the most successful in the sport, with 18 championships among 10 drivers, and 278 wins among 19 drivers.

Feeder series

Formula 2, the main F1 feeder series since 2017 R Grosjean Monza 2011.jpg
Formula 2, the main F1 feeder series since 2017

Most F1 drivers start in kart racing competitions, and then come up through traditional European single seater series like Formula Ford and Formula Renault to Formula 3, and finally the GP2 Series. GP2 started in 2005, replacing Formula 3000, which itself had replaced Formula Two as the last major stepping-stone into F1. GP2 was rebranded as the FIA Formula 2 Championship in 2017. Most champions from this level graduate into F1, but 2006 GP2 champion Lewis Hamilton became the first F2, F3000 or GP2 champion to win the Formula One driver's title in 2008. [86] Drivers are not required to have competed at this level before entering Formula One. British F3 has supplied many F1 drivers, with champions, including Nigel Mansell, Ayrton Senna and Mika Häkkinen having moved straight from that series to Formula One. More rarely a driver may be picked from an even lower level, as was the case with 2007 World Champion Kimi Räikkönen, who went straight from Formula Renault to F1, as well as Max Verstappen, who made his debut following a single season in European F3. [87]

American open-wheel car racing has also contributed to the Formula One grid with mixed results. CART champions Mario Andretti and Jacques Villeneuve became F1 World Champions, while Juan Pablo Montoya won seven races in F1. Other CART (also known as ChampCar) champions, like Michael Andretti and Alessandro Zanardi won no races in F1. Other drivers have taken different paths to F1; Damon Hill raced motorbikes, and Michael Schumacher raced in sports cars, albeit after climbing through the junior single-seater ranks. Former F1 driver Paul di Resta raced in DTM until he was signed with Force India in 2011. To race, however, the driver must hold an FIA Super Licence–ensuring that the driver has the requisite skills, and will not therefore be a danger to others. Some drivers have not had the licence when first signed to an F1 team: e.g., Räikkönen received the licence despite having only 23 car races to his credit.

Beyond F1

LMP1 cars have become a popular destination for retired F1 drivers, in this example Mark Webber Porsche 919 Hybrid 20.jpg
LMP1 cars have become a popular destination for retired F1 drivers, in this example Mark Webber
Many former F1 drivers regularly compete in Formula E 2015 London ePrix, Di Grassi (12).jpg
Many former F1 drivers regularly compete in Formula E

Most F1 drivers retire in their mid to late 30s. Some F1 drivers have left to race in the United States—Nigel Mansell and Emerson Fittipaldi duelled for the 1993 CART title, Rubens Barrichello moved to IndyCar in 2012, while Jacques Villeneuve, Juan Pablo Montoya, Nelson Piquet Jr. and Scott Speed moved to NASCAR.

Some drivers have moved from F1 to racing in disciplines with fewer races during the season. The German touring car championship, the DTM, is a popular category involving ex-drivers such as two-time champion Mika Häkkinen and F1 race winners Jean Alesi, David Coulthard and Ralf Schumacher. In recent years, it has become common for former F1 drivers to take up factory seats driving LMP1 cars in the FIA World Endurance Championship, with notable drivers including Mark Webber, Allan McNish, Anthony Davidson, Alexander Wurz, Kazuki Nakajima, Sébastien Buemi and Fernando Alonso. A series for former Formula One drivers, called Grand Prix Masters, ran briefly in 2005 and 2006. [88] Other drivers have moved to Formula E such as Nelson Piquet Jr., Sébastien Buemi, Bruno Senna, Jaime Alguersuari, Nick Heidfeld, Jarno Trulli, Jean-Éric Vergne, Felipe Massa, Stoffel Vandoorne, and more. Some drivers, such as Vitantonio Liuzzi, Narain Karthikeyan and Jos Verstappen went on to race in the A1 Grand Prix series. During its existence from 2008 to 2011, Superleague Formula attracted ex-Formula One drivers like Sébastien Bourdais, Antônio Pizzonia and Giorgio Pantano.

Other former F1 drivers, like Jackie Stewart, Gerhard Berger, Alain Prost and Niki Lauda returned to F1 as team owners while their former competitors have become colour commentators for TV coverage such as James Hunt (BBC), Martin Brundle (BBC, ITV and Sky), David Hobbs (NBC), Alan Jones (BBC, Nine Network and Ten Network), David Coulthard (BBC and Channel 4), Luciano Burti for Globo (Brazil), and Jean Alesi for Italian national network RAI. Others, such as Damon Hill and Jackie Stewart, take active roles in running motorsport in their own countries. Carlos Reutemann became a politician and served as governor of his native state in Argentina.

Grands Prix

World map showing location of Formula 1 Grands Prix: countries marked in green are on the 2019 race schedule, those in dark grey have hosted a Formula One race in the past Formula 1 all over the world-2019.svg
World map showing location of Formula 1 Grands Prix: countries marked in green are on the 2019 race schedule, those in dark grey have hosted a Formula One race in the past

The number of Grands Prix held in a season has varied over the years. The inaugural 1950 world championship season comprised only seven races, while the 2018 season contained twenty-one races. Although throughout the first decades of the world championship there were no more than eleven Grands Prix a season, a large number of non-championship Formula One events also took place. The number of Grands Prix increased to an average of sixteen/seventeen by the late 1970s; simultaneously non-championship events ended by 1983. More Grands Prix began to be held in the 2000s, and recent seasons have seen an average of 19 races. In 2016 the calendar peaked at twenty-one events, the highest number of world championship races in one season.

Six of the original seven races took place in Europe; the only non-European race that counted towards the World Championship in 1950 was the Indianapolis 500, which was held to different regulations and later replaced by the United States Grand Prix. The F1 championship gradually expanded to other non-European countries. Argentina hosted the first South American Grand Prix in 1953, and Morocco hosted the first African World Championship race in 1958. Asia (Japan in 1976) and Oceania (Australia in 1985) followed, and the first race in the Middle East was held in 2004. The nineteen races of the 2014 season were spread over every populated continent except for Africa, with ten Grands Prix held outside Europe.

Cars wind through the infield section of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway at the 2003 United States Grand Prix Formula one.jpg
Cars wind through the infield section of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway at the 2003 United States Grand Prix

Some of the Grands Prix, such as the oldest recognised event the French Grand Prix, pre-date the formation of the World Championship and were incorporated into the championship as Formula One races in 1950. The British and Italian Grands Prix are the only events to have been held every Formula One season; other long-running races include the Belgian, German and French Grands Prix. The Monaco Grand Prix, first held in 1929 and run continuously since 1955, is widely considered to be one of the most important and prestigious automobile races in the world. [89]

Traditionally each nation has hosted a single Grand Prix, which carries the name of the country. If a single country hosts multiple Grands Prix in a year they receive different names. In European countries, the second event has often been titled the European Grand Prix, or named after a neighbouring state without a race. The United States has held six separate Grands Prix, including the Indianapolis 500, with the additional events named after the host city. Grands Prix are not always held at the same circuit each year, and may switch locations due to the suitability of the track or the financial status of the race organisers. The German Grand Prix formerly alternated between the Nürburgring and Hockenheimring circuits, and others such as the American and French races have switched venues throughout their history.

All Grands Prix have traditionally been run during the day, until the inaugural Singapore Grand Prix hosted the first Formula One night race, [90] which was followed in 2009 by the day–night Abu Dhabi Grand Prix and then the Bahrain Grand Prix which converted to a night race in 2014. Along with holding races at night, other Grands Prix in Asia have had their start times adjusted to benefit the European television audience. [91]

Recent additions (2008–present)

Future additions

Circuits

Autodromo Jose Carlos Pace in Sao Paulo hosts the Brazilian Grand Prix Interlagos 2006 aerial.jpg
Autódromo José Carlos Pace in São Paulo hosts the Brazilian Grand Prix
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza, home to the Italian Grand Prix, is the oldest purpose built track still in use today Monza aerial photo.jpg
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza, home to the Italian Grand Prix, is the oldest purpose built track still in use today
Sochi Autodrom, current host venue for the Russian Grand Prix Circuit Sochi.svg
Sochi Autodrom, current host venue for the Russian Grand Prix

A typical circuit usually features a stretch of straight road on which the starting grid is situated. The pit lane , where the drivers stop for tyres, aerodynamic adjustments and minor repairs (such as changing the car's nose due to front wing damage) during the race, retirements from the race, and where the teams work on the cars before the race, is normally located next to the starting grid. The layout of the rest of the circuit varies widely, although in most cases the circuit runs in a clockwise direction. Those few circuits that run anticlockwise (and therefore have predominantly left-handed corners) can cause drivers neck problems due to the enormous lateral forces generated by F1 cars pulling their heads in the opposite direction to normal.

Most of the circuits currently in use are specially constructed for competition. The current street circuits are Monaco, Melbourne, Singapore, Sochi and Baku although races in other urban locations come and go (Las Vegas and Detroit, for example) and proposals for such races are often discussed—most recently New Jersey. Several circuits have been completely laid out on public roads in the past, such as Valencia in Spain, though Monaco is the only one that remains. The glamour and history of the Monaco race are the primary reasons why the circuit is still in use, even though it does not meet the strict safety requirements imposed on other tracks. Three-time World champion Nelson Piquet famously described racing in Monaco as "like riding a bicycle around your living room". [94]

Circuit design to protect the safety of drivers is becoming increasingly sophisticated, as exemplified by the new Bahrain International Circuit, added in 2004 and designed—like most of F1's new circuits—by Hermann Tilke. Several of the new circuits in F1, especially those designed by Tilke, have been criticised as lacking the "flow" of such classics as Spa-Francorchamps and Imola. His redesign of the Hockenheim circuit in Germany for example, while providing more capacity for grandstands and eliminating extremely long and dangerous straights, has been frowned upon by many who argue that part of the character of the Hockenheim circuits was the long and blinding straights into dark forest sections. These newer circuits, however, are generally agreed to meet the safety standards of modern Formula One better than the older ones.

Old favourites the Österreichring (today the Red Bull Ring) and the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez, returned to the calendar in 2014 and 2015 respectively.

The Circuit of the Americas in Austin, the Sochi Autodrom in Sochi and the Baku City Circuit in Azerbaijan have all been introduced as brand new tracks since 2012.

A single race requires hotel rooms to accommodate at least 5,000 visitors. [95]

Cars and technology

Jenson Button in the Brawn BGP 001 Button Spain 2009.jpg
Jenson Button in the Brawn BGP 001
Sergio Perez driving the Force India VJM11 Sergio Perez-Test Days 2018 Circuit Barcelona (4).jpg
Sergio Pérez driving the Force India VJM11

Modern Formula One cars are mid-engined, hybrid, open cockpit, open wheel single-seaters. The chassis is made largely of carbon-fibre composites, rendering it light but extremely stiff and strong. The whole car, including the driver but not fuel, weighs only 740 kg (1,630 lb) – the minimum weight set by the regulations. [96] If the construction of the car is lighter than the minimum, it can be ballasted up to add the necessary weight. The race teams take advantage of this by placing this ballast at the extreme bottom of the chassis, thereby locating the centre of gravity as low as possible in order to improve handling and weight transfer. [97]

The cornering speed of Formula One cars is largely determined by the aerodynamic downforce that they generate, which pushes the car down onto the track. This is provided by "wings" mounted at the front and rear of the vehicle, and by ground effect created by low air pressure under the flat bottom of the car. The aerodynamic design of the cars is very heavily constrained to limit performance and the current generation of cars sport a large number of small winglets, "barge boards", and turning vanes designed to closely control the flow of the air over, under, and around the car.

The other major factor controlling the cornering speed of the cars is the design of the tyres. From 1998 to 2008, the tyres in Formula One were not "slicks" (tyres with no tread pattern) as in most other circuit racing series. Instead, each tyre had four large circumferential grooves on its surface designed to limit the cornering speed of the cars. [98] Slick tyres returned to Formula One in the 2009 season. Suspension is double wishbone or multilink front and rear, with pushrod operated springs and dampers on the chassis – one exception being that of the 2009 specification Red Bull Racing car (RB5) which used pullrod suspension at the rear, the first car to do so since the Minardi PS01 in 2001. Ferrari used a pullrod suspension at both the front and rear in their 2012 car. [99] Both Ferrari (F138) and McLaren (MP4-28) of the 2013 season used a pullrod suspension at both the front and the rear.

Carbon-carbon disc brakes are used for reduced weight and increased frictional performance. These provide a very high level of braking performance and are usually the element which provokes the greatest reaction from drivers new to the formula.

Formula One cars must have four uncovered wheels, all made of the same metallic material, which must be one of two magnesium alloys specified by the FIA. [100] Magnesium alloy wheels made by forging are used to achieve maximum unsprung rotating weight reduction. [101]

A BMW Sauber P86 V8 engine, which powered their 2006 F1.06 BMW Sauber F1.06 engine.jpg
A BMW Sauber P86 V8 engine, which powered their 2006 F1.06

Starting with the 2014 Formula 1 season, the engines have changed from a 2.4-litre naturally aspirated V8 to turbocharged 1.6-litre V6 "power-units". [102] These get a significant amount of their power from electric motors. In addition they include a lot of energy recovery technology. Engines run on unleaded fuel closely resembling publicly available petrol. [103] The oil which lubricates and protects the engine from overheating is very similar in viscosity to water. The 2006 generation of engines spun up to 20,000  rpm and produced up to 780 bhp (580 kW). [104] For 2007, engines were restricted to 19,000 rpm with limited development areas allowed, following the engine specification freeze from the end of 2006. [105] For the 2009 Formula One season the engines were further restricted to 18,000 rpm. [106]

A wide variety of technologies—including active suspension [107] and ground effect aerodynamics [108] —are banned under the current regulations. Despite this the current generation of cars can reach speeds in excess of 350 km/h (220 mph) at some circuits. [109] The highest straight line speed recorded during a Grand Prix was 372.6 km/h (231.5 mph), set by Juan Pablo Montoya during the 2005 Italian Grand Prix. [110] A Honda Formula One car, running with minimum downforce on a runway in the Mojave Desert achieved a top speed of 415 km/h (258 mph) in 2006. According to Honda, the car fully met the FIA Formula One regulations. [111] Even with the limitations on aerodynamics, at 160 km/h (99 mph) aerodynamically generated downforce is equal to the weight of the car, and the oft-repeated claim that Formula One cars create enough downforce to "drive on the ceiling", while possible in principle, has never been put to the test. Downforce of 2.5 times the car's weight can be achieved at full speed. The downforce means that the cars can achieve a lateral force with a magnitude of up to 3.5 times that of the force of gravity (3.5g) in cornering. [112] Consequently, the driver's head is pulled sideways with a force equivalent to the weight of 20 kg in corners. Such high lateral forces are enough to make breathing difficult and the drivers need supreme concentration and fitness to maintain their focus for the one to two hours that it takes to complete the race. A high-performance road car like the Enzo Ferrari only achieves around 1g. [113]

As of 2019, each team may have no more than two cars available for use at any time. [114] Each driver may use no more than four engines during a championship season unless he drives for more than one team. If more engines are used, he drops ten places on the starting grid of the event at which an additional engine is used. The only exception is where the engine is provided by a manufacturer or supplier taking part in its first championship season, in which case up to five may be used by a driver. [115] Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for six consecutive events; every unscheduled gearbox change requires the driver to drop five places on the grid unless he failed to finish the previous race due to reasons beyond the team's control. [116]

As of 2019, each driver is limited to 3 power units per season, before incurring grid penalties.

Revenue and profits

Estimated budget split of a Formula One team based on the 2006 season F1 team budget split.svg
Estimated budget split of a Formula One team based on the 2006 season

In March 2007, F1 Racing published its annual estimates of spending by Formula One teams. [117] The total spending of all eleven teams in 2006 was estimated at $2.9 billion US. This was broken down as follows: Toyota $418.5 million, Ferrari $406.5 m, McLaren $402 m, Honda $380.5 m, BMW Sauber $355 m, Renault $324 m, Red Bull $252 m, Williams $195.5 m, Midland F1/Spyker-MF1 $120 m, Toro Rosso $75 m, and Super Aguri $57 million.

Costs vary greatly from team to team. Honda, Toyota, McLaren-Mercedes, and Ferrari were estimated to have spent approximately $200 million on engines in 2006, Renault spent approximately $125 million and Cosworth's 2006 V8 was developed for $15 million. [118] In contrast to the 2006 season on which these figures are based, the 2007 sporting regulations banned all performance related engine development. [119]

Formula One teams pay entry fees of $500,000, plus $5,000 per point scored the previous year or $6,000 per point for the winner of the Constructors' Championship. Formula One drivers pay a FIA Super Licence fee, which in 2013 was €10,000 plus €1,000 per point. [120]

There have been controversies with the way profits are shared amongst the teams. The smaller teams have complained that the profits are unevenly shared, favouring established top teams. In September 2015, Force India and Sauber officially lodged a complaint with the European Union against Formula One questioning the governance and stating that the system of dividing revenues and determining the rules is unfair and unlawful. [121]

The cost of building a brand new permanent circuit can be up to hundreds of millions of dollars, while the cost of converting a public road, such as Albert Park, into a temporary circuit is much less. Permanent circuits, however, can generate revenue all year round from leasing the track for private races and other races, such as MotoGP. The Shanghai International Circuit cost over $300 million [122] and the Istanbul Park circuit cost $150 million to build. [123]

A number of Formula One drivers earn the highest salary of any drivers in auto racing. The highest paid driver in 2010 was Fernando Alonso, who received $40 million in salary from Ferrari—a record for any driver. [124] The very top Formula One drivers get paid more than IndyCar or NASCAR drivers, however the earnings immediately fall off after the top three F1 drivers and the majority of NASCAR racers will make more money than their F1 counterparts. [125] Most top IndyCar drivers are paid around a tenth of their Formula One counterparts. [124]

Future

A sign announcing that the safety car (SC) is deployed F1 yellow flag and SC sign.jpg
A sign announcing that the safety car (SC) is deployed

The expense of Formula One has seen the FIA and the Formula One Commission attempt to create new regulations to lower the costs for a team to compete in the sport. [126] [127] Cost-saving proposals have included allowing customer cars, either by teams purchasing a car from another constructor, or the series supplying a basic chassis and engine to some teams at a low cost. [128] [129] Allowing teams to share more car components such as the monocoque and safety components is also under consideration. [130] The FIA also continually researches new ways to increase safety in the sport, which includes introducing new regulations and accident procedures.

In the interest of making the sport truer to its role as a World Championship, Bernie Ecclestone had initiated and organised a number of Grands Prix in new countries. Proposals to hold future races are regularly made by both new locations and countries and circuits that have previously hosted a Formula One Grand Prix. The most recent addition is the returning French Grand Prix in Le Castellet, France; [131] the next new addition will be the Vietnamese and Dutch Grand Prix in 2020. [132]

Following their purchase of the commercial rights to the sport in 2016, Liberty Media announced their vision for the future of Formula One at the 2018 Bahrain Grand Prix. The proposal identified five key areas, including streamlining the governance of the sport, emphasising cost-effectiveness, maintaining the sport's relevance to road cars and encouraging new manufacturers to enter the championship whilst enabling them to be competitive. [133] Liberty cited 2021 as their target date as it coincided with the need to renew commercial agreements with the teams and the end of the seven-year cycle of engine development that started in 2014.

Media coverage

Track photographers at the 2007 British Grand Prix Formula One Photographers.jpg
Track photographers at the 2007 British Grand Prix

Formula One can be seen live or tape delayed in almost every country and territory around the world and attracts one of the largest global television audiences. The 2008 season attracted a global audience of 600 million people per race. [134] It is a massive television event; the cumulative television audience was calculated to be 54 billion for the 2001 season, broadcast to 200 territories. [135]

During the early 1990s, Formula One Group created a number of trademarks, an official logo, an official TV graphics package and in 2003, an official website for the sport in an attempt to give it a corporate identity. Ecclestone experimented with a digital television package (known colloquially as Bernievision) which was launched at the 1996 German Grand Prix in co-operation with German digital television service "DF1", 30 years after the first GP colour TV broadcast, the 1967 German Grand Prix. This service offered the viewer several simultaneous feeds (such as super signal, on board, top of field, backfield, highlights, pit lane, timing) which were produced with cameras, technical equipment and staff different from those used for the conventional coverage - i.e.: the "World Feed".

TV stations all take what is known as the "World Feed", either produced historically by the "host broadcaster" or by FOM (Formula One Management). The host broadcaster either had one feed for all, or two separate feeds - a feed for local viewers and a feed for international viewers. The one size fits all approach meant that there was bias to a certain team or driver during the event, which led to viewers missing out on more important action and incidents. Where the two feed approach meant that replays (for when returning from an ad break) and local bias action could be overlaid on the local feed while the international feed was left unaffected.

The only station that differed from this set up was "DF1" (re-branded to "Premiere" then to "Sky Deutschland")—a German channel which offers all sessions live and interactive, with features such as the onboard and pitlane channels. This service was obtained by Bernie Ecclestone at the end of 1996 and became F1 Digital Plus, which was made more widely available around Europe until the end of 2002, when the cost of the digital interactive service was thought too much. Prices were too high for viewers, considering they could watch both the qualifying and the races on free TV.

After the failure of F1 Digital Plus, "Premiere" continued providing an interactive service, however, only the onboard and pit lane (for certain events) channels were available. This interactive service was a complete failure as the host broadcaster's director failed to recognise the onboard channel during the broadcast, leaving viewers frustrated looking at title cards rather than the action. The onboard feed slowly came back to life from 2005 and in 2007 was available for the whole season when F1 went widescreen.

Furthermore, upon the commencement of its coverage for the 2009 season, the BBC reintroduced complementary features such as the "red button" in-car camera angles, multiple soundtracks (broadcast commentary, CBBC commentary for children, or ambient sound only) and a rolling highlights package. Different combinations of these features are available across the various digital platforms (Freeview, Freesat, Sky, Virgin Media cable and the BBC F1 web site) prior to, during, and after the race weekend. Not all services are available across all the various platforms due to technical constraints. The BBC also broadcasts a post-race programme called "F1 Forum" on the digital terrestrial platforms' "red button" interactive services.

Sebastian Vettel after securing pole position at the 2011 Malaysian Grand Prix Sebastian Vettel 2011.jpg
Sebastian Vettel after securing pole position at the 2011 Malaysian Grand Prix

An announcement was made on 12 January 2011, on the official Formula 1 website (Formula1.com), that F1 would adopt the HD format for the 2011 season offering a world feed at a data rate of 42 Megabits/second (MPEG-2). [136] The BBC subsequently announced later that day that their 2011 F1 coverage would be broadcast in HD [137] which has been made immediately possible due to SIS LIVE, the provider of the BBC's F1 outside broadcast coverage, having already upgraded their technical facilities to HD as of the 2010 Belgian Grand Prix. [138]

It was announced on 29 July 2011, that Sky Sports and the BBC would team up to show the races in F1 in 2012. In March 2012, Sky launched a channel dedicated to F1, with an HD counterpart. Sky Sports F1 covered all races live without commercial interruption as well as live practice and qualifying sessions, along with F1 programming, including interviews, archive action and magazine shows. [139] The deal secured Formula 1 on Sky up to 2018. [140] The BBC in 2012 featured live coverage of half of the races in the season: China, Spain, Monaco, Europe, Britain, Belgium, Singapore, Korea, Abu Dhabi, and Brazil. [141] The BBC also showed live coverage of practice and qualifying sessions from those races. [142] For the races that the BBC did not show live, "extended highlights" of the race were available a few hours after the live broadcast. [143]

BBC ended their joint television contract after the 2015 season, transferring their rights to Channel 4 until the end of the 2018 season, with their coverage being presented by former T4 presenter Steve Jones. [144] Sky Sports F1 coverage will remain unaffected and BBC Radio 5 Live and 5 Live Sports Extra will be extended until the 2021 season. [145]

While Sky Sports and Channel 4 are the two major broadcasters of Formula 1, other countries show Formula One races on different TV channels as well even though many of them use commentary (by the presenters) from either Sky Sports or Channel 4 (for example, Star Sports in India uses commentary by the Channel 4 presenters). Some countries, however, have commentators of their own. In most of Asia (excluding China), the two main broadcasters of Formula one include the Fox network and Star Sports (in India). In the United States, ESPN holds the official rights to broadcast the sport. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland, the two main broadcasters are RTL Germany and n-TV. In China, there are multiple channels that broadcast Formula One which include CCTV, Tencent, Guangdong TV and Shanghai TV. [146]

Formula One has an extensive web following, with most major TV companies covering it such as the BBC. The official Formula One website (Formula1.com) has a live timing JavaScript applet that can be used during the race to keep up with the leaderboard in real time. An official application has been available for iOS in the Apple App Store since 2009, [147] and for Android on Google Play since 2011, [148] that shows users a real-time feed of driver positions, [149] timing and commentary.

Formula One Management's in-house production team produces race edits synchronised to music. [150] In March 2018, Formula One Management (FOM) announced the launch of an over-the-top (OTT) streaming platform[ clarify ] to be known as F1 TV. [151]

Distinction between Formula One and World Championship races

Currently the terms 'Formula One race' and 'World Championship race' are effectively synonymous; since 1984, every Formula One race has counted towards the World Championship, and every World Championship race has been to Formula One regulations. But the two terms are not interchangeable.

The distinction is most relevant when considering career summaries and "all-time lists". For example, in the List of Formula One drivers, Clemente Biondetti is shown with a single race against his name. Biondetti actually competed in four Formula One races in 1950, [156] but only one of these counted for the World Championship. Similarly, several Indianapolis 500 winners technically won their first World Championship race, though most record books choose to ignore this and instead only record regular World Championship participants.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is also nicknamed "The Prancing Horse", with reference to their logo. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season. The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning the World Sportscar Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Spa, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Bathurst 12 Hour, races for Grand tourer cars and racing on road courses of the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia and the Carrera Panamericana.

BMW in Formula One Formula One activities of BMW

BMW has been involved in Formula One in a number of capacities since the inauguration of the World Drivers' Championship in 1950. The company entered occasional races in the 1950s and 1960s, before building the BMW M12/13 inline-four turbocharged engine in the 1980s. This engine was the result of a deal between BMW and Brabham, which resulted in the team's chassis being powered by BMW engines from 1982 until 1987, a period in which Nelson Piquet won the 1983 championship driving a Brabham BT52-BMW. BMW also supplied the M12/13 on a customer basis to the ATS, Arrows, Benetton and Ligier teams during this period, with various degrees of success. In 1988, Brabham temporarily withdrew from the sport and BMW withdrew its official backing from the engines, which were still used by the Arrows team under the Megatron badge. Turbocharged engines were banned by the revised Formula One Technical Regulations for 1989, rendering the M12/13 obsolete.

Renault in Formula One Formula One activities of Renault

Renault is currently involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault F1 Team. They have been associated with Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier for various periods since 1977. In 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the turbo engine to Formula One in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams. Although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986, then again from 1989 to 1997 and at various other times since then until the present.

History of Formula One aspect of history

Formula One automobile racing has its roots in the European Grand Prix championships of the 1920s and 1930s, though the foundation of the modern Formula One began in 1946 with the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's (FIA) standardisation of rules, which was followed by a World Championship of Drivers in 1950.

Formula One racing

A Formula One race or Grand Prix is a sporting event which takes place over three days, with a series of practice and qualifying sessions prior to a race on Sunday.

2004 Formula One World Championship auto racing season

The 2004 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 58th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 55th FIA Formula One World Championship, which was contested over eighteen races which ran from 7 March to 24 October 2004.

2003 Formula One World Championship Motorsport competition

The 2003 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 57th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It began on 9 March 2003 and ended on 12 October after sixteen races. World Championship titles were awarded for both drivers and constructors with Michael Schumacher winning the former and Ferrari awarded the latter.

1998 Formula One World Championship sports season

The 1998 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 52nd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1998 FIA Formula One World Championship which commenced on 8 March and ended on 1 November after sixteen races. The Drivers' Championship was won by Mika Häkkinen and the Constructors' Championship was awarded to McLaren-Mercedes.

2005 Formula One World Championship sports season

The 2005 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 59th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 56th FIA Formula One World Championship, contested over a then-record 19 Grands Prix. It commenced on 6 March 2005 and ended 16 October.

2006 Formula One World Championship sports season

The 2006 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 60th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 57th FIA Formula One World Championship which began on 12 March and ended on 22 October after eighteen races. The Drivers' Championship was won by Fernando Alonso of Renault for the second year in a row, with Alonso becoming the youngest ever double world champion at the time. Then-retiring multiple world champion Michael Schumacher of Scuderia Ferrari finished runner-up, 13 points behind. The Constructors' Championship was won by Renault, which defeated Ferrari by five points.

2007 Formula One World Championship sports season

The 2007 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 61st season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 2007 FIA Formula One World Championship, which began on 18 March and ended on 21 October after seventeen events. The Drivers' Championship was won by Ferrari driver Kimi Räikkönen by one point at the final race of the season, making Räikkönen the third Finnish driver to take the title. An appeal by McLaren regarding the legality of some cars in the final race could have altered the championship standings, but on 16 November, the appeal was rejected by the International Court of Appeal, confirming the championship results. Räikkönen entered the final race in third position in the drivers' standings, but emerged as champion after the chequered flag, a feat first accomplished by Giuseppe Farina in 1950. It has since been accomplished again, by Sebastian Vettel, in 2010.

Ferrari F2004 racing automobile

The Ferrari F2004 was a highly successful Formula One racing car designed by Rory Byrne, Ross Brawn and Aldo Costa for the 2004 Formula One season. Heavily based on the previous season's F2003-GA, the F2004 continued the run of success the team had enjoyed since 1999, winning the team's 6th straight Constructors' Championship and 5th straight Drivers' Championship for Michael Schumacher, his 7th, and final, world drivers' title in 2004. It is one of the most dominant cars in the history of Formula One. The car also brought a close to Ferrari's and Michael Schumacher's five-year domination of the sport, leaving the door open for Renault and Fernando Alonso. Ferrari used 'Marlboro' logos, except at the Canadian, United States, French and British Grands Prix.

2012 Formula One World Championship sports season

The 2012 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 66th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 63rd FIA Formula One World Championship, a motor racing series for Formula One cars, recognised by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) – the governing body of motorsport – as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. The championship was contested over twenty rounds, which started in Australia on 18 March and ended in Brazil on 25 November. The 2012 season saw the return of the United States Grand Prix, which was held at the Circuit of the Americas, a purpose-built circuit in Austin, Texas. After being cancelled in 2011 due to civil protests, the Bahrain Grand Prix also returned to the calendar.

2013 Formula One World Championship 64th season of the FIA Formula One motor racing

The 2013 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 67th season of the FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 64th FIA Formula One World Championship which was open to Formula One cars, recognised by the sport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Eleven teams and twenty-three drivers contested the nineteen Grands Prix that made up the calendar for the 2013 season, with the winning driver being crowned the World Drivers' Champion and the winning team the World Constructors' Champions. The season started in Australia on 17 March 2013 and ended in Brazil on 24 November 2013.

2014 Chinese Grand Prix Formula One motor race held in 2014

The 2014 Chinese Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that was held on 20 April 2014 at the Shanghai International Circuit, Shanghai, China. The race was the fourth round of the 2014 Formula One season, and marked the eleventh time that the Chinese Grand Prix was held as a round for the Formula One World Championship.

2016 Formula One World Championship

The 2016 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 70th season of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA)'s Formula One motor racing. It featured the 67th Formula One World Championship, a motor racing championship for Formula One cars which is recognised by the sport's governing body, the FIA, as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Teams and drivers took part in twenty-one Grands Prix—making for the longest season in the sport's history—starting in Australia on 20 March and finishing in Abu Dhabi on 27 November as they competed for the World Drivers' and World Constructors' championships.

2017 Formula One World Championship 68th running of the FIA Formula One World Championship

The 2017 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 71st season of Formula One motor racing. It featured the 68th Formula One World Championship, a motor racing championship for Formula One cars which is recognised by the sport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Teams and drivers competed in twenty Grands Prix—starting in Australia on 26 March and ending in Abu Dhabi on 26 November—for the World Drivers' and World Constructors' championships.

2018 Formula One World Championship series of motor races held in 2018

The 2018 FIA Formula One World Championship was the motor racing championship for Formula One cars and the 69th running of the Formula One World Championship. Formula One is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Drivers and teams competed in twenty-one Grands Prix for the World Drivers' and World Constructors' championship titles.

The 2020 FIA Formula One World Championship is a planned motor racing championship for Formula One cars which would be the 71st running of the Formula One World Championship. The championship is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Starting in March 2020 and ending in November, the championship is due to be contested over twenty-two Grands Prix, which makes the 2020 championship the longest in the sport's history. Drivers and teams will compete for the titles of World Drivers' Champion and World Constructors' Champion respectively.

References

  1. "Discovering What Makes Formula One, Formula One – For Dummies". Dummies.com. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
  2. 1 2 "International Sporting Code" (PDF). FIA. 28 March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  3. Barretto, Lawrence. "F1 2017 rule changes the biggest for 'decades'". Autosport.com. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  4. "VIDEO: Analysing 2017's massive rises in G-Force". Formula1.com. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  5. Delaney, Michael (8 September 2019). "Monza Speed Trap: who is the fastest of them all?". F1i.com. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  6. Tovey, Alan (1 November 2014). "Formula One's vast costs are driving small teams to ruin". The Telegraph.
  7. Sylt, Christian (13 March 2017). "Formula One's $5.7 Billion Ticket Bonanza". Forbes. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  8. "Bernie Ecclestone removed as Liberty Media completes $8bn takeover". BBC Sport. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017. Bernie Ecclestone has been removed from his position running Formula 1 as US giant Liberty Media completed its $8bn (£6.4bn) takeover of the sport.
  9. Liberty Media Corporation Completes Acquisition of Formula 1
  10. 1 2 3 4 "The last of the non-championship races". forix.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  11. "Formula One unveils new logo". ESPN.
  12. Lawton, James (28 August 2007). "Moss can guide Hamilton through chicane of celebrity". The Independent. Newspaper Publishing.
  13. Henry, Alan (12 March 2007). "Hamilton's chance to hit the grid running". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
  14. "Decade seasons 1950–1959". Autocourse. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  15. Note: at the time the only two cars competitive with the new Formula were the pre-war Alfa Romeo 158/159 Alfetta and the new BRM Type 15, the latter having a poor reliability record when introduced causing it not to finish a number of the first Formula One races, forcing the Alfa to complete the races against the remainder of a field consisting of uncompetitive cars.
  16. Tuckey, Bill (28 January 1994). "Moss returns to scene of GP victory". The Age. Australia Company. the all-conquering Mercedes-Benz cars... When the Germans withdrew from racing after the Le Mans 24-hour tragedy
  17. "A brief history of Formula One". ESPN UK. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  18. "Ferguson P99". gpracing.net. Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  19. Bartunek, Robert-Jan (18 September 2007). "Sponsorship, the big business behind F1". CNN. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
  20. The 72 would come to be called the John Player Special, or JPS, Lotus, after the team's sponsor.
  21. Staniforth, Allan (1994). Competition Car Suspension. Haynes. p. 96. ISBN   978-0-85429-956-0.
  22. 1 2 3 Williams, Richard (28 March 1997). "The Formula for Striking It Rich". The Guardian. Guardian Newspapers.
  23. 1 2 "Face value: Mr Formula". The Economist. Economist Newspapers. 5 March 1997. p. 72.
  24. Blunsden, John (20 December 1986). "Filling Balestre's shoes is no job for a back-seat driver". Financial Times.
  25. Roebuck, Nigel "Power struggles and techno wars" Sunday Times 7 March 1993
  26. The Racing Analyst (12 September 2013). "The FISA-FOCA War | Allinsport". Allinsport.ch. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  27. Hamilton, Maurice (8 March 1998). "Pros and cons of being just Williams; A quiet achiever keeps his head down as the new season gets under way with familiar high anxiety and a squealing over brakes". The Observer. Guardian Newspapers.
  28. Bamsey, Ian; Benzing, Enrico; Stanniforth, Allan; Lawrence, Mike (1988). The 1000 BHP Grand Prix cars. Guild Publishing. pp. 8–9. ISBN   978-0-85429-617-0. BMW's performance at the Italian GP is the highest qualifying figure given in Bamsey. The figure is from Heini Mader, who maintained the engines for the Benetton team, though maximum power figures from this period were necessarily estimates; BMW's dynamometer, for example, was only capable of measuring up to 1,100 bhp (820 kW). Figures higher than this are estimated from engine plenum pressure readings. Power in race trim at that time was lower than for qualifying due to the need for greater reliability and fuel efficiency during the race.
  29. "The technology behind Formula One racing cars". The Press . The Christchurch Press Company. 26 December 2005. rivalling the 1200hp turbocharged monsters that eventually had to be banned in 1989
  30. Baldwin, Alan (17 February 2001). "F1 Plans Return of Traction Control". The Independent. Newspaper Publishing.
  31. "Who owns what in F1 these days?". Grandprix.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  32. 1 2 "F1's pressing safety question". BBC News. 5 March 2001. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  33. SEAS (20 May 2019). "Mosley's Equations". Formula 1 Dictionary. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  34. "Jordan: Privateer era is over". ITV-F1.com. 24 August 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
  35. "Schumacher makes history". BBC Sport. 21 July 2002. Retrieved 12 September 2006.
  36. "FIA Rules & Regulations Sporting Regulations: 2006 season changes". Formula One. Archived from the original on 9 November 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2006.
  37. "The last of the non-championship races". FORIX. Archived from the original on 17 October 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  38. Patrick, Mandidi (2010). The Rain Drop and Other Shades of Prosetry. Eloquent Books. ISBN   9781609113766.
  39. This is not the same team as the 1954–94 nor 2010–11 iterations.
  40. "Everything to play for – 2015 Season Preview". Formula1.com. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  41. 1 2 "£40 million budget cap and 13 teams for 2010". Formula1.com. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  42. "Mosley offers compromise on 2010". BBC News. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  43. 1 2 Briggs, Gemma (19 June 2009). "How the formula one crisis evolved". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
  44. "F1 deal ends threat of breakaway". BBC News. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  45. "Mosley warning over F1 peace deal". BBC News. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  46. "Max Mosley makes dramatic U-turn over his future as FIA president", The Daily Telegraph , 26 June 2009
  47. "Press release". Formula One Teams Association (FOTA). 8 July 2009. Archived from the original on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  48. "Press Release". FIA. 8 July 2009. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  49. Beer, Matt; Autosport (1 August 2009). "New Concorde Agreement finally signed" . Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  50. 1 2 3 4 5 "Timeline of Formula One". ESPN. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  51. "Desiré Wilson". f1rejects.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  52. "Practice and qualifying". Formula One. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  53. 1 2 3 "Driver changes and additional drivers". Formula One World Championship. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  54. "2017 Grand Prix tyre compound selections". ESPN. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  55. 1 2 "Sporting regulations: Practice and qualifying". Formula1.com. Formula One World Championship. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  56. "Sporting regulations: Tyres". Formula1.com. Formula One World Championship. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  57. "Tyres". Formula1.com. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  58. "F1 race starting regulations". Formula One. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  59. "Flags". Formula One. 21 June 2003. Archived from the original on 2 July 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
  60. Andrew Benson (14 March 2019). "Charlie Whiting: F1 race director dies aged 66 on eve of season-opener in Melbourne". BBC News. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  61. "New safety car driver announced". GPUpdate.net. 8 March 2000. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  62. Westbrook, Justin T. "Here's How Virtual Safety Cars Work in Formula One". Jalopnik. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  63. "F1 approves new fastest lap point rule". ESPN.com. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  64. "Sporting regulations: Points". Formula1.com. Formula One World Championship. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  65. "Sporting regulations: Classification". Formula1.com. Formula One World Championship. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  66. Baldwin, Alan (5 April 2009). "Button wins Malaysian GP cut short by rain". Thomas Reuters Corporate. Reuters. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
  67. Diepraam, Mattijs (21 November 2007). "Poachers turned gamekeepers: how the FOCA became the new FIA Part 1: Introduction and timeline". 8W. FORIX/Autosport.com. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  68. "Cosworth return unlikely says Stewart". F1-Live.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  69. Cooper, Adam. "Mosley Stands Firm on Engine Freeze". Speed TV. Archived from the original on 5 November 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  70. "First own-design for Toro Rosso". GPUpdate.net. 1 February 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2015. Being recognised as a Constructor involves owning the intellectual property rights to what are defined as the listed parts: these are effectively the monocoque, the safety structures that are subject to homologation and crash testing, which means the rear and front structures, primary and secondary roll-over structures and the complete aerodynamic package, the suspension, fuel and cooling systems.
  71. "Formula 1: Interview – Toro Rosso's Gerhard Berger". Formula1.com. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  72. "McLaren is F1's biggest spender". F1i. 16 June 2006. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  73. Saward, Joe (20 September 2010). "Jérôme d'Ambrosio and Virgin‽". Joe Saward's Grand Prix Blog. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  74. "Klien signed as HRT Friday driver". Grandprix.com. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  75. 1 2 "APPENDIX L TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPORTING CODE" (PDF). Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . 7 April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  76. Allen, James (11 October 2010). "Inside an F1 team's driving simulator". James Allen on F1. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  77. "Taking the lag out of dynamics simulation". SAE Automotive Engineering Magazine. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  78. "Ferrari Changed His Simulator Software". F1 Simulator Maniac. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  79. Offermans, Marcel. "rFactor: Full Steam Ahead!". Planet Marrs. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  80. "History of the Image Space Inc. Software Engine". Image Space Incorporated. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  81. "Number 17 to be retired in Bianchi's honour". Formula1.com. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  82. Benson, Andrew (11 January 2014). "Formula 1's governing body confirm drivers' numbers". BBC Sport. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  83. 1 2 Fearnly, Paul (5 December 2013). "F1's number conundrum". MotorSport Magazine. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  84. Collantine, Keith (7 January 2008). "Your questions: F1 and the number 13". F1Fanatic.co.uk. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  85. Collantine, Keith. "Your questions: F1 car numbers". F1Fanatic.co.uk. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
  86. Jack Brabham, F1 champion in 1959, 1960 and 1966, won the French Formula Two championship in 1966, but there was no international F2 championship that year.
  87. "Five F1 champions who wouldn't have made their debuts". crash.net. Crash Media Group. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  88. "Masters series officially wound up". Autosport . 29 November 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
  89. "His Serene Highness Prince Rainier of Monte Carlo awarded the first FIA Gold Medal for Motor Sport". Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. 14 October 2004. Archived from the original on 15 November 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  90. "Singapore confirms 2008 night race". Formula1.com. Formula One Administration. 11 May 2007. Archived from the original on 17 May 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  91. "Malaysia start time under review". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  92. "Vietnam secures place on 2020 F1 calendar". Motorsport.com. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  93. "Zandvoort secures F1 return as Dutch GP venue". Motorsport.com. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  94. "Monaco challenge remains unique – Formula 1". Motor Sport Magazine. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  95. "Sport : F-1 race at Sohna or Greater Noida". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 September 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  96. "F1 RULES & REGULATIONS: What's new for 2019?". Formula1.com. 9 January 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  97. "A racing revolution? Understanding 2014's technical regulations". Formula1.com. 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  98. "Tyres". Formula One. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
  99. "2012 Ferrari – pre-launch overview". Formula One World Championship Ltd. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  100. "Tyres and wheels". Formula1.com. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  101. Mintskovsky, Paul. "F1 Wheels". f1wheels.com. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  102. "2013 engine changes approved, but postponement possible". Formula1.com. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  103. "FIA Sporting Regulations – Fuel". Formula1.com. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  104. Renault F1 engine listing . Retrieved 1 June 2007.
  105. "FIA Sporting Regulations – Engine". Formula1.com. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  106. "FIA Formula One World Championship – 2009 Technical Regulations" (PDF). FIA. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  107. "F1 regulations: Suspension and steering systems" . Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  108. "F1 regulations: Bodywork, dimensions, and cockpit" . Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  109. Grand Prix of Italy www.fia.com. Retrieved 12 October 2006. Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  110. "Bonneville 400: Just for the Record". Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  111. "Bonneville 400". Racecar Engineering. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  112. "Aerodynamics section". Formula1.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  113. Ferrari Enzo www.fast-autos.net. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
  114. "F1 regulations: Spare Cars" . Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  115. "F1 regulations: Power unit and ERS" . Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  116. "F1 regulations: Gearboxes". Formula One. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  117. "Budgets and Expenses in Formula1". F1scarlet. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  118. "The real cost of F1" F1 Racing (March 2007) Haymarket Publishing
  119. "2007 FIA Regulations". McLaren. Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
  120. Sylt, Christian (28 October 2013). "The Price of Power". Autoweek : 64–66.
  121. "F1 faces possible investigation from the European Union". guardian.uk. 29 September 2015.
  122. Benson, Andrew (27 September 2004). "High price takes shine off F1". BBC News. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  123. "Pioneer Investors". Pioneer Investors. 7 February 2006. Archived from the original on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  124. 1 2 "Ferrari's forty-million dollar man". ESPN. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  125. Tutor, Chris. "Red Bull infographic compares and contrasts NASCAR and F1". Autoblog. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  126. Roberts, James; Noble, Jonathan (23 January 2015). "Small F1 teams hopeful of progress on cost cuts before season start". Autosport.com. Haymarket Media. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  127. Benson, Andrew (13 February 2015). "Mercedes & Red Bull split on changes to F1 cars for 2016". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  128. "Ecclestone still pushing customer teams plan". ESPN.co.uk. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  129. Weaver, Paul (9 November 2014). "Force India and Sauber attack F1's move towards customer cars". TheGuardian.com. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  130. Rencken, Dieter; Noble, Jonathan (25 February 2015). "Formula 1's small teams push for 'core car' plan". Autosport.com. Haymarket Media. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  131. Galloway, James. "F1 expansion continues with Azerbaijan to join the calendar in 2016" . Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  132. "Vietnam to host Formula 1 Grand Prix in 2020". Formula One Group. 7 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  133. "Liberty Media tables F1 2021 vision to teams". Speedcafe. 7 April 2018.
  134. "Formula 1's Global TV Audience Expands". paddocktalk.com/Global Broadcast Report. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  135. BBC Sports, F1 viewing figures drop, 26 February 2002. Retrieved on 10 March 2007. The cumulative figure, which exceeds the total population of the planet by many times, counts all viewers who watch F1 on any programme at any time during the year.
  136. "Formula One Coverage goes HD for 2011". Formula1.com. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  137. "New role for Eddie Jordan as BBC F1 coverage goes HD". BBC Sport. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  138. "SIS LIVE upgrades OB coverage of Formula 1 for BBC Sport" (PDF). sislive.tv. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  139. Mills, Adam (13 December 2011). "Q&A with Sky F1". Badger GP . Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  140. "Sky Sports Pack – Live Football, F1, Cricket, Rugby & More Sports". F1.sky.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  141. "BBC reveals F1 coverage schedule for 2012". BBC. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  142. "BBC and Sky awarded rights in new Formula 1 deal". BBC. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  143. "New details of co-operation between Sky and BBC emerge". James Allen on F1. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  144. "Channel 4 becomes terrestrial home of Formula 1". Channel 4. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  145. "BBC to end f1 TV". BBC to end Formula 1 television contract early. BBC. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  146. "Broadcast Information". Formula1.com. F1. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  147. "Official timing application for iPhone announced". Formula1.com. 15 June 2009. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  148. "Google Play Store". Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  149. "iTunes Store". Itunes.apple.com. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  150. "Video". Formula1.com. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  151. "Formula 1 to launch F1 TV, a live Grand Prix subscription service". F1. F1. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  152. 1 2 3 4 "The Formula One Archives". www.silhouet.com. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  153. "Alberto Ascari". historicracing.com. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  154. "1952 Non-World Championship Grands Prix". www.silhouet.com. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  155. "1953 Non-World Championship Grands Prix". www.silhouet.com. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  156. "Clemente Biondetti Formula One race entries". ChicaneF1. Retrieved 29 May 2016.

Further reading