|World Rowing Championships|
|Genre||Rowing World championship|
The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organized by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). It is a week-long event held at the end of the northern hemisphere summer and in non-Olympic years is the highlight of the international rowing calendar.
Rowing, sometimes referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain.
A regatta is a series of boat races. The term comes from the Venetian-Italian language regata meaning "contest" and typically describes racing events of rowed or sailed water craft, although some powerboat race series are also called regattas. A regatta often includes social and promotional activities which surround the racing event, and except in the case of boat type championships, is usually named for the town or venue where the event takes place.
The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Aviron (FISA) is the International Rowing Federation which is the governing body for international rowing. Its current president is Jean-Christophe Rolland who succeeded Denis Oswald at a ceremony held in Lucerne in July 2014.
The first event was held in Lucerne, Switzerland, in 1962.The event then was held every four years until 1974, when it became an annual competition. Also in 1974, Men's lightweight and Women's open weight events were added to the championships. In 1985 Women's lightweight events were added to the schedule.
Lucerne is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country. Lucerne is the capital of the canton of Lucerne and part of the district of the same name. With a population of about 81,057 people, Lucerne is the most populous town in Central Switzerland, and a nexus of economics, transportation, culture, and media of this region. The city's urban area consists of 17 municipalities and towns located in three different cantons with an overall population of about 250,000 people.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe. It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern. Switzerland is a landlocked country bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. It is geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are located, among them the two global cities and economic centres of Zürich and Geneva.
Lightweight rowing is a category of rowing where limits are placed on the maximum body weight of competitors. One might think the rationale would be that heavier people have a disadvantage but the actual rationale is that larger, taller people have a significant physical advantage and tend to dominate the sport. A lightweight category gives average sized individuals the ability to compete against their peers, but rowers who are tall and thin generally have an advantage over those who are shorter but broader. According to the International Rowing Federation (FISA), this weight category was introduced "to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people".
Since 1996, during (Summer) Olympic years, the World Rowing Junior Championships are held at the same time.
The World Rowing Junior Championships is an international rowing regatta organized by FISA. A rower or coxswain shall be classified as a Junior until 31 December of the year in which he reaches the age of 18. After that date, he shall be classified as an Under 23 rower. During Olympic years it is held at the same location as the Senior World Rowing Championships.
In 2002 adaptive rowing events were introduced for the following classes of disability: LTA (legs, trunk and arms), TA (trunk, arms), and A (arms-only). In 2009 the A category was replaced by AS (arms and shoulders), and an ID (intellectually disabled) category was added (but then removed after the 2011 Championships). From 2017 the designations AS, TA, and LTA have been changed to PR1, PR2, and PR3.
According to many definitions, a disability or functional impairment is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. Other definitions describe disability as the societal disadvantage arising from such impairments. Disability substantially affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime.
Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Disability is thus not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives.
Rowing takes place in 21 different boat classes, apart from during Olympic years when only non-Olympic boat classes race. National teams generally take less interest in the non-Olympic events, as the Olympic events are considered the "premier" events.
The table below shows the boat classes, "O" indicates the boat races at both the Olympics and World Championships. "WC" indicates this is only a World Championship event. After 2007, the coxed fours (4+) no longer runs as a world championship event. Similarly after 2011 the women's coxless four was no longer included, but it was reintroduced in 2013. Lightweight men's eight was removed after 2015.
As a result of the IOC's aim for gender parity, it has been agreed that for 2020 onwards the lightweight men's coxless four will be removed from the Olympics and replaced by women's coxless four.
At the 2017 FISA Ordinary Congress there were further revisions, removing M2+ and LM4- from the World Championships, and reinstating LW2-.
|Boat||Men||Lwt Men||Women||Lwt Women|
|Times hosted||Host country|
|Totals (49 nations)||845||846||844||2535|
|Giuseppe Di Capua||1958||8||3||1||12|
|5||8||3||6||2||2||W1x, W2x, W4x||W2-, W8+|
|4||5||2||3||2||2||W2x, W4x||W2-, W8+|
|5||13||3||9||2||4||W1x, W2x, W4x||W2-, W8+|
|5||7||2||3||3||4||W2x, W4x||W2-, W4-, W8+|
|4||7||1||1||3||6||M1x||M2+, M4-, M8+|
The European Rowing Championships is an international Rowing regatta organised by FISA for European rowing nations, plus Israel which, though not a member of the European federation is treated as a European nation for competition purposes.
Rowing at the Summer Olympics has been part of the competition since its debut in the 1900 Summer Olympics. Rowing was on the program at the 1896 Summer Olympics but was cancelled due to bad weather. Only men were allowed to compete until the women's events were introduced at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal which gave national federations the incentive to support women's events and catalysed growth in women's rowing. Lightweight rowing events were introduced to the games in 1996. Qualifying for the rowing events is under the jurisdiction of the International Rowing Federation. FISA predates the modern Olympics and was the first international sport federation to join the modern Olympic movement.
Adaptive rowing is a category of rowing race for those with physical disabilities. Under FISA rules there are three categories for adaptive rowers:
Rowing at the 2008 Summer Paralympics was held in Shunyi Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park from 9 September to 11 September. This was the first time that rowing was competed at the Paralympic Games.
The 2013 World Rowing Championships were World Rowing Championships that were held from 25 August to 1 September 2013 at Tangeum Lake, Chungju in South Korea. The annual week-long rowing regatta was organized by FISA. In non-Olympic Games years the regatta is the highlight of the international rowing calendar.
The 2014 World Rowing Championships were World Rowing Championships that were held from 24 to 31 August 2014 at Bosbaan, Amsterdam in the Netherlands. The annual week-long rowing regatta is organized by FISA. In non-Olympic Games years the regatta is the highlight of the international rowing calendar.
The 2004 World Rowing Championships were World Rowing Championships that were held from 27 July to 1 August 2004 in conjunction with the World Junior Rowing Championships on lake Banyoles in Catalonia, Spain. Since 2004 was an Olympic year for rowing, the World Championships did not include Olympic events scheduled for the 2004 Summer Olympics.
The 1978 World Rowing Championships were World Rowing Championships that were held from 30 October to 5 November at Lake Karapiro near Cambridge, New Zealand. Twenty-eight countries were represented at the regatta. In the history of the World Rowing Championships, 1978 was the only year when the lightweight rowing championships were not held in conjunction with the open men and women event; the lightweight events had already been held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August.
The rowing competitions at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 6 to 13 August 2016 at the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon in Copacabana. Fourteen medal events were being contested by 547 athletes, 334 men and 213 women.
PR3 4+ is a Paralympic rowing classification. The classifications were developed and current as of March 2011. In 2017 the designation was changed from LTA to PR3.
Roderick Chisholm is a British lightweight class former rower who represented both Great Britain and Australia at world championships. He is an Australian national champion, a World Champion and a dual Olympian who competed at the world class level in both sculls and in sweep-oared boats.
The rowing competitions at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo will take place between 24 and 31 July 2020 at the Sea Forest Waterway in Tokyo Bay. Fourteen medal events will be contested by 526 athletes.
Paracanoe is canoeing for athletes with a range of physical disabilities. The Paralympic version of the sport is governed by the International Canoe Federation (ICF), and a va'a-specific variant is governed by the International Va'a Federation (IVF).
The men's lightweight coxless four competition at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro was held on 6–11 August at the Lagoon Rodrigo de Freitas. This was the last time that this boat class competed, as FISA axed it after the 2017 World Rowing Championships with immediate effect.
The 1974 World Rowing Championships was the 4th World Rowing Championships. It was held in 1974 at Rotsee in Lucerne, Switzerland. The event was significantly extended from the 1970 edition, with the addition of both women's and lightweight men's events. Six women boat classes were added, three lightweight men classes, plus quad scull for men, increasing the number of boat classes from seven in 1970 to seventeen in 1974. This was also the last World Championships held on a quadrennial cycle – from this point, World Championships were held annually.
Rowing competitions at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio will be held from 9 to 11 September 2016, at Lagoa Stadium at the Games' Copacabana hub.
The 2017 World Rowing Championships were the 47th edition of the World Rowing Championships that were held from 24 September to 1 October 2017 in Sarasota, Florida.
The 1978 FISA Lightweight Championships were held in Copenhagen, Denmark. In the history of the World Rowing Championships, 1978 was the only year when the lightweight rowing championships were not held in conjunction with the open men and women event. The lightweight finals were raced on 6 August. The event was held at Lake Bagsværd. In 1978, a fourth boat class was added to the event: Lightweight double scull.