Rugby League World Cup

Last updated
Rugby League World Cup
Current season or competition:
Rugby football current event.svg 2021 Rugby League World Cup
RLWC trophy.jpg
Sport Rugby league
Instituted 1954
Number of teams16 (from 2021)
RegionInternational (RLIF)
HoldersFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia (2017)
Most titlesFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia (11 titles)
Website www.rlwc2021.com/
Related competition Women's World Cup
World Cup 9s

The Rugby League World Cup is an international rugby league tournament, contested by national teams of the Rugby League International Federation, which was first held in France in 1954, the first World Cup in either rugby code. [1] The idea of a rugby league World Cup tournament was first mooted in the 1930s with the French proposal to hold a tournament in 1931, and again in 1951. [2] The fifteen tournaments held to date have been at intervals ranging from two to eight years, and have featured a number of formats. [3] So far three nations have won the competition (Australia eleven times, Great Britain three times and New Zealand once). Australia, France and New Zealand are the only teams to have played in all tournaments (Great Britain has been split into England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland since 1995, while England and Wales had previously competed as separate teams in the 1975 World Cup). Since 2000, the RLIF has also organised World Cups for women, students and other categories. The 2017 Rugby League World Cup was held in Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea which was won by Australia. [4]

Contents

History

1935–1954: Establishment

New Zealand, France, Great Britain, and Australia were the four nations to compete in the inaugural competition. Maillots de la Coupe du monde de rugby a XIII 1954.jpg
New Zealand, France, Great Britain, and Australia were the four nations to compete in the inaugural competition.

The Rugby League World Cup was an initiative of the French who had been campaigning for a competition since 1935. The idea was raised in 1951 by Paul Barrière, the President of the French Rugby League. In 1952, Rugby Football League secretary Bill Fallowfield persuaded the Rugby League Council to support the concept. [5] At a meeting in Blackpool, England in 1953, the International Board accepted Paul Barrière’s proposal that France should be the nation to host [5] the first tournament to be officially known as the "Rugby World Cup". [6] In addition to the hosts, the tournament featured teams from Britain, Australia and New Zealand. [7] The 1954 Rugby League World Cup was won by Great Britain who defeated France in Paris on 13 November to claim the title.

1955–1974: Sporadic competitions

The World Cup was initially contested by the four Test nations: Australia, Great Britain, France and New Zealand. The teams played each other in a league format. A final match was played between the top two teams in 1954. It was then decided that the team that finished first in the league would be declared the winner at the second World Cup in 1957, when Australia proved victorious on their home ground.

After the successful 1960 competition, in which Great Britain won the title for the second time, there would be no further World Cup for eight years. The competition had been scheduled to be held in France in 1965, this time with the inclusion of the South African team. [8] However, after an unsuccessful tour of Australia, the French withdrew. The tournament was next held in 1968, and followed a two-year cycle until the mid-1970s.

The 1972 World Cup final between Great Britain and Australia ended 10-all, and the title was awarded to Great Britain by virtue of their superior record in the qualifiers. Great Britain were captained by Welshman Clive Sullivan who was the first black player to captain any British national sports team. The final had just 4,231 fans at the Stade de Gerland in Lyon to witness what is (as of 2020) the last British team to win the Rugby League World Cup. [9]

1975–1990s: No host nations

In 1975, the competition underwent a radical overhaul. It was decided to play matches on a home and away basis around the world instead of one host nation and the Great Britain team was split into England and Wales meaning that the tournament would be increased from the 4 teams of previous tournaments to 5, this number also taking part in the two future internationally held tournaments. There was not a final held to decide the champions of the 1975 tournament and so Australia won by virtue of topping the group standings. As Australia had not beaten England in that tournament a 'final challenge match' was hastily arranged which Australia would win 25-0.

In 1977 it was decided that Great Britain should once more compete as a single entity. Although the final between Australia and Great Britain was a closely fought affair, public interest in the tournament waned due to the continuing tinkering with the format and it was not held again until the mid-1980s.

From 1985 to 1988, each nation played each other a number of times on a home and away basis with a number of these games also being considered part of various international tours that took place during the years in which these world cups were being played. At the end of that period, Australia met New Zealand at Eden Park. The match was a physical encounter, and Australian captain Wally Lewis played part of the match with a broken arm. The Kangaroos won the competition 25-12 in front of a capacity crowd of nearly 48,000 spectators.

This format was repeated from 1989–1992 (with games once again also being part of tours) and Australia won again, defeating Great Britain 10-6 at Wembley Stadium in front of 73,361 people. This crowd remained a Rugby League World Cup record (and a record for any rugby league international match) until beaten by the 74,468 crowd which attended the 2013 World Cup Final at Old Trafford. [10] The fifth nation to compete in these two tournaments was Papua New Guinea, where rugby league is the national, and most popular, sport.

1995–2008: Knockout tournament and expansion

New Zealand lifting the Paul Barriere Trophy after winning the 2008 tournament Kiwis Team Photo.jpg
New Zealand lifting the Paul Barrière Trophy after winning the 2008 tournament

In 1995, the competition was once again restructured, returning to the traditional 'host' format with ten teams entering. Unlike previous tournaments where the top two teams in the table playing in the final, a knockout stage was added with a quarter and semi final. New teams competing included Fiji, Tonga, Samoa and South Africa. Due to the Super League war, players aligned with the rebel competition were not selected by the ARL to represent the Kangaroos. This meant the absence of many star players from the Australian team's line-up. The tournament, which was also held to celebrate the centenary of the sport in England, was highly successful with over 250,000 people attending the group stages and over 66,000 people attending the final to see Australia defeat England 16-8.

Following the Super League war, the subsequent re-structuring of rugby league's international governing bodies meant that the proposed 1998 World Cup was postponed. [11]

The 2000 World Cup expanded the field further, with sixteen teams entering. This tournament included a New Zealand Maori representative team, the only time this team has taken part. However numerous issues including poor organization and blown-out scorelines meant that this tournament was seen as highly unsuccessful with an average attendance just half that of the previous tournament. Due to these problems the competition was put on indefinite hiatus. Australia won the tournament by beating New Zealand 40-12 in the final at Old Trafford, Manchester. In the same year, the first Women's Rugby League World Cup was held with New Zealand defeating Great Britain.

The World Cup returned in 2008 with a 10-team format. Australia hosted the tournament and New Zealand were crowned champions for the first time by beating the host nation at Lang Park, Brisbane. The world cup was once again seen as a success with a 91% average attendance increase on the previous competition. New Zealand became only the third team to win the world cup and the first other than Australia since 1972.

2009–present: Regular competition

The 2013 tournament, hosted by England and Wales, expanded to 14 teams and was considered the most successful competition to date in terms of attendances, exposure and financial output. Australia took the title again after defeating New Zealand in the final by a score of 34–2. The final attendance became the record international rugby league attendance at 74,468.

Following the 2013 tournament, it was decided that the world cup would be scheduled to take place every four years, 2017 Rugby League World Cup taking place in Australia, New Zealand and for the first time in Papua New Guinea. While Australia would claim the title once again and for an eleventh time, the tournament was considered highly successful in terms of competitiveness. The tournament would see Tonga beat New Zealand in the group stages with a score of 28-22 to top the group, the first time a team from outside the top 3 had beaten a top 3 nation in over two decades. New Zealand went on to play Fiji in the quarter-finals and lost once again with a score of just 4-2, knocking New Zealand out in the quarter-finals, the first time a tier 1 nation had exited the tournament at this early stage. Tonga played England in the semi-finals and while conceding 20 unanswered points, they would score 3 tries in just the last seven minutes to pull the score back to 20-18, eventually losing by this close margin. The final was contested between Australia and England at Lang Park, Brisbane and Australia won by just 6-0, the lowest score in world cup final history. [12]

The 2021 tournament will be held in England with organisers expressing a desire to see a total of one million fans attend games. This tournament will see the number of teams increased to 16 once again. A proposal was put forward in 2016 to hold the 2025 Rugby League World Cup in the United States and Canada, [13] but in December 2018 plans for the tournament to be held in North America were scrapped due to financial concerns so the location of the 2025 Rugby League World Cup will be determined by a new bidding process. [14]

Trophy

The Paul Barriere Trophy first awarded in the 1954 inaugural contest. RLWC trophy.jpg
The Paul Barrière Trophy first awarded in the 1954 inaugural contest.

The World Cup trophy was commissioned by French Fédération Française de Rugby à XIII president Paul Barrière at a cost of eight million francs, and then donated to the International Rugby League Board to be used for the inaugural competition in 1954. [15] This trophy was used and presented to the winning nation for the first four tournaments, before being stolen in 1970. After its recovery, the trophy was reinstated for the 2000 tournament.

Format

Qualification

Australia, France and New Zealand are the only nations who have appeared at every Rugby League World Cup from 1954 to 2017. England has also been at all, but participated under the banner of Great Britain in the majority of the earlier tournaments. Wales, including as Great Britain, has competed in all but the 2008 tournament.

In total, 19 teams have taken part in the World Cup. While 18 of these represented nations, 1 did not; in 2000, the Aotearoa Māori team was granted entry to the competition. This team is made up of New Zealand Māori players and was knocked out of the world cup in the pool stage. Only one other team has taken part in just a single world cup; Russia. In total 29 teams have/will taken part in qualifying rounds while 5 other teams have always been granted automatic qualification, meaning 34 teams have taken part in some stage of the world cup.

Qualifying rounds were first introduced for the 2000 World Cup. Rounds take the form of groups of teams from specific continents/regions; Europe, Africa/middle-east, Asia/pacific and the Americas. Teams that automatically qualify are the quarter-finalists from the previous world cup.

Qualifying for the 2021 World Cup featured 20 teams, the most to date with 8 teams having automatically qualified. 13 of these teams had never qualified for the World Cup before. 14 teams took part in the European stage of the qualifying with 4 teams in the Americas group and 3 in the world play-offs where the runner-up of the Americas group met the highest ranked teams from Asia/Pacific and Africa/Middle-East.

Finals

The Rugby League World Cup has followed a varied range of formats throughout its history as the number of teams participating has increased.

The current format has been in use since 2013 featuring 14 teams split into two groups of four and two groups of three. Three teams from the groups of four qualify for the knockout stage and one team from the groups of three qualify. Each team is awarded two points for a win and one point for a draw.

The eight teams in the quarter finals play each other with the four winners progressing to the semi finals before the World Cup Final. If the teams are level after 80 minutes extra time will be played and if the two teams are still level after extra time, a golden point will be played.

In 2017 the final tournament followed the same format as that of 2013 but this will change for 2021 when the number of teams taking part is increased to 16.

YearTeamsFormat
Round Robin era
1954 4
  • Round Robin
  • Top two teams play in final
1957
  • Round Robin
  • No final
1960
1968
  • Round Robin
  • Top two teams play in final
1970
1972
1975 5
1977 4
1985–1988 5
1989–1992
Groups and Knockout era
1995 10
  • Group Stages
    • Three groups
    • Top two advance from Group A, Group leader advances from Group B and C
  • Knockout stages
    • Semi Finals
    • Final
2000 16
  • Group Stages
    • Four groups
    • Top two from each advance
  • Knockout stages
    • Quarter Finals
    • Semi Finals
    • Final
2008 10
  • Group Stages
    • Three groups
    • Top three advance from Group A, Group leader advances from Group B and C
  • Knockout stages
    • Semi Final Play-off
    • Semi Finals
    • Final
2013 14
  • Group Stages
    • Four groups
    • Top three advance from Group A and B, Group leader advance from Group C and D
  • Knockout stages
    • Quarter Finals
    • Semi Finals
    • Final
2017
2021 16
  • Group Stages
    • Four groups
    • Top two from each advance
  • Knockout stages
    • Quarter Finals
    • Semi Finals
    • Final

Hosts

Eight teams have officially hosted and co-hosted the World Cup.[ citation needed ] Only 1975, 1985-88 and 1989-92 were held internationally and not in a specific country. Scotland hosted games in the 2000 world cup but these games were considered to have been hosted by Great Britain rather than the specific home nations. Although games were played in Papua New Guinea during the 1985–88 and 1989-92 World Cups, they officially became the eighth nation to host the tournament in 2017.[ citation needed ]

HostCountYears
Flag of England.svg  England 61969, 1970, 1995, 2000, 2013, 2021
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 51957, 1968, 1977, 2008, 2017
Flag of France.svg  France 41954, 1972, 2000, 2013
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 31968, 1977, 2017
Four Provinces Flag.svg Ireland 22000, 2013
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 22000, 2013
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 12000
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 12017

Stadiums

In total, 81 stadiums have hosted world cup games over the 14 tournaments. Headingley Stadium in Leeds has hosted the tournament the most times, having had games in 7 world cups with Central Park, Wigan and Lang Park, Brisbane having hosted 6 tournaments. 52 stadiums have hosted matches in just 1 tournament. The most stadiums used in a tournament was in 2000 when 26 stadiums were used; the stadium capacity was the highest ever at 704,400. However, the occupancy was also the lowest ever at just 37.46%.

The largest stadium in terms of capacity ever used was Wembley Stadium, London with a seating capacity of 90,000; the stadium was used in the 2013 tournament as the venue for the semi-final double-header. The smallest stadium ever used was also in 2013 when The Gnoll, Neath, with a capacity of 5,000 hosted a game between Wales and Cook Islands. Despite this, it was not the lowest attended game; this was in the 2000 world cup when just 1,497 attended the game between Wales and Lebanon at Stradey Park, Llanelli.

The city with the most stadiums used is Sydney with 4. Hull and Auckland are the cities with the next highest number with 3 each.

RankCountryStadiums
1Flag of England.svg  England 33
2Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 21
3Flag of France.svg  France 13
4Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 7
5Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 6
6 Four Provinces Flag.svg Ireland 3
7Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 2
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 2

Results

Results by year

YearHost(s)FinalTeams
WinnerScoreRunner-up3rd place4th place
1954 Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
1612Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg
France
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
4
1957 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
Round Robin FormatFlag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg
France
4
1960 Flag of England.svg  England Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
Round Robin FormatFlag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
Flag of France.svg
France
4
1968 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
202Flag of France.svg
France
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
4
1970 Flag of England.svg  England Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
127Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
Flag of France.svg
France
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
4
1972 Flag of France.svg  France Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
1010*Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
Flag of France.svg
France
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
4
1975 InternationalFlag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
25Flag of England.svg
England
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg
Wales
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
5
1977 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
1312Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
Flag of France.svg
France
4
1985–88 InternationalFlag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
2512Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg
Papua New Guinea
5
1989–92 InternationalFlag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
106Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Great Britain
Flag of France.svg
France
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
5
YearHost(s)FinalLosing semi finalistsTeams
WinnerScoreRunner-up
1995 Flag of England.svg  England
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
168Flag of England.svg
England
Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg
Wales
10
2000 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland
Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
4012Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
Flag of England.svg
England
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg
Wales
16
2008 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
3420Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
Flag of England.svg
England
Flag of Fiji.svg
Fiji
10
2013 Flag of England.svg  England
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales
Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
342Flag of New Zealand.svg
New Zealand
Flag of England.svg
England
Flag of Fiji.svg
Fiji
14
2017 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea [16]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Australia
6–0Flag of England.svg
England
Flag of Fiji.svg
Fiji
Flag of Tonga.svg
Tonga
14
2021 Flag of England.svg  England To be decided16
2025 TBDTo be decided16

* Highest ranked team during Round Robin round won World Cup
× 'Final' Challenge Match played, as Australia won the 1975 World Cup (decided by ranking in Round Robin round) without having beaten England.

Results by team

Up to and including the 2017 tournament, only Australia, New Zealand and Great Britain had been crowned World Champions. Australia has been by far the most successful, finishing in the top three in all 15 tournaments and winning 11. Great Britain have won three times, and New Zealand once. New Zealand have also finished runners-up in three World Cups, while France have been runners-up twice, including the inaugural cup where they were captained by Puig Aubert. England have also finished runners-up three times, while the Great Britain team were runners-up four times. Fiji have reached the semi-finals three times, while Wales also made the semi-final in 1995 and 2000. Ireland and Samoa have twice made it past the qualifying pool stages. Other nations to have proceeded to the knock-out stages are Papua New Guinea, Scotland, the United States, and Lebanon.

TeamChampionsRunners-upSemi-finalsQuarter-finals
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 11 (List)3 (1960, 1972, 2008)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 1 3 (1954, 1960, 1972)4 (1957, 1970, 1977, 1989–92)
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1 (2008)3 (1985–88, 2000, 2013)1 (1995)1 (2017)
Flag of England.svg  England 3 (1975, 1995, 2017)3 (2000, 2008, 2013)
Flag of France.svg  France 2 (1954, 1968)2 (2000, 2013)
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 3 (2008, 2013, 2017)
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 2 (1995, 2000)
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 1 (2017)
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 3 (2000, 2013, 2017)
Four Provinces Flag.svg  Ireland 2 (2000, 2008)
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 2 (2000, 2017)
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 1 (2013)
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1 (2013)
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 1 (2017)

Attendance

Tournament attendance

YearMatchesAvg
attendance
Total
attendance
% change in average attendanceStadium
capacity (%)
Host(s)
1954 719,761138,329N/A285,100 (48.51%) Flag of France.svg
1957 635,820214,918Increase2.svg 81.26%370,000 (58.08%) Flag of Australia (converted).svg
1960 618,376110,200Decrease2.svg 48.72%217,000 (50.78%) Flag of England.svg
1968 731,562220,683Increase2.svg 71.84%350,000 (63.05%) Flag of Australia (converted).svg Flag of New Zealand.svg
1970 79,81668,710Decrease2.svg 68.69%181,200 (37.91%) Flag of England.svg
1972 78,92262,456Decrease2.svg 9.10%222,700 (28.04%) Flag of France.svg
1975 219,737204,476Increase2.svg 9.13%294,500 (69.43%) Flag of England.svg Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg
Flag of France.svg Flag of Australia (converted).svg Flag of New Zealand.svg
1977 715,670109,688Increase2.svg 60.93%274,000 (40.03%) Flag of Australia (converted).svg Flag of New Zealand.svg
1985–88 1812,125218,246Decrease2.svg 22.62%456,000 (47.86%) Flag of England.svg Flag of France.svg
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Flag of New Zealand.svg Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg
1989–92 2114,289300,059Increase2.svg 17.84%521,500 (57.57%)
1995 1517,707265,609Increase2.svg 23.92%413,300 (64.26%) Flag of England.svg
2000 318,514263,921Decrease2.svg 51.91%704,400 (37.46%) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Ireland.svg Flag of France.svg
2008 1816,302293,442Increase2.svg 91.47%533,800 (54.97%) Flag of Australia (converted).svg
2013 2816,374458,483Increase2.svg 0.44%573,200 (79.98%) Flag of England.svg Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Flag of Ireland.svg Flag of France.svg
2017 2813,338373,461Decrease2.svg 18.54%750,700 (49.75%) Flag of Australia (converted).svg Flag of New Zealand.svg Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg
2021 31 Flag of England.svg

Match attendance

Top 10 match attendances.

YearVenueCityEventAttendance
2013 Old Trafford Flag of England.svg Manchester Final 74,468
1989–92 'Old' Wembley Stadium Flag of England.svg London Final 73,631
2013 Wembley Stadium Flag of England.svg London Semi Final (double header) 67,575
1995 'Old' Wembley Stadium Flag of England.svg London Final 66,540
1968 Sydney Cricket Ground Flag of Australia (converted).svg Sydney Group Stage 62,256
1957 Sydney Cricket Ground Flag of Australia (converted).svg Sydney Group Stage 58,655
1968 Sydney Cricket Ground Flag of Australia (converted).svg Sydney Final 54,290
2008 Lang Park Flag of Australia (converted).svg Brisbane Final 50,599
1957 Sydney Cricket Ground Flag of Australia (converted).svg Sydney Group Stage 50,077
1985–88 Eden Park Flag of New Zealand.svg Auckland Final 47,363

See also

Related Research Articles

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Inline

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General

Further reading