|Current season, competition or edition:|
|Founder||Dwight F. Davis|
|No. of teams||18 (World Group)|
|Countries||ITF member nations|
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format. It is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", and the winners are referred to as the World Champion team.The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between Great Britain and the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition. The most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States (winning 32 tournaments and finishing as runners-up 29 times) and Australia (winning 28 times, including four occasions with New Zealand as Australasia, and finishing as runners-up 19 times). The present champions are Croatia, who beat France to win their second title in 2018.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will.
The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, and beach tennis. It was founded in 1913 as the International Lawn Tennis Federation by twelve national associations, and as of 2016, is affiliated with 211 national tennis associations and six regional associations.
A single-elimination, knockout, or sudden death tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each match-up is immediately eliminated from the tournament. Each winner will play another in the next round, until the final match-up, whose winner becomes the tournament champion. Each match-up may be a single match or several, for example two-legged ties in European football or best-of series in American pro sports. Defeated competitors may play no further part after losing, or may participate in "consolation" or "classification" matches against other losers to determine the lower final rankings; for example, a third place playoff between losing semi-finalists. In a shootout poker tournament, there are more than two players competing at each table, and sometimes more than one progressing to the next round. Some competitions are held with a pure single-elimination tournament system. Others have many phases, with the last being a single-elimination final stage, often called playoffs.
The women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, and the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year.
Fed Cup is the premier international team competition in women's tennis, launched in 1963 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the International Tennis Federation (ITF). The competition was known as the Federation Cup until 1995. The Fed Cup is the world's largest annual women's international team sports competition in terms of the number of nations that compete. The current Fed Cup Chairperson is Katrina Adams.
The Czech Republic Davis Cup team represents the Czech Republic in Davis Cup tennis competition and are governed by the Czech Tennis Federation. The Czech team was started in 1993, following the break-up of Czechoslovakia.
The idea for a tournament pitting the best British and Americans in competition against one another was probably first conceived by James Dwight, the first president of the U.S. National Lawn Tennis Association when it formed in 1881. Desperate to assess the development of American players against the renowned British champions, he worked tirelessly to engage British officials in a properly sanctioned match, but failed to do so. He nevertheless tried to entice top international (particularly British) talent to the U.S. and sanctioned semi-official tours of the top American players to Great Britain.Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the United Stated on the tennis front had strengthened such that, by the mid 1890s, reciprocal tours were staged annually between players of the two nations, and an ensuing friendship between American William Larned and Irishman Harold Mahony spurred efforts to formalize an official team competition between the two nations.
James Dwight was an American tennis player who was known as the "Founding Father of American Tennis".
William Augustus Larned was an American tennis player who was active at the beginning of the 20th century. He won seven singles titles at the U.S. National Championships.
Harold Segerson Mahony was a Scottish-born tennis player who is best known for winning the singles title at the Wimbledon Championships in 1896. His career lasted from 1888 until his death in 1905. Mahony was born in Scotland but lived in Ireland for the majority of his life; his family were Irish including both of his parents, the family home was in County Kerry, Southwestern Ireland. He was the last Scottish born man to win Wimbledon until the victory of Andy Murray at the 2013 championships.
International competitions had been staged for some time before the first Davis Cup match in 1900. From 1892, England and Ireland had been competing in an annual national-team-based competition, similar to what would become the standard Davis Cup format, mixing single and doubles matches, and in 1895 England played against France in a national team competition.During Larned's tour of the British Isles in 1896, where he competed in several tournaments including the Wimbledon Championships, he was also a spectator for the annual England vs. Ireland match. He returned to exclaim that Britain had agreed to send a group of three to the US the following summer, which would represent the first British lawn tennis "team" to compete in the U.S. Coincidentally, some weeks before Larned left for his British tour, the idea for an international competition was discussed also between leading figures in American lawn tennis - one of whom was tennis journalist E.P. Fischer - at a tournament in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Dwight F. Davis was in attendance at this tournament, and was thought to have got wind of the idea as it was discussed in the tournament's popular magazine, and Davis's name was mentioned as someone who might 'do something for the game … put up some big prize, or cup'. Larned and Fischer met on several occasions that summer and discussed the idea of an international match to be held in Chicago the following summer, pitting six of the best British players against six of the best Americans, in a mixture of singles and doubles matches. This was discussed openly in two articles in the Chicago Tribune, but did not come to fruition.
The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, or The Championships, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is regarded by many as the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, London, since 1877 and is played on outdoor grass courts, and since 2009 with a retractable roof over Centre Court.
Niagara-on-the-Lake is a town in Ontario, Canada. It is located on the Niagara Peninsula at the point where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario, across the river from New York, United States. Niagara-on-the-Lake is in the Niagara Region of Ontario, and is the only town in Canada that has a Lord Mayor. It has a population of 17,511 (2016).
Dwight Filley Davis, Sr. was an American tennis player and politician. He is best remembered as the founder of the Davis Cup international tennis competition. He was the Assistant Secretary of War from 1923 to 1925 and Secretary of War from 1925 to 1929.
Nevertheless, the following summer, Great Britain - though not under the official auspices of the Lawn Tennis Association - sent three of its best players to compete in several US tournaments. Their relative poor performances convinced Dwight and other leading officials and figures in American lawn tennis that the time was right for a properly sanctioned international competition. This was to be staged in Newcastle in July 1898,but the event never took place as the Americans could not field a sufficiently strong team. A reciprocal tour to the U.S. in 1899 amounted to just a single British player travelling overseas, as many of the players were involved in overseas armed conflicts.
The Lawn Tennis Association (LTA) is the national governing body of tennis in Great Britain, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. The organisation was founded in 1888 and seven-time Wimbledon champion William Renshaw was elected as its first president.
It was at this juncture, in the summer of 1899, that four members of the Harvard University tennis team - Dwight Davis included - travelled across the States to challenge the best west-coast talent, and upon his return, it apparently occurred to Davis that if teams representing regions could arouse such great feelings, then why wouldn't a tennis event that pitted national teams in competition be just as successful. He approached James Dwight with the idea, which was tentatively agreed, and he ordered an appropriate sterling silver punchbowl trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low, purchasing it from his own funds for about $1,000.They in turn commissioned a classically styled design from William B. Durgin's of Concord, New Hampshire, crafted by the Englishman Rowland Rhodes. Beyond donating a trophy for the competition, however, Davis's involvement in the incipient development of the tournament that came to bear his name was negligible, yet a persistent myth has emerged that Davis devised both the idea for an international tennis competition and its format of mixing singles and doubles matches. Research has shown this to be a myth, similar in its exaggeration of a single individual's efforts within a highly complex long-term development to the myths of William Webb Ellis and Abner Doubleday, who have both been wrongly credited with inventing rugby and baseball, respectively. Davis nevertheless went on to become a prominent politician in the United States in the 1920s, serving as US Secretary of War from 1925 to 1929 and as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1929 to 1932.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning. Its history, influence, wealth, and academic reputation have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. It has often been cited as the world's top university by most publishers.
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper. The sterling silver standard has a minimum millesimal fineness of 925.
Shreve, Crump & Low, a Boston, Massachusetts business, is the oldest purveyor of luxury goods in North America, responsible for trophies such as the Davis Cup and the Cy Young Award.
The first match, between the United States and Britain (competing as the "British Isles"), was held at the Longwood Cricket Club in Boston, Massachusetts in 1900. The American team, of which Dwight Davis was a part, surprised the British by winning the first three matches. The following year the two countries did not compete, but the US won the match in 1902 and Britain won the following four matches. By 1905 the tournament expanded to include Belgium, Austria, France, and Australasia, a combined team from Australia and New Zealand that competed together until 1914.
The tournament was initially titled the International Lawn Tennis Challenge although it soon became known as the Davis Cup, after Dwight Davis' trophy. The Davis Cup competition was initially played as a challenge cup. All teams competed against one another for the right to face the previous year's champion in the final round.
Beginning in 1923, the world's teams were split into two zones: the "America Zone" and the "Europe Zone". The winners of the two zones met in the Inter-Zonal Zone ("INZ") to decide which national team would challenge the defending champion for the cup. In 1955 a third zone, the "Eastern Zone", was added. Because there were three zones, the winner of one of the three zones received a bye in the first round of the INZ challenger rounds. In 1966, the "Europe Zone" was split into two zones, "Europe Zone A" and "Europe Zone B", so the winners of the four zones competed in the INZ challenger rounds.
From 1950 to 1967, Australia dominated the competition, winning the Cup 15 times in 18 years.
Beginning in 1972, the format was changed to a knockout tournament, so that the defending champion was required to compete in all rounds, and the Davis Cup was awarded to the tournament champion.
Up until 1973, the Davis Cup had only ever been won by the United States, Great Britain/British Isles, France and Australia/Australasia. Their domination was eventually broken in 1974 when South Africa and India made the final; however the final was scratched and South Africa awarded the cup after India refused to travel to South Africa in protest of South Africa's apartheid policies. The following year saw the first actual final between two "outsider" nations, when Sweden beat Czechoslovakia 3–2, and since then, many other countries have gone on to capture the trophy.
In 1981, the tiered system of competition in use today was created, in which the 16 best national teams compete in the World Group and all other national teams compete in one of four groups in one of three regional zones. In 1989, the tiebreak was introduced into Davis Cup competition, and from 2016 it is used in all five sets.
In 2018, the ITF voted to change the format of the competition from 2019 onwards, changing it to an 18-team event to happen at the end of the season, with 71% of ITF member federations voting in favour of the change. The new format, backed by footballer Gerard Pique and Japanese businessman Hiroshi Mikitani, was likened to a world cup of tennis and was designed to be more attractive to sponsors and broadcasters. Opposing federations included those from Australia, Germany, and Great Britain. Support for the reform was also mixed among current and former players, with some such as Novak Djokovic and Rafael Nadal being in favour of the new format, but others such as Rod Laver, Lucas Pouille and Roger Federer being opposed.
Davis Cup games have been affected by political protests several times, especially in Sweden:
The 16 best national teams are assigned to the World Group and compete annually for the Davis Cup. Nations which are not in the World Group compete in one of three regional zones (Americas, Asia/Oceania, and Europe/Africa). The competition is spread over four weekends during the year. Each elimination round between competing nations is held in one of the countries, and is played as the best of five matches (4 singles, 1 doubles). The ITF determines the host countries for all possible matchups before each year's tournament.
The World Group is the top group and includes the world's best 16 national teams. Teams in the World Group play a four-round elimination tournament. Teams are seeded based on a ranking system released by the ITF, taking into account previous years' results. The defending champion and runner-up are always the top two seeds in the tournament. The losers of the first-round matches are sent to the World Group playoff round, where they play along with winners from Group I of the regional zones. The playoff round winners play in the World Group for the next year's tournament, while the losers play in Group I of their respective regional zone.
Each of the three regional zones is divided into four groups. Groups I and II play elimination rounds, with the losing teams facing relegation to the next-lower group. The teams in Groups III and those in Group IV play a round-robin tournament with promotion and relegation.
|2||Group One Americas Zone|
|Group One Europe/Africa Zone|
|Group One Asia/Oceania Zone|
|3||Group Two Americas Zone|
|Group Two Europe/Africa Zone|
|Group Two Asia/Oceania Zone|
|4||Group Three Americas Zone|
|Group Three Europe Zone|
|Group Three Africa Zone|
|Group Three Asia/Oceania Zone|
|5||Group Four Asia/Oceania Zone|
Note: The total number of nations in Group One is 24. However, the distribution among the three zones may vary each year, according to the number of nations promoted or relegated between Group One and the World Group. The number of nations in the World Group and Group One together is 22 from Euro/Africa Zone, 9 from Americas Zone and 9 from Asia/Oceania Zone.
As in other cup competitions tie is used in the Davis Cup to mean an elimination round. In the Davis Cup, the word rubber means an individual match.
In the annual World Group competition, 16 nations compete in eight first-round ties; the eight winners compete in four quarterfinal ties; the four winners compete in two semifinal ties; and the two winners compete in the final tie.
Each tie consists of five rubbers, which are played in three days (usually on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday). The winner of the tie is the nation which wins three or more of the five rubbers in the tie. On the first day, the first two rubbers are singles, which are generally played by each nation's two best available singles players. On the second day, the doubles rubber is played. On the third day, the final two rubbers are typically reverse singles, in which the first-day contestants usually play again, but they swap opponents from the first day's singles rubbers. However, in certain circumstances, the team captain may replace one or two of the players who played the singles on Friday by other players who were nominated for the tie. For example, if the tie has already been decided in favour of one of the teams, it is common for younger or lower-ranked team members to play the remaining dead rubbers in order for them to gain Davis Cup experience.
Since 2011, if a nation has a winning 3–1 lead after the first reverse single match and that match has gone to four sets or more, then the remaining reverse single match which is a dead rubber is not played. All five rubbers are played if one nation has a winning 3–0 lead after the doubles match.
Ties are played at a venue chosen by one of the competing countries. The right of choice is given on an alternating basis. Therefore, countries play in the country where the last tie between the teams was not held. In case the two countries have not met since 1970, lots are drawn to determine the host country.
Venues in the World Group must comply with certain minimum standards, including a minimum seating capacity as follows:
Prior to each tie, the captain (non-playing coach appointed by the national association) nominates a squad of four players and decides who will compete in the tie. On the day before play starts, the order of play for the first day is drawn at random. In the past, teams could substitute final day singles players only in case of injury or illness, verified by a doctor, but current rules permit the captain to designate any player to play the last two singles rubbers, provided that no first day matchup is repeated. There is no restriction on which of the playing team members may play the doubles rubber: the two singles players, two other players (usually doubles specialists) or a combination.
Each rubber is normally played as best of five sets. Since 2016, all sets use a tiebreak at 6–6 if necessary (formerly, the fifth set usually had no tiebreaker, so play continued until one side won by two games e.g. 10–8). However, if a team has clinched the tie before all five rubbers have been completed, the remaining rubbers may be shortened to best of three sets, with a tiebreak if necessary to decide all three sets.
In Group III and Group IV competitions, each tie consists only of three rubbers, which include two singles and one doubles rubber, which is played in a single day. The rubbers are in the best of three sets format, with a tie breaker if necessary to decide all three sets.
+ - also won Junior Davis Cup title
|Country||Winning Years||Runner-up Years|
|1900, 1902, 1913, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1937, 1938, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1954, 1958, 1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2007 (32)||1903, 1905, 1906, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1914, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1932, 1934, 1935, 1939, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1964, 1973, 1984, 1991, 1997, 2004 (29)|
|1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1914, 1919, 1939, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1973, 1977, 1983, 1986, 1999, 2003 (28)||1912, 1920, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1936, 1938, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1954, 1958, 1963, 1968, 1990, 1993, 2000, 2001 (19)|
|1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2017 (10)||1925, 1926, 1933, 1982, 1999, 2002, 2010, 2014, 2018 (9)|
|1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1912, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 2015 (10)||1900, 1902, 1907, 1913, 1919, 1931, 1937, 1978 (8)|
|1975, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1994, 1997, 1998 (7)||1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1996 (5)|
|2000, 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011 (5)||1965, 1967, 2003, 2012 (4)|
|1988, 1989, 1993 (3)||1970, 1985 (2)|
|1980, 2012, 2013 (3)||1975, 2009 (2)|
|2002, 2006 (2)||1994, 1995, 2007 (3)|
|2005, 2018 (2)||2016 (1)|
|1976 (1)||1960, 1961, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1998 (6)|
|2016 (1)||1981, 2006, 2008, 2011 (4)|
|2010 (1)||2013 (1)|
|2014 (1)||1992 (1)|
|—||1969, 1971, 1972 (3)|
|—||1966, 1974, 1987 (3)|
|—||1904, 2015, 2017 (3)|
Last 20 years (1999–2018)
1Players must now be aged 14 and over
For more information, see ITF Rankings
|ITF Davis Cup Nations Ranking,|
as of 4 February 2019 [update]
†Change since previous ranking update
After 2015 edition
|current and former existing World Group teams (42)|
|non-existing World Group teams (3)|
|WG||World Group teams for the upcoming (2016) season|
|Italic||non-existing teams (10)|
|most (best or worst) in category & best and worst %|
in last column highlighted are best and worst +/- ratio and most wins
|Rubber category||Match win||Match loss||Team bonus||Performance bonus||Total achievable|
|Singles||Play-offs||5 / 101||15|
|Final||75||753||1254||150 / 2253 / 2754|
|Cumulative total||500||500 to 5353||6254||6254|
|Final||95||355||95 / 1305|
The Davis Cup World Group and World Group Play-Off matches awarded ATP Ranking points from 2009 to 2015.
Only live matches earn points; dead rubbers earn no points. If a player does not compete in the singles of one or more rounds he will receive points from the previous round when playing singles at the next tie. This last rule also applies for playing in doubles matches.
1 A player who wins a singles rubber in the first day of the tie is awarded 5 points, whereas a singles rubber win in tie's last day grants 10 points for a total of 15 available points.
2 For the first round only, any player who competes in a live rubber, without a win, receives 10 ranking points for participation.
3 Team bonus awarded to a singles player who wins 7 live matches in a calendar year and his team wins the competition.
4 Performance bonus awarded to a singles player who wins 8 live matches in a calendar year. In this case, no Team bonus is awarded.
5 Team bonus awarded to an unchanged doubles team who wins 4 matches in a calendar year and his team wins the competition.
Nenad Zimonjić is a Serbian professional tennis player who was ranked World No. 1 in 2008 in doubles. He is the second tennis doubles player from Serbia to hold the World No. 1, after Slobodan Živojinović. While Zimonjić is known as a doubles specialist, he has recorded two big wins in his singles career. A 22-year span consisting of 54 Davis Cup ties including 43 victories has resulted in him becoming the most accomplished Davis Cup player in his nations history. He has a very powerful first serve that he can hit at up to 235 km/h (146 mph).
Roger Smith is a former tennis player from the Bahamas.
The Australian Davis Cup team is the second most successful team ever to compete in the Davis Cup, winning the coveted title on 28 separate occasions, second behind the United States with 32.
The Hungary Davis Cup team represents Hungary in Davis Cup tennis competition and are governed by the Hungarian Tennis Association.
The Norway Davis Cup team represents Norway in Davis Cup tennis competition and are governed by the Norges Tennisforbund.
The Lithuania Davis Cup team represents Lithuania in Davis Cup tennis competition and are governed by the Lithuanian Tennis Association.
The 1992 Davis Cup was the 81st edition of the most important tournament between national teams in men's tennis. Due to increased entries, the tournament was expanded to add a Group III in all zones, with promotion and relegation between it and Group II. A total of 92 nations participated in the tournament. In the final, the United States defeated Switzerland at the Tarrant County Center in Fort Worth, Texas, United States, on 4–6 December.
Colin Fleming is a British retired professional tennis player who specialised in doubles.
Andy Murray is a professional tennis player who is the current world No. 326 in the ATP rankings. He is the reigning Olympic champion, having won the men's singles tennis tournament at the 2016 Rio Olympics. He has reached eleven grand slam finals in total: he won the 2016 Wimbledon Championships, 2013 Wimbledon Championships and the 2012 US Open, and finished as runner-up at the 2008 US Open, the 2010, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2016 Australian Opens, at Wimbledon in 2012 and the 2016 French Open.
Frederik Løchte Nielsen is a professional tennis player. He is currently the top ranked player from Denmark in ATP doubles world rankings. A former Wimbledon men's doubles champion, he peaked at no. 17 in the rankings in April 2013. Nielsen has reached five other doubles finals on tour, winning on two occasions.
The Albania Davis Cup team represents Albania in Davis Cup tennis competition and are governed by the Albanian Tennis Federation.
Alan Mackin is a former professional tennis player from Scotland who competed for Great Britain in Davis Cup.
The 2013 ATP World Tour was the global elite professional tennis circuit organized by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) for the 2013 tennis season. The 2013 ATP World Tour calendar comprises the Grand Slam tournaments, the ATP World Tour Masters 1000, the ATP World Tour 500 series, the ATP World Tour 250 series, the Davis Cup and the ATP World Tour Finals. Also included in the 2013 calendar is the Hopman Cup, which was organized by the ITF and does not distribute ranking points.
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The tennis tournament at the 2020 Summer Olympics will feature 172 players in five events: singles and doubles for both men and women and the return of mixed doubles for the third consecutive time.
The 2015 ATP World Tour was the global elite professional tennis circuit organized by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) for the 2015 tennis season. The 2015 ATP World Tour calendar comprises the Grand Slam tournaments, the ATP World Tour Masters 1000, the ATP World Tour 500 series, the ATP World Tour 250 series, the Davis Cup and the ATP World Tour Finals. Also included in the 2015 calendar is the Hopman Cup, which is organized by the ITF and does not distribute ranking points.
Denis Langaskens is a former professional tennis player from Belgium.
Konstantin Pavlovich Pugaev is a former professional tennis player from Russia who represented the Soviet Union.
Igor Šarić is a former professional tennis player from Croatia.
In 2016, 130 nations have entered Davis Cup by BNP Paribas
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