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|Highest governing body|| FIA (four- or more wheeled)|
FAI (Air racing)
|First competitive race||1894|
|Glossary||Glossary of motorsport terms|
|Country or region||Worldwide|
|Olympic||1900 (demonstration only)|
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can also be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, and includes off-road racing such as motocross.
Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use, this also known as terminology science. Terms are words and compound words or multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language. Terminology is a discipline that studies, among other things, the development of such terms and their interrelationships within a specialized domain. Terminology differs from lexicography, as it involves the study of concepts, conceptual systems and their labels (terms), whereas lexicography studies words and their meanings.
Motorcycle racing is the motorcycle sport of racing motorcycles. Major genres include motorcycle road racing and off-road racing, both either on circuits or open courses, and track racing. Other categories include hill climbs, drag racing and land speed record trials.
Motocross is a form of off-road motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits. The sport evolved from motorcycle trials competitions held in the United Kingdom.
Four- (or more) wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA); and the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) governs two-wheeled competition. Likewise, the Union Internationale Motonautique (UIM) governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) governs air sports; including airplane racing.
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. To the general public, the FIA is mostly known as the governing body for many auto racing events. The FIA also promotes road safety around the world.
The Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme is the global governing/sanctioning body of motorcycle racing. It represents 111 national motorcycle federations that are divided into six regional continental unions.
The Union Internationale Motonautique (UIM) is the international governing body of powerboating, based in the Principality of Monaco. It was founded in 1922, in Belgium, as the Union Internationale du Yachting Automobile.
In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing.In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose as open road racing, on public roads, was banned. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom.
Paris–Rouen, Le Petit Journal Horseless Carriages Contest, was a pioneering city-to-city motoring competition in 1894 which is sometimes described as the world's first competitive motor race.
As one of three Gordon Bennett Cups established by James Gordon Bennett, Jr., millionaire owner of the New York Herald, the automobile racing award was first given in 1900 in France.
Brooklands was a 2.75-mile (4.43 km) motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, England, United Kingdom. It opened in 1907 and was the world's first purpose-built motor racing circuit as well as one of Britain's first airfields, which also became Britain's largest aircraft manufacturing centre by 1918, producing military aircraft such as the Wellington and civil airliners like the Viscount and VC-10.
Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the Seminal Catastrophe, and initially in North America as the European War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the resulting 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
Grand Prix motor racing, a form of motorsport competition, has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as early as 1894. It quickly evolved from simple road races from one town to the next, to endurance tests for car and driver. Innovation and the drive of competition soon saw speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), but because early races took place on open roads, accidents occurred frequently, resulting in deaths both of drivers and of spectators.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became firmly established.
Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found mainly and most prominently in the United States and Canada, with New Zealand, Australia, Mexico, Great Britain and Brazil also having forms of stock car auto racing. Traditionally, races are run on oval tracks measuring approximately 0.25 to 2.66 miles. The world's largest governing body for stock car racing is the American NASCAR, and its Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the premier top level series of professional stock car racing. Top level races typically range between 200 to 600 miles in length. The cars were originally production models, but are now highly modified.
Drag racing is a type of motor racing in which automobiles or motorcycles compete, usually two at a time, to be first to cross a set finish line. The race follows a short, straight course from a standing start over a measured distance, most commonly 1⁄4 mi, with a shorter becoming increasingly popular, as it has become the standard for Top Fuel dragsters and funny cars, where some major bracket races and other sanctioning bodies have adopted it as the standard, while the 1⁄8 mi is also popular in some circles. Electronic timing and speed sensing systems have been used to record race results since the 1960s.
Motorsports ultimately became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, and their appropriate organisations.
Motor racingis the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other.
Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, and not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific 'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, and many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More recently, new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the 'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former 'Formula' series include Formula 5000 and Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), and currently organized by the privately owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a very strict set of rules which govern vehicle power, weight and size.
Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing that uses only electric-powered cars. The series was conceived in 2012, and the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014.The series is also sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains. The series has gained significant traction in recent years.
A series originated on June 12, 1909 in Portland, Oregonat its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50–200 miles. Its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 20 teams and 40 different drivers. The current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season. Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series in September 2019.
Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are primarily enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American 'stock car'.
Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, and specialised racing types. The premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies.
Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are often credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition.Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area. An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while also maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but quickly gained interest from all over the country. As oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947, to combine flat track oval racing of production cars. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, and including part of A1A. The highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500, also nicknamed 'The Great American Race' which is held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles,modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses.
Off-road racing is a group of vehicles that specialize in off-road racing and are modified street cars that can race on close purpose built off-road tracks and courses. Off-road racing is popular all over the world. Premier off-road events include the Dakar Rally and the Baja 1000 desert race.Series like the National Off-Road Racing Association (NORRA) which was founded in 1967, sanctions events utilizing off-road vehicles racing through the Baja Desert. The first event sanctioned by the organization was the 1967 Mexican 1000 rally that began in Tijuana and ended in La Paz.
Motor sports which involve competitors racing against each other include:
Forms of motorsport which do not involve racing include drifting, demolition derby, regularity rally, motorcycle trials, gymkhana, Freestyle Motocross and tractor pulling.
Racing events are governed by Race Officials. In preparation for the race, Race Committee is formed, senior officials such as Race Director, Clerk of the Course, Chief Steward are established. Race Officials are typically members of the country's motorsport governing organization and represent its rules and regulations.
Throughout the racing event, Race Officials are responsible for logistics, supporting services, safety, participant scrutineering, race judging, arbitration, and any other decision making.
After the race, the Race Officials are responsible in resolving any issues that may have arisen during the race. Parties can appeal its decisions to the country's motorsport governing organization.
Motorsport was a demonstration event at the 1900 Summer Olympics.
Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.
An open-wheel car is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, and usually having only one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, sports cars, stock cars, and touring cars, which have their wheels below the body or inside fenders. Open-wheel cars are usually built specifically for road racing, frequently with a higher degree of technological sophistication than in other forms of motor sport. Open-wheel street cars, such as the Ariel Atom, are very scarce as they are often impractical for everyday use.
The Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) is an American automobile club and sanctioning body supporting road racing, rallying, and autocross in the United States. Formed in 1944, it runs many programs for both amateur and professional racers.
Champ Car was the trade name for Open Wheel Racing Series Inc., a sanctioning body for American open-wheel car racing that operated from 2004 to 2008. It was the successor to Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART), which sanctioned the PPG Indy Car World Series from 1979 until dissolving after the 2003 season.
Road racing is a form of motorsport racing held on a paved road surfaces. The races can be held either on a closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. Originally, road races were held almost entirely on public roads however, public safety concerns eventually led to most races being held on purpose built racing circuits.
Oval track racing is a form of closed-circuit automobile racing that is contested on an oval-shaped track. An oval track differs from a road course in that the layout resembles an oval with turns in only one direction, and the direction of traffic is almost universally counter-clockwise. Oval tracks are dedicated motorsport circuits, used predominantly in the United States. They often have banked turns and some, despite the name, are not precisely oval, and the shape of the track can vary.
Ontario Motor Speedway was a motorsport venue located in Ontario, California. It was the first and only automobile racing facility built to accommodate major races sanctioned by all of the four dominant racing sanctioning bodies: USAC for open-wheel oval car races; NASCAR for a 500-mile (800 km) oval stock car races; NHRA for drag races; and FIA for Formula One road course races. Constructed in less than two years, the track opened in August 1970 and was considered state of the art at the time.
World Wide Technology Raceway at Gateway is a motorsport race track in Madison, Illinois, just east of St. Louis, Missouri, United States, close to the Gateway Arch. It features a 1.25-mile (2 kilometer) oval used by the NTT IndyCar Series and NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series, a 1.6-mile (2.6 km) infield road course used by SCCA, Porsche Club of America and various car clubs, and quarter-mile drag strip that hosts an annual National Hot Rod Association event.
American open-wheel car racing, also known as Indy car racing, is a category of professional-level automobile racing in the United States and North America. As of 2019, the top-level American open-wheel racing championship is sanctioned by IndyCar.
The ARCA Menards Series is an American stock car series, the premier division of the Automobile Racing Club of America (ARCA). It is considered a minor, semi-professional league of stock car racing, used as a feeder series into the three national touring series of NASCAR, and hosts events at a variety of track types including superspeedways, road courses, and dirt tracks. The series has a longstanding relationship with NASCAR, including using former NASCAR Cup Series cars, hosting events in the same race weekend such as Daytona Speedweeks, and naming an award after NASCAR founder Bill France, Sr. The series was not officially affiliated with NASCAR until its buyout on April 27, 2018.
The International Sporting Code (ISC) is a set of rules which are valid for all auto racing events that are governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). North American domestic racing, such as NASCAR and IndyCar are outside the FIA's jurisdiction and hence not governed by the ISC. Motorcycle sport is also exempt since the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) is responsible for this sport, not the FIA.
There has been auto racing in Illinois for almost as long as there have been automobiles. Almost every type of motorsport found in the United States can be found in Illinois. Both modern and historic tracks exist in Illinois, including NASCAR's Chicagoland Speedway and Gateway International Speedway. Notable drivers from Illinois include Danica Patrick, Tony Bettenhausen, and Fred Lorenzen.
Race results from the automobile and motorcycle races contested at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. Races have been held on six different track configurations:
TORC: The Off-Road Championship (TORC) is an American national short course off-road racing series. It tours throughout the United States featuring professional four and two-wheel-drive Trophy Trucks along with a Pro Light class. TORC was founded by off-road racing driver Ricky Johnson in 2009. It was known as the Traxxas TORC Series, owing to title sponsor Traxxas, from 2009–2013. It was purchased by The Armory in August 2013. It has been sanctioned and officiated by the United States Auto Club (USAC) since its inception.
Off-road racing is a form of motorsports consisting of specially-modified vehicles racing in off-road environments.
The 1976 Los Angeles Times 500 was a NASCAR Winston Cup Series racing event that took place on November 21, 1976, at Ontario Motor Speedway in Ontario, California. Each copy of the souvenir program was an inexpensive $2 USD per copy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to auto racing:
Motor sports are widely popular in the United States, but Americans generally ignore major international series, such as Formula One and MotoGP, in favor of home-grown racing series.
Sheldon M. Creed is an American professional stock car racing driver. Nicknamed "The Showstopper", he currently competes full-time in the NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series, driving the No. 2 Chevrolet Silverado for GMS Racing. He is a member of Drivers Edge Development. He grew up competing in off-road racing, and began racing in the Stadium Super Trucks in 2013; he is a two-time series champion, having won in 2015 and 2016.
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