Motorsport

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Motorsport
FIA F1 Austria 2018 Nr. 44 Hamilton.jpg
A modern-day Formula One car (the Mercedes AMG F1 W09 EQ Power+ of 2018)
Highest governing body FIA (four- or more wheeled)
FIM (two-wheeled)
UIM (powerboats)
FAI (Air racing)
First competitive race1894
Glossary Glossary of motorsport terms
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide
Olympic 1900 (demonstration only)

Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can also be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, and includes off-road racing such as motocross.

Terminology is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words or multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language. Terminology is a discipline that studies, among other things, the development of such terms and their interrelationships within a specialized domain. Terminology differs from lexicography, as it involves the study of concepts, conceptual systems and their labels (terms), whereas lexicography studies words and their meanings.

Motorcycle racing racing sport using motorcycles

Motorcycle racing is the motorcycle sport of racing motorcycles. Major genres include motorcycle road racing and off-road racing, both either on circuits or open courses, and track racing. Other categories include hill climbs, drag racing and land speed record trials.

Motocross off-road motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits

Motocross is a form of off-road motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits. The sport evolved from motorcycle trials competitions held in the United Kingdom.

Contents

Four- (or more) wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA); and the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) governs two-wheeled competition. Likewise, the Union Internationale Motonautique (UIM) governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) governs air sports; including airplane racing.

Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile international sport governing body

The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. To the general public, the FIA is mostly known as the governing body for many auto racing events. The FIA also promotes road safety around the world.

Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme international sport governing body

The Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme is the global governing/sanctioning body of motorcycle racing. It represents 113 national motorcycle federations that are divided into six regional continental unions.

The Union Internationale Motonautique (UIM) is the international governing body of powerboating, based in the Principality of Monaco. It was founded in 1922, in Belgium, as the Union Internationale du Yachting Automobile.

History

In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. [1] In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose as open road racing, on public roads, was banned. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. [2]

Paris–Rouen (motor race) competitive motor race

Paris–Rouen, Le Petit Journal Horseless Carriages Contest, was a pioneering city-to-city motoring competition in 1894 which is sometimes described as the world's first competitive motor race.

Gordon Bennett Cup (auto racing)

As one of three Gordon Bennett Cups established by James Gordon Bennett, Jr., millionaire owner of the New York Herald, the automobile racing award was first given in 1900 in France.

Brooklands race track

Brooklands was a 2.75-mile (4.43 km) motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, England, United Kingdom. It opened in 1907 and was the world's first purpose-built motor racing circuit as well as one of Britain's first airfields, which also became Britain's largest aircraft manufacturing centre by 1918, producing military aircraft such as the Wellington and civil airliners like the Viscount and VC-10.

Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular. [3]

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Grand Prix motor racing, a form of motorsport competition, has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as early as 1894. It quickly evolved from simple road races from one town to the next, to endurance tests for car and driver. Innovation and the drive of competition soon saw speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), but because early races took place on open roads, accidents occurred frequently, resulting in deaths both of drivers and of spectators.

After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became firmly established. [4]

Stock car racing form of automobile racing

Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found mainly and most prominently in the United States and Canada, with Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Brazil also having forms of stock car auto racing. Traditionally, races are run on oval tracks measuring approximately 0.25 to 2.66 miles. The world's largest governing body for stock car racing is the American NASCAR, and its Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the premier top level series of professional stock car racing. Top level races typically range between 200 to 600 miles in length. The cars were originally production models, but are now highly modified.

Drag racing type of motor racing in which automobiles or motorcycles compete

Drag racing is a type of motor racing in which automobiles or motorcycles compete, usually two at a time, to be first to cross a set finish line. The race follows a short, straight course from a standing start over a measured distance, most commonly 14 mi, with a shorter becoming increasingly popular, as it has become the standard for Top Fuel dragsters and funny cars, where some major bracket races and other sanctioning bodies have adopted it as the standard, while the 18 mi is also popular in some circles. Electronic timing and speed sensing systems have been used to record race results since the 1960s.

Motorsports ultimately became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, and their appropriate organisations.

Racing

Motor racing [5] is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other.

Open wheel racing

Formula racing

Sebastian Vettel 2012 Malaysia FP2.jpg

The Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car

Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, and not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific 'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, and many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More recently, new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the 'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former 'Formula' series include Formula 5000 and Formula Two.

Formula One

Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), and currently organized by the privately owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a very strict set of rules which govern vehicle power, weight and size. [6]

Formula E

Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing that uses only electric-powered cars. The series was conceived in 2012, and the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. [7] The series is also sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains. The series has gained significant traction in recent years. [8]

IndyCar Series

A series originated on June 12th, 1909 in Portland, Oregon [9] at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles. Its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 20 teams and 40 different drivers. The current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season [10] . Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California.

Enclosed wheel racing

A Ford Focus WRC rally racing car during 2010 Rally Finland Neste Oil Rally 2010 - Jari-Matti Latvala in shakedown.jpg
A Ford Focus WRC rally racing car during 2010 Rally Finland

Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are primarily enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American 'stock car'.

Sports car racing

Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, and specialised racing types. The premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. [11]


Stock car racing

Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are often credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. [12] Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area. [13] An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while also maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. [14] Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but quickly gained interest from all over the country. As oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. [15] NASCAR was organized in 1947, to combine flat track oval racing of production cars. [16] Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, and including part of A1A. The highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500, also nicknamed 'The Great American Race' which is held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. [17] NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons [15] . Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career. [18]

Touring car racing

Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, [19] modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses.


Off-Road Racing

Off-Road Racing is a group of vehicles that specialize in off-road racing and are modified street cars that can race on close purpose built off-road tracks and courses. Off-Road racing is popular all over the world. Premier off-road events include the Dakar Rally and the Baja 1000 desert race. [20] Series like the National Off-Road Racing Association (NORRA) which was founded in 1967, sanctions events utilizing off-road vehicles racing through the Baja Desert. [21] The first event sanctioned by the organization was the 1967 Mexican 1000 rally that began in Tijuana and ended in La Paz.

Other racing

Finnish speedway riders in the Speedway Extraliiga competition Speedway Extraliiga 22. 5. 2010 - era 17.jpg
Finnish speedway riders in the Speedway Extraliiga competition

Motor sports which involve competitors racing against each other include:

Non-racing disciplines

Forms of motorsport which do not involve racing include drifting, demolition derby, regularity rally, motorcycle trials, gymkhana, Freestyle Motocross and tractor pulling.

Olympics

Motorsport was a demonstration event at the 1900 Summer Olympics.

See also

Notes

  1. Gifford, p. 7.
  2. Gifford, p. 9.
  3. Gifford, p. 10.
  4. Gifford, p. 11.
  5. "motor racing (noun) definition and synonyms - Macmillan Dictionary". www.macmillandictionary.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  6. Jonathan Noble; Mark Hughes. "Discovering What Makes Formula One, Formula One". Formula One Racing For Dummies.
  7. Telegraph Sport (13 September 2014). "Formula E opens with spectacular crash involving Nick Heidfeld and Nicolas Prost as Lucas di Grassi claims win". Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  8. Formula E (31 July 2017). "Agag: This has been our take-off season" . Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  9. Straver, Haiko Benthem, Patrick. "OpenWheelWorld.Net >> Indy Car historie". www.openwheelworld.net. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  10. "Schedule - Verizon IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, Pro Mazda & Cooper Tires USF2000". IndyCar.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  11. "Regulations". Federation Internationale de l'Automobile. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  12. "How Prohibition Gave Birth to NASCAR". history.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  13. Billock, Jennifer. "How Moonshine Bootlegging Gave Rise to NASCAR". smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  14. "Racing legend outran the law". newsobserver.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  15. 1 2 "NASCAR founded - Feb 21, 1948 - HISTORY.com". history.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  16. Layford, Bob. Built for Speed. Courage Books. p. 29. ISBN   0762404418.
  17. "History of the Daytona 500". usatoday.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  18. "Driver Richard Petty Career Statistics - Racing-Reference.info". racing-reference.info. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  19. "Car Facts | Pirelli World Challenge". www.World-Challenge.com. Archived from the original on 2015-10-10. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  20. "Off-Road Racer: The Grandfather of Off-Road Racing: BAJA 1000 - race-deZert.com". race-dezert.com. 21 December 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  21. "NORRA: National Off-Road Racing Association, Home of the Mexican 1000 Rally". www.norra.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.

Related Research Articles

Auto racing motorsport involving the racing of cars for competition

Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

Open-wheel car

An open-wheel car is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, and usually having only one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, sports cars, stock cars, and touring cars, which have their wheels below the body or inside fenders. Open-wheel cars are usually built specifically for road racing, frequently with a higher degree of technological sophistication than in other forms of motor sport. Open-wheel street cars, such as the Ariel Atom, are very scarce as they are often impractical for everyday use.

Road racing

Road racing is a form of motorsport racing held on a paved road surfaces. The races can be held either on a closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. Originally, road races were held almost entirely on public roads however, public safety concerns eventually led to most races being held on purpose built racing circuits.

Oval track racing

Oval track racing is a form of closed-circuit automobile racing that is contested on an oval-shaped track. An oval track differs from a road course in that the layout resembles an oval with turns in only one direction, almost universally left. Oval tracks are dedicated motorsport circuits, used predominantly in the United States. They often have banked turns and some, despite the name, are not precisely oval, and can have unique variances in shape.

Gateway Motorsports Park motorsport track in the United States

Gateway Motorsports Park is a motorsport race track in Madison, Illinois, just east of St. Louis, Missouri, United States, close to the Gateway Arch. It features a 1.25-mile (2 kilometer) oval used by the NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series and IndyCar Series, a 1.6-mile (2.6 km) infield road course used by SCCA, Porsche Club of America and various car clubs, and quarter-mile drag strip that hosts an annual National Hot Rod Association event.

Robby Gordon American racecar driver

Robert W. Gordon is an American racecar driver. He has raced in NASCAR, CART, IndyCar, Trans-Am, IMSA, IROC and Dakar Rally. He currently competes in the Speed Energy Formula Off-Road series, a series that he had created in 2013.

American open-wheel car racing Category of professional-level automobile racing in North America

American open-wheel car racing, also known as Indy car racing, is a category of professional-level automobile racing in the United States and North America. As of 2019, the top-level American open-wheel racing championship is sanctioned by IndyCar.

ARCA Menards Series

The ARCA Menards Series is an American stock car series, the premier division of the Automobile Racing Club of America (ARCA). It is considered a minor but professional league of stock car racing, used as a feeder series into the three national touring series of NASCAR, and hosts events at a variety of track types including superspeedways, road courses, and dirt tracks. The series has a longstanding relationship with NASCAR, including using former Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series cars, hosting events in the same race weekend such as Daytona Speedweeks, and naming an award after NASCAR founder Bill France, Sr. The series was not officially affiliated with NASCAR until its buyout on April 27, 2018.

The International Sporting Code (ISC) is a set of rules which are valid for all auto racing events that are governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). North American domestic racing, such as NASCAR and IndyCar are outside the FIA's jurisdiction and hence not governed by the ISC. Motorcycle sport is also exempt since the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) is responsible for this sport, not the FIA.

Motorsport in Australia

Motorsport is a popular spectator sport in Australia, although there are relatively few competitors compared to other sports due to the high costs of competing. The oldest motorsport competition in Australia is the Alpine Rally which was first staged in 1921 followed by the Australian Grand Prix, first staged in 1928. The most widely watched motorsport category is Supercars, especially at the Bathurst 1000. Other classes in Australia include Australian GT, Formula 3 and Formula Ford, Superbikes, as well as various forms of speedway racing.

The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the sanctioning body for the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series and the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. NASCAR also oversees a number of regional racing series, including the Whelen Modified Tour, and the Whelen All-American Series. In its role, NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 39 states, Canada, Mexico, and Europe.

The following is a glossary of terminology used in motorsport, along with explanations of their meanings.

TORC: The Off-Road Championship

TORC: The Off-Road Championship (TORC) is an American national short course off-road racing series. It tours throughout the United States featuring professional four and two-wheel-drive Trophy Trucks along with a Pro Light class. TORC was founded by off-road racing driver Ricky Johnson in 2009. It was known as the Traxxas TORC Series, owing to title sponsor Traxxas, from 2009–2013. It was purchased by The Armory in August 2013. It has been sanctioned and officiated by the United States Auto Club (USAC) since its inception.

IndyCar Auto racing sanctioning body for North American open wheel racing

Indy Racing League, LLC, doing business as IndyCar, is an American-based auto racing sanctioning body for Indy car racing and other disciplines of open wheel car racing. The organization sanctions four racing series: the premier IndyCar Series with its centerpiece the Indianapolis 500, and developmental series Indy Lights, the Pro Mazda Championship and the U.S. F2000 National Championship, which are all a part of The Road To Indy. IndyCar is recognized as a member organization of the FIA through ACCUS.

Off-road racing format of racing

Off-road racing is a form of motorsports consisting of specially-modified vehicles racing in off-road environments.

1976 Los Angeles Times 500 Auto race run in California in 1976

The 1976 Los Angeles Times 500 was a NASCAR Winston Cup Series racing event that took place on November 21, 1976, at Ontario Motor Speedway in Ontario, California. Each copy of the souvenir magazine was an inexpensive $2 USD per copy.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to auto racing:

Speed Energy Formula Off-Road

The Speed Energy Formula Off-Road presented by Traxxas is an American off-road racing series. The series was formed by former IndyCar and NASCAR driver Robby Gordon in 2013. Sanctioned by the United States Auto Club (USAC), the Trucks originally competed primarily in American football stadiums, but in 2014 began racing mostly on street circuits.

Motorsport in the United States

Motor sports are widely popular in the United States, but Americans generally ignore major international series, such as Formula One and MotoGP, in favor of home-grown racing series.

References