Croatia

Last updated

Coordinates: 45°10′N15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Contents

Republic of Croatia

Republika Hrvatska  (Croatian) [lower-alpha 1]
Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino"
(English: "Our Beautiful Homeland")
EU-Croatia.svg
Location of Croatia (dark green)

 in Europe  (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union  (green)

Croatia - Location Map (2013) - HRV - UNOCHA.svg
Capital
and largest city
Coat of arms of Zagreb.svg Zagreb
45°48′N16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000
Official languages Croatian [lower-alpha 2]
Writing system Latin [lower-alpha 3]
Ethnic groups
(2011 [4] )
Religion
(2011)
Demonym(s)
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
  President
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
Andrej Plenković
Gordan Jandroković
Legislature Sabor
Establishment
  Duchy
7th century
  Kingdom
925
1102
 Joined Habsburg Monarchy
1 January 1527
 Secession from
Austria-Hungary
29 October 1918
4 December 1918
25 June 1991
12 November 1995
1 July 2013
Area
 Total
56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi)(124th)
 Water (%)
1.09
Population
 2019 estimate
Decrease2.svg 4,076,246 [5] (127th)
 2011 census
4,284,889 [6] (128th)
 Density
73/km2 (189.1/sq mi)(109th)
GDP  (PPP)2019 estimate
 Total
$113 billion [7] (84th)
 Per capita
$27,664 [7] (56th)
GDP  (nominal)2019 estimate
 Total
$61.586 billion [7] (81st)
 Per capita
$15,137 [7] (57th)
Gini  (2018)Decrease Positive.svg 29.7 [8]
low ·  17th
HDI  (2017)Increase2.svg 0.831 [9]
very high ·  46th
Currency Kuna (HRK)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Driving side right
Calling code +385
ISO 3166 code HR
Internet TLD

Croatia ( /krˈʃə/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), kroh-AY-shə; Croatian : Hrvatska, pronounced  [xř̩ʋaːtskaː] ), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska, Loudspeaker.svg listen  ), [lower-alpha 4] is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy. Its capital, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics.

Croatian language South Slavic language

Croatian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries.

Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

Croats Slavic ethnic group

Croats or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia. Croats mainly live in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but are also recognized minorities in such countries as Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

Duchy of Croatia

The Duchy of Croatia, was a medieval Croatian duchy that was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia. Throughout its time it had several seats – namely, Klis, Solin, Knin, Bijaći and Nin. It comprised the littoral – the coastal part of today's Croatia , except Istria, and included a large part of the mountainous hinterland, as well. The Duchy was in the center of competition between the Carolingian Empire and the Byzantine Empire for rule over the area. Rivalry with Venice emerged in the first decades of the 9th century and was to continue for the following centuries. Croatia also waged battles with the Bulgarian Empire, with whom the relations improved greatly afterwards, and the Arabs and sought to extend its control over important coastal cities under the rule of Byzantium. Croatia experienced periods of vassalage to the Franks or Byzantines and de facto independence until 879, when Croatian Duke Branimir received recognition from Pope John VIII as an independent realm. The ruling dynasty of Croatia was the House of Trpimirović, with interruptions by the House of Domagojević. The Duchy existed until around 925 when, during the rule of Duke Tomislav, Croatia became a kingdom.

Branimir of Croatia Duke of Croatia

Branimir was a ruler of Croatia who reigned as duke from 879 to 892. His country received papal recognition as a state from Pope John VIII on 7 June 879. During his reign, Croatia retained its sovereignty from both Frankish and Byzantine rule and became de jure independent.

Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into a Nazi-backed client-state, the Independent State of Croatia. In response, a resistance movement developed. This led to the creation of the Federal State of Croatia, which after the war became a founding member and constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully for four years following the declaration.

Invasion of Yugoslavia German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers during the Second World War

The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II. The order for the invasion was put forward in "Führer Directive No. 25", which Adolf Hitler issued on 27 March 1941, following the Yugoslav coup d'état.

Independent State of Croatia Former country, fascist puppet state

The Independent State of Croatia was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy. It was established in parts of occupied Yugoslavia on 10 April 1941, after the invasion by the Axis powers. Its territory consisted of most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as some parts of modern-day Serbia and Slovenia, but also excluded many Croat-populated areas in Dalmatia, Istria, and Međimurje regions.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Socialist republic in Southeast Europe between 1943 and 1992

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), also known as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.

A sovereign state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a very high standard of living. It is a member of the European Union (EU), the United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has constantly invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.

Sovereign state Political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent or non subjected to any other power or state.

A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are attained through democracy, oligarchy, autocracy, or a mix thereof, rather than being unalterably occupied. It has become the opposing form of government to a monarchy and has therefore no monarch as head of state.

Parliamentary system form of government

A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

Croatia's economy is dominated by service, industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, and a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

Tourism in Croatia weather

Tourism is a major industry in Croatia. In 2018, Croatia had 19.7 million tourist visitors who made 110.275 million overnight stays. The history of tourism in Croatia dates back to the middle of the 19th century in the period around 1850. It has been developing successfully ever since. Today, Croatia is one of the most visited tourist destinations in the Mediterranean.

Social security action programs of government intended to promote the welfare of the population through assistance measures

Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income". In the United States, this is usually called welfare or a social safety net, especially when talking about Canada and European countries.

Croatia has a universal health care system, whose roots can be traced back to the Hungarian-Croatian Parliament Act of 1891, providing a form of mandatory insurance of all factory workers and craftsmen. The population is covered by a basic health insurance plan provided by statute and optional insurance and administered by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund. In 2012, annual compulsory healthcare related expenditures reached 21.0 billion kuna.

Etymology

Apoxyomene de Croatie expose au musee du Louvre -04.JPG
Tanais Tablet B.png
Left: Croatian Apoxyomenos , Ancient Greek statue 2nd or 1st century BC.
Right: Tanais Tablet B , name Khoroáthos highlighted

The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat , from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which possibly comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-. [10] The word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait- which is the native name of Arachosia.

The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. [11] The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king"). [12]

The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. [13] The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule. [14]

History

Prehistory

The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. [15] Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country. [16] The largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, and the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, and Vučedol cultures. [17] [18] The Iron Age left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture and the Celtic La Tène culture. [19]

Antiquity

Much later, the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, [20] Korčula, and Vis. [21] In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. [22]

During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475. [23] The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of almost all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast, islands and mountains. The city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. [24]

The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain and there are several competing theories, Slavic and Iranian being the most frequently put forward. The most widely accepted of these, the Slavic theory, proposes migration of White Croats from the territory of White Croatia during the Migration Period. Conversely, the Iranian theory proposes Iranian origin, based on Tanais Tablets containing Greek inscription of given names Χορούαθος, Χοροάθος, and Χορόαθος (Khoroúathos, Khoroáthos, and Khoróathos) and their interpretation as anthroponyms of Croatian people. [25]

Middle Ages

Kingdom of Croatia c. 925, during the reign of King Tomislav Balkans925.png
Kingdom of Croatia c. 925, during the reign of King Tomislav

According to the work De Administrando Imperio written by the 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats had arrived in what is today Croatia in the early 7th century. However, that claim is disputed and competing hypotheses date the event between the 6th and the 9th centuries. [26] Eventually two dukedoms were formed—Duchy of Pannonia and Duchy of Croatia, ruled by Ljudevit and Borna, as attested by chronicles of Einhard starting in 818. The record represents the first document of Croatian realms, vassal states of Francia at the time. [27]

Arrival of Croats to the Adriatic Sea, Oton Ivekovic (1869-1939) Oton Ivekovic, Dolazak Hrvata na Jadran.jpg
Arrival of Croats to the Adriatic Sea, Oton Iveković (1869-1939)

The Frankish overlordship ended during the reign of Mislav two decades later. [28] According to the Constantine VII Christianization of Croats began in the 7th century, but the claim is disputed and generally Christianization is associated with the 9th century. [29] The first native Croatian ruler recognised by the Pope was Duke Branimir, who received papal recognition from Pope John VIII on 7 June 879. [14]

Tomislav was the first king of Croatia, styled as such in a letter of Pope John X in 925. Tomislav defeated Hungarian and Bulgarian invasions, spreading the influence of Croatian kings. [30] The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak in the 11th century during the reigns of Petar Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Dmitar Zvonimir (1075–1089). [31] When Stjepan II died in 1091 ending the Trpimirović dynasty, Dmitar Zvonimir's brother-in-law Ladislaus I of Hungary claimed the Croatian crown. This led to a war and personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102 under Coloman. [32]

The Baska tablet, the oldest evidence of the glagolitic script Baska tablet.jpg
The Baška tablet, the oldest evidence of the glagolitic script

For the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia was ruled by the Sabor (parliament) and a ban (viceroy) appointed by the king. [33] The period saw increasing threat of Ottoman conquest and struggle against the Republic of Venice for control of coastal areas. The Venetians gained control over most of Dalmatia by 1428, with exception of the city-state of Dubrovnik which became independent. Ottoman conquests led to the 1493 Battle of Krbava field and 1526 Battle of Mohács, both ending in decisive Ottoman victories. King Louis II died at Mohács, and in 1527, the Croatian Parliament met in Cetin and chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg as new ruler of Croatia, under the condition that he provide protection to Croatia against the Ottoman Empire while respecting its political rights. [33] [34] This period saw the rise of influential nobility such as the Frankopan and Zrinski families to prominence and ultimately numerous Bans from the two families. [35]

Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary

Croatian Ban Nikola Subic Zrinski is honoured as a national hero for his defence of Szigetvar against the invading Ottoman Turks Johann Peter Krafft 005.jpg
Croatian Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski is honoured as a national hero for his defence of Szigetvár against the invading Ottoman Turks

Following the decisive Ottoman victories, Croatia was split into civilian and military territories, with the partition formed in 1538. The military territories would become known as the Croatian Military Frontier and were under direct Imperial control. Ottoman advances in the Croatian territory continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, and stabilisation of borders. [34] During the Great Turkish War (1683–1698), Slavonia was regained but western Bosnia, which had been part of Croatia before the Ottoman conquest, remained outside Croatian control. [34] The present-day border between the two countries is a remnant of this outcome. Dalmatia, the southern part of the border, was similarly defined by the Fifth and the Seventh Ottoman–Venetian Wars. [36]

The Ottoman wars instigated great demographic changes. Croats migrated towards Austria and the present-day Burgenland Croats are direct descendants of these settlers. [37] To replace the fleeing population, the Habsburgs encouraged the Christian populations of Bosnia to provide military service in the Military Frontier. Most of the transferred population were Orthodox Vlachs (a term used for a community of mostly Orthodox refugees, mainly Serbs) [38] and the peak of transferring was during the 16th century. [39] [40] [41]

The Croatian Parliament supported King Charles III's Pragmatic Sanction and signed their own Pragmatic Sanction in 1712. [42] Subsequently, the emperor pledged to respect all privileges and political rights of Kingdom of Croatia and Queen Maria Theresa made significant contributions to Croatian matters.

Ban Josip Jelacic fought Hungarians in 1848 and 1849 Jellasics harcosai kozott.jpg
Ban Josip Jelačić fought Hungarians in 1848 and 1849

Between 1797 and 1809 the First French Empire gradually occupied the entire eastern Adriatic coastline and a substantial part of its hinterland, ending the Venetian and the Ragusan republics, establishing the Illyrian Provinces. [34] In response the Royal Navy started the blockade of the Adriatic Sea leading to the Battle of Vis in 1811. [43] The Illyrian Provinces were captured by the Austrians in 1813, and absorbed by the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. This led to formation of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and restoration of the Croatian Littoral to the Kingdom of Croatia, now both under the same crown. [44] The 1830s and 1840s saw romantic nationalism inspire the Croatian National Revival, a political and cultural campaign advocating the unity of all South Slavs in the empire. Its primary focus was the establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian, along with the promotion of Croatian literature and culture. [45] During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Croatia sided with the Austrians, Ban Josip Jelačić helping defeat the Hungarian forces in 1849, and ushering a period of Germanization policy. [46]

The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (no. 17) was an autonomous kingdom within Austria-Hungary created in 1868 following the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement Austria-Hungary map.svg
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (no. 17) was an autonomous kingdom within Austria-Hungary created in 1868 following the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement

By the 1860s, failure of the policy became apparent, leading to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and creation of a personal union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The treaty left the issue of Croatia's status to Hungary, and the status was resolved by the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868 when kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were united. [47] The Kingdom of Dalmatia remained under de facto Austrian control, while Rijeka retained the status of Corpus separatum introduced in 1779. [32]

After Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina following the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, the Croatian Military Frontier was abolished and the territory returned to Croatia in 1881, [34] pursuant to provisions of the Croatian-Hungarian settlement. [48] [49] Renewed efforts to reform Austria-Hungary, entailing federalisation with Croatia as a federal unit, were stopped by advent of World War I. [50]

Yugoslavia (1918–1991)

On 29 October 1918 the Croatian Parliament (Sabor) declared independence and decided to join the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, [33] which in turn entered into union with the Kingdom of Serbia on 4 December 1918 to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. [51] The Croatian Parliament never ratified a decision to unite with Serbia and Montenegro. [33] The 1921 constitution defining the country as a unitary state and abolition of Croatian Parliament and historical administrative divisions effectively ended Croatian autonomy.

Stjepan Radic, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party who advocated federal organisation of the Yugoslavia, at the assembly in Dubrovnik, 1928 Radic govori na skupstini.jpg
Stjepan Radić, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party who advocated federal organisation of the Yugoslavia, at the assembly in Dubrovnik, 1928

The new constitution was opposed by the most widely supported national political party—the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) led by Stjepan Radić. [52]

The political situation deteriorated further as Radić was assassinated in the National Assembly in 1928, leading to the dictatorship of King Alexander in January 1929. [53] The dictatorship formally ended in 1931 when the king imposed a more unitarian constitution, and changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia. [54] The HSS, now led by Vladko Maček, continued to advocate federalisation of Yugoslavia, resulting in the Cvetković–Maček Agreement of August 1939 and the autonomous Banovina of Croatia. The Yugoslav government retained control of defence, internal security, foreign affairs, trade, and transport while other matters were left to the Croatian Sabor and a crown-appointed Ban. [55]

People of Zagreb celebrating liberation from Axis powers by Yugoslav People's Army on 12 May 1945 Jelacicev trg 12.5.1945.jpg
People of Zagreb celebrating liberation from Axis powers by Yugoslav People's Army on 12 May 1945

In April 1941, Yugoslavia was occupied by Germany and Italy. Following the invasion the territory, parts of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the region of Syrmia were incorporated into the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), a Nazi-backed puppet state. Parts of Dalmatia were annexed by Italy, and the northern Croatian regions of Baranja and Međimurje by Hungary. [56] The NDH regime was led by Ante Pavelić and ultranationalist Ustaše. NDH was trying to establish such an internal structure that would be consistent with that of the Third Reich and fascist Italy so its authorities introduced racial laws against Jews, Roma and Serbs many of whome were imprisoned in concentration camps. [57] In the same time, antifascist Croats were targeted by the regime as well. The number of Croats killed in the NDH is estimated to be approximately 200,000, either by Ustaše, as members of the resistance movement, or as Axis collaborators. [58] [59] Chetniks killed between 18,000 and 32,000 Croats in whole of Yugoslavia. [60] Furthermore, it is estimated that Ustashe regime systematically murdered somewhere between 200,000 and 340,000 Serbs. [61] [62] [63]

A resistance movement soon emerged. On 22 June 1941, [64] the 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment was formed near Sisak, as the first military unit formed by a resistance movement in occupied Europe. [65] This sparked the beginning of the Yugoslav Partisan movement, a communist multi-ethnic anti-fascist resistance group led by Josip Broz Tito. [66] The movement grew rapidly and at the Tehran Conference in December 1943 the Partisans gained recognition from the Allies. [67]

With Allied support in logistics, equipment, training and air power, and with the assistance of Soviet troops taking part in the 1944 Belgrade Offensive, the Partisans gained control of Yugoslavia and the border regions of Italy and Austria by May 1945, during which thousands of members of the Ustaše, as well as Croat refugees, were killed by the Yugoslav Partisans. [68]

The political aspirations of the Partisan movement were reflected in the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia, which developed in 1943 as the bearer of Croatian statehood and later transformed into the Parliament of Croatia in 1945, and AVNOJ—its counterpart at the Yugoslav level. [69] [70]

Josip Broz Tito led SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito with the US president Richard Nixon in the White House, 1971 Nixontito19712.jpg
Josip Broz Tito led SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito with the US president Richard Nixon in the White House, 1971

After World War II, Croatia became a single-party socialist federal unit of the SFR Yugoslavia, ruled by the Communists, but enjoying a degree of autonomy within the federation. In 1967, Croatian authors and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language demanding greater autonomy for Croatian language. [71] The declaration contributed to a national movement seeking greater civil rights and decentralization of the Yugoslav economy, culminating in the Croatian Spring of 1971, suppressed by Yugoslav leadership. [72] Still, the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution gave increased autonomy to federal units, basically fulfilling a goal of the Croatian Spring, and providing a legal basis for independence of the federative constituents. [73]

Following the death of Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito in 1980, the political situation in Yugoslavia deteriorated, with national tension fanned by the 1986 SANU Memorandum and the 1989 coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro. [74] [75] In January 1990, the Communist Party fragmented along national lines, with the Croatian faction demanding a looser federation. [76] In the same year, the first multi-party elections were held in Croatia, with Franjo Tuđman's win raising nationalist tensions further. [77] Some of Serbs in Croatia left Sabor and declared the autonomy of areas that would soon become the unrecognised Republic of Serbian Krajina, intent on achieving independence from Croatia. [78] [79]

Independence (1991–present)

Destroyed Yugoslav Army tank, a scene from the Croatian War of Independence Serb T-55 Battle of the Barracks.JPG
Destroyed Yugoslav Army tank, a scene from the Croatian War of Independence

As tensions rose, Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991. However, the full implementation of declaration only came into effect on 8 October 1991. [80] [81] In the meantime, tensions escalated into overt war when the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and various Serb paramilitary groups attacked Croatia. [82] By the end of 1991, a high-intensity conflict fought along a wide front reduced Croatia to control of only about two-thirds of its territory. [83] [84] The various Serb paramilitary groups then began pursuing a campaign of killing, terror and expulsion against the Croats in the rebel territories, killing thousands [85] of Croat civilians and expelling or displacing as many as 400,000 Croats and other non-Serbs from their homes. [86]

Franjo Tudman was the first democratically elected President of Croatia Tudman i Ana Havel.jpg
Franjo Tuđman was the first democratically elected President of Croatia

On 15 January 1992, Croatia gained diplomatic recognition by the European Economic Community members, and subsequently the United Nations. [87] [88] The war effectively ended in August 1995 with a decisive victory by Croatia; [89] the event is commemorated each year on 5 August as Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day and the Day of Croatian Defenders. [90] Following the Croatian victory, about 200,000 Serbs from the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina fled from the region [91] and their lands were subsequently settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina. [92] The remaining occupied areas were restored to Croatia pursuant to the Erdut Agreement of November 1995, with the process concluded in January 1998. [93]

Croatia has been a member of the European Union since 2013. Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg
Croatia has been a member of the European Union since 2013.

Following the end of the war, Croatia faced the challenges of post-war reconstruction, the return of refugees, advancing democratic principles, protection of human rights and general social and economic development. The post-2000 period is characterized by democratization, economic growth and structural and social reforms, as well as problems such as unemployment, corruption and the inefficiency of the public administration.[ citation needed ]

Croatia joined the Partnership for Peace on 25 May 2000 [94] and become a member of the World Trade Organization on 30 November 2000. [95] On 29 October 2001, Croatia signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union, [96] submitted a formal application for the EU membership in 2003, [97] was given the status of candidate country in 2004, [98] and began accession negotiations in 2005. [99] In November 2000 and March 2001, the Parliament amended the Constitution changing its bicameral structure back into historic unicameral and reducing the presidential powers. [100]

Although Croatia experienced a significant boom in the economy in the early 2000s, the increase of the government debt and the absence of concrete reforms led to a financial crisis in 2008 which forced the government to cut public spending thus provoking a public outcry. [101] On 1 April 2009, Croatia joined NATO. [102] A wave of anti-government protests organized via Facebook took place in early 2011 as general dissatisfaction with political and economic state grew. [103]

The majority of Croatian voters voted in favour of country's EU membership at the 2012 referendum. [104] Croatia completed EU accession negotiations in 2011 and joined the European Union on 1 July 2013. [105] Croatia was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015 when Hungary's closure of its borders with Serbia forced over 700,000 migrants to use Croatia as a transit country on their way to Western Europe. [106]

Geography

Satellite image of Croatia Satellite image of Croatia in September 2003.jpg
Satellite image of Croatia

Croatia is located in Central and Southeast Europe, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. It borders Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and Slovenia to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Part of the territory in the extreme south surrounding Dubrovnik is a practical exclave connected to the rest of the mainland by territorial waters, but separated on land by a short coastline strip belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum. [107]

The territory covers 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles), consisting of 56,414 square kilometres (21,782 square miles) of land and 128 square kilometres (49 square miles) of water. It is the 127th largest country in the world. [108] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Dinaric Alps with the highest point of the Dinara peak at 1,831 metres (6,007 feet) near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the south [108] to the shore of the Adriatic Sea which makes up its entire southwest border. Insular Croatia consists of over a thousand islands and islets varying in size, 48 of which are permanently inhabited. The largest islands are Cres and Krk, [108] each of them having an area of around 405 square kilometres (156 square miles).

Plitvice Lakes is the most visited national park of Croatia Plitvice Lakes National Park (2).jpg
Plitvice Lakes is the most visited national park of Croatia
Velebit is the largest mountain range in Croatia Alancic 09.jpg
Velebit is the largest mountain range in Croatia

The hilly northern parts of Hrvatsko Zagorje and the flat plains of Slavonia in the east which is part of the Pannonian Basin are traversed by major rivers such as Danube, Drava, Kupa, and Sava. The Danube, Europe's second longest river, runs through the city of Vukovar in the extreme east and forms part of the border with Vojvodina. The central and southern regions near the Adriatic coastline and islands consist of low mountains and forested highlands. Natural resources found in the country in quantities significant enough for production include oil, coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, and hydropower. [108] Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps. [109] There are a number of deep caves in Croatia, 49 of which are deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft), 14 of them deeper than 500 m (1,640.42 ft) and three deeper than 1,000 m (3,280.84 ft). Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes, a system of 16 lakes with waterfalls connecting them over dolomite and limestone cascades. The lakes are renowned for their distinctive colours, ranging from turquoise to mint green, grey or blue. [110]

Biodiversity

Telascica Nature Park is one of 444 protected areas of Croatia Telascica-Cliff.JPG
Telašćica Nature Park is one of 444 protected areas of Croatia
Wooden trail through nature park Kopacki Rit in Osijek-Baranja County Kopacki rit wooden trail.JPG
Wooden trail through nature park Kopački Rit in Osijek-Baranja County

Croatia can be subdivided between a number of ecoregions because of its climate and geomorphology. The country is consequently one of the richest in Europe in terms of biodiversity. There are four types of biogeographical regions in Croatia—Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland, Alpine in most of Lika and Gorski Kotar, Pannonian along Drava and Danube, and Continental in the remaining areas. One of the most significant are karst habitats which include submerged karst, such as Zrmanja and Krka canyons and tufa barriers, as well as underground habitats.

The karst geology harbours approximately 7,000 caves and pits, some of which are the habitat of the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm. Forests are also significantly present in the country, as they cover 2,490,000 hectares (6,200,000 acres) representing 44% of Croatian land surface. Other habitat types include wetlands, grasslands, bogs, fens, scrub habitats, coastal and marine habitats. [111] In terms of phytogeography, Croatia is a part of the Boreal Kingdom and is a part of Illyrian and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region and the Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. The World Wide Fund for Nature divides Croatia between three ecoregions—Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests. [112]

There are 37,000 known species in Croatia, but their actual number is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000. [111] The claim is supported by nearly 400 new taxa of invertebrates discovered in Croatia in the first half of the 2000s alone. [111] There are more than a thousand endemic species, especially in Velebit and Biokovo mountains, Adriatic islands and karst rivers. Legislation protects 1,131 species. [111] The most serious threat to species is loss and degradation of habitats. A further problem is presented by invasive alien species, especially Caulerpa taxifolia algae.

The invasive algae are regularly monitored and removed to protect the benthic habitat. Indigenous sorts of cultivated plants and breeds of domesticated animals are also numerous. Those include five breeds of horses, five breeds of cattle, eight breeds of sheep, two breeds of pigs, and a poultry breed. Even the indigenous breeds include nine endangered or critically endangered ones. [111] There are 444 protected areas of Croatia, encompassing 9% of the country. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The most famous protected area and the oldest national park in Croatia is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Velebit Nature Park is a part of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The strict and special reserves, as well as the national and nature parks, are managed and protected by the central government, while other protected areas are managed by counties. In 2005, the National Ecological Network was set up, as the first step in the preparation of the EU accession and joining of the Natura 2000 network. [111]

Climate

Bora is a dry, cold wind which blows from the mainland out to sea, whose gusts can reach hurricane strength, particularly in the channel below Velebit, e.g. in the town of Senj Winter bora in Senj.jpg
Bora is a dry, cold wind which blows from the mainland out to sea, whose gusts can reach hurricane strength, particularly in the channel below Velebit, e.g. in the town of Senj

Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification. Mean monthly temperature ranges between −3  °C (27  °F ) in January and 18 °C (64 °F) in July. The coldest parts of the country are Lika and Gorski Kotar where snowy forested climate is found at elevations above 1,200 metres (3,900 feet). The warmest areas of Croatia are at the Adriatic coast and especially in its immediate hinterland characterised by the Mediterranean climate, as the temperature highs are moderated by the sea. Consequently, temperature peaks are more pronounced in the continental areas. The lowest temperature of −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) was recorded on 3 February 1919 in Čakovec, and the highest temperature of 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) was recorded on 4 August 1981 in Ploče. [113] [114]

Mean annual precipitation ranges between 600 millimetres (24 inches) and 3,500 millimetres (140 inches) depending on geographic region and prevailing climate type. The least precipitation is recorded in the outer islands (Biševo, Lastovo, Svetac, Vis) and in the eastern parts of Slavonia. However, in the latter case, it occurs mostly during the growing season. The maximum precipitation levels are observed on the Dinara mountain range and in Gorski kotar. [113]

Prevailing winds in the interior are light to moderate northeast or southwest, and in the coastal area, prevailing winds are determined by local area features. Higher wind velocities are more often recorded in cooler months along the coast, generally as the cool northeasterly bura or less frequently as the warm southerly jugo. The sunniest parts of the country are the outer islands, Hvar and Korčula, where more than 2700 hours of sunshine are recorded per year, followed by the middle and southern Adriatic Sea area in general, and northern Adriatic coast, all with more than 2000 hours of sunshine per year. [115]

Politics

The Republic of Croatia is a unitary state using a parliamentary system of governance. With the collapse of the ruling communist party in SFR Yugoslavia, Croatia organized its first multi-party elections and adopted its present constitution in 1990. [116] It declared independence on 8 October 1991 which led to the break-up of Yugoslavia and countries international recognition by the United Nations in 1992. [81] [88] Under its 1990 Constitution, Croatia operated a semi-presidential system until 2000 when it switched to a parliamentary system. [117] Government powers in Croatia are divided into legislative, executive and judiciary powers. [118]

Grand Hall of the Croatian Parliament - Sabor Vlada predstavljanje.jpg
Grand Hall of the Croatian Parliament − Sabor

The President of the Republic (Croatian : Predsjednik Republike) is the head of state, directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the prime minister with the consent of the parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy. [118] The most recent presidential elections were held on 11 January 2015, when Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović won. She took the oath of office on 15 February 2015. [119] The Government is headed by the Prime Minister, who has four deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in charge of particular sectors of activity. [120] As the executive branch, it is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic. The Government is seated at Banski dvori in Zagreb. [118] Since 19 October 2016, Croatian Prime Minister has been Andrej Plenković.

A unicameral parliament (Sabor) holds legislative power. A second chamber, the House of Counties, set up in 1993 pursuant to the 1990 Constitution, was abolished in 2001. The number of Sabor members can vary from 100 to 160; they are all elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The sessions of the Sabor take place from 15 January to 15 July, and from 15 September to 15 December. [121] The two largest political parties in Croatia are the Croatian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia. [122]

Law and judicial system

Seat of the Constitutional Court on the St. Mark's Square, Zagreb Ustavni sud RH nakon obnove.jpg
Seat of the Constitutional Court on the St. Mark's Square, Zagreb

Croatia has a civil law legal system in which law arises primarily from written statutes, with judges serving merely as implementers and not creators of law. Its development was largely influenced by German and Austrian legal systems. Croatian law is divided into two principal areas—private and public law. By the time EU accession negotiations were completed on 30 June 2010, Croatian legislation was fully harmonised with the Community acquis. [123] The main law in the county is the Constitution adopted on December 22, 1990.

The main national courts are the Constitutional Court, which oversees violations of the Constitution, and the Supreme Court, which is the highest court of appeal. In addition, there are also Administrative, Commercial, County, Misdemeanor, and Municipal courts. [124] Cases falling within judicial jurisdiction are in the first instance decided by a single professional judge, while appeals are deliberated in mixed tribunals of professional judges. Lay magistrates also participate in trials. [125] State's Attorney Office is the judicial body constituted of public prosecutors that is empowered to instigate prosecution of perpetrators of offences. [126]

Law enforcement agencies are organised under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior which consist primarily of the national police force. Croatia's security service is the Security and Intelligence Agency (SOA).

Administrative divisions

Croatia was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages. [127] The divisions changed over time to reflect losses of territory to Ottoman conquest and subsequent liberation of the same territory, changes of political status of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, and Istria. The traditional division of the country into counties was abolished in the 1920s when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the subsequent Kingdom of Yugoslavia introduced oblasts and banovinas respectively. [128]

Varazdin, capital of Croatia between 1767 and 1776, is the seat of Varazdin county; Pictured: Old Town fortress, one of 15 Croatia's sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list Varazdin - panoramio.jpg
Varaždin, capital of Croatia between 1767 and 1776, is the seat of Varaždin county; Pictured: Old Town fortress, one of 15 Croatia's sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list

Communist-ruled Croatia, as a constituent part of post-World War II Yugoslavia, abolished earlier divisions and introduced municipalities, subdividing Croatia into approximately one hundred municipalities. Counties were reintroduced in 1992 legislation, significantly altered in terms of territory relative to the pre-1920s subdivisions. In 1918, the Transleithanian part of Croatia was divided into eight counties with their seats in Bjelovar, Gospić, Ogulin, Osijek, Požega, Varaždin, Vukovar, and Zagreb, and the 1992 legislation established 14 counties in the same territory. [129] [130]

Since the counties were re-established in 1992, Croatia is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, the latter having the authority and legal status of a county and a city at the same time. Borders of the counties changed in some instances since, with the latest revision taking place in 2006. The counties subdivide into 127 cities and 429 municipalities. [131] Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) division of Croatia is performed in several tiers. NUTS 1 level places the entire country in a single unit, while there are three NUTS 2 regions. Those are Northwest Croatia, Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia, and Adriatic Croatia. The latter encompasses all the counties along the Adriatic coast. Northwest Croatia includes Koprivnica-Križevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Međimurje, Varaždin, the city of Zagreb, and Zagreb counties and the Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia includes the remaining areas—Bjelovar-Bilogora, Brod-Posavina, Karlovac, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Sisak-Moslavina, Virovitica-Podravina, and Vukovar-Syrmia counties. Individual counties and the city of Zagreb also represent NUTS 3 level subdivision units in Croatia. The NUTS Local administrative unit divisions are two-tiered. LAU 1 divisions match the counties and the city of Zagreb in effect making those the same as NUTS 3 units, while LAU 2 subdivisions correspond to the cities and municipalities of Croatia. [132]

County SeatArea (km²)Population
Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovar 2,652119,743
Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod 2,043158,559
Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovnik 1,783122,783
Istria Pazin 2,820208,440
Karlovac Karlovac 3,622128,749
Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivnica 1,746115,582
Krapina-Zagorje Krapina 1,224133,064
Lika-Senj Gospić 5,35051,022
Međimurje Čakovec 730114,414
Osijek-Baranja Osijek 4,152304,899
Požega-Slavonia Požega 1,84578,031
Primorje-Gorski Kotar Rijeka 3,582296,123
Šibenik-Knin Šibenik 2,939109,320
Sisak-Moslavina Sisak 4,463172,977
Split-Dalmatia Split 4,534455,242
Varaždin Varaždin 1,261176,046
Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica 2,06884,586
Vukovar-Srijem Vukovar 2,448180,117
Zadar Zadar 3,642170,398
Zagreb County Zagreb3,078317,642
City of Zagreb Zagreb641792,875

Foreign relations

Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 181 countries. [133] As of 2017, Croatia maintains a network of 54 embassies, 28 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 consulates in the Republic of Croatia in addition to offices of international organisations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Organization for Migration, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and UNICEF. [134] In 2009, the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration employed 1,381 personnel and expended 648.2 million kuna (€86.4 million). [135] Stated aims of Croatian foreign policy include enhancing relations with neighbouring countries, developing international co-operation and promotion of the Croatian economy and Croatia itself. [136]

Flag hoisting ceremony at Ministry of Defence marking Croatian accession to the NATO in 2009 Podizanje NATO zastave 070409 pano 1.jpg
Flag hoisting ceremony at Ministry of Defence marking Croatian accession to the NATO in 2009

Since 2003, Croatian foreign policy has focused on achieving the strategic goal of becoming a member state of the European Union (EU). [137] [138] In December 2011, Croatia completed the EU accession negotiations and signed an EU accession treaty on 9 December 2011. [139] [140] Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013 marking the end of a process started in 2001 by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement and Croatian application for the EU membership in 2003. [141] A recurring obstacle to the negotiations was Croatia's ICTY co-operation record and Slovenian blocking of the negotiations because of Croatia–Slovenia border disputes. [142] [143] The latter should be resolved through an Arbitration Agreement of 4 November 2009, approved by national parliaments and a referendum in Slovenia., [144] but due to the events during arbitration Croatia does not accept results. As of 2019, Croatia has unsolved border issues with all neighbouring former Yugoslav countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia). [145]

Another strategic Croatian foreign policy goal for the 2000s was NATO membership. [137] [138] Croatia was included in the Partnership for Peace in 2000, invited to NATO membership in 2008 and formally joined the alliance on 1 April 2009. [146] [147] Croatia became a member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2008–2009 term, assuming presidency in December 2008. [148] The country is preparing to join the Schengen Area. [149]

Military

Croatian Air Force and US Navy aircraft participate in multinational training, 2002 US Navy 021029-N-1955P-020 Navy aircraft participate in Joint Wings 2002.jpg
Croatian Air Force and US Navy aircraft participate in multinational training, 2002
Croatian army soldiers - training exercise during the Immediate Response 2012 (IR12) training event held in Slunj Providing security (7296490988).jpg
Croatian army soldiers - training exercise during the Immediate Response 2012 (IR12) training event held in Slunj

The Croatian Armed Forces (CAF) consist of the Air Force, Army, and Navy branches in addition to the Education and Training Command and Support Command. The CAF is headed by the General Staff, which reports to the Defence Minister, who in turn reports to the President of Croatia. According to the constitution, the President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and in case of immediate threat during wartime he issues orders directly to the General Staff. [150]

Following the 1991–95 war defence spending and CAF size have been in constant decline. As of 2005 military spending was an estimated 2.39% of the country's GDP, which placed Croatia 64th in a ranking of all countries. [108] Since 2005 the budget was kept below 2% of GDP, down from the record high of 11.1% in 1994. [151] Traditionally relying on a large number of conscripts, CAF also went through a period of reforms focused on downsizing, restructuring and professionalisation in the years prior to Croatia's accession to NATO in April 2009. According to a presidential decree issued in 2006 the CAF is set to employ 18,100 active duty military personnel, 3,000 civilians and 2,000 voluntary conscripts between the ages of 18 and 30 in peacetime. [150] Compulsory conscription was abolished in January 2008. [108] Until 2008 military service was compulsory for men at age 18 and conscripts served six-month tours of duty, reduced in 2001 from the earlier scheme of nine-month conscription tours. Conscientious objectors could instead opt for an eight-month civilian service. [152] As of April 2011 the Croatian military had 120 members stationed in foreign countries as part of United Nations-led international peacekeeping forces, including 95 serving as part of the UNDOF in the Golan Heights. [153] As of 2011 an additional 350 troops serve as part of the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan and another 20 with the KFOR in Kosovo. [154] [155]

Croatia also has a significant military industry sector which exported around US$120 million worth of military equipment and armament in 2010. [156] Croatian-made weapons and vehicles used by CAF include the standard sidearm HS2000 manufactured by HS Produkt and the M-84D battle tank designed by the Đuro Đaković factory. Uniforms and helmets worn by CAF soldiers are also locally produced and successfully marketed to other countries. [156]

Economy

The largest Croatian companies by turnover in 2015 [157] [158]
RankNameRevenue
(Mil. €)
Profit
(Mil. €)
1 Agrokor Increase2.svg 6,435Increase2.svg 131
2 INA Decrease2.svg 2,476Increase2.svg 122
3 Konzum Increase2.svg 1,711Increase2.svg 18
4 Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP)Increase2.svg 1,694Decrease2.svg 260
5 Orbico Group Steady2.svg 1,253Increase2.svg 17

Croatia is classified as a high-income economy by the United Nations. [159] International Monetary Fund data projects that Croatian nominal GDP stands at $60,688 billion, or $14,816 per capita for 2018, while purchasing power parity GDP stands at $107.406 billion, or $26,221 per capita. [160] According to Eurostat, Croatian PPS GDP per capita stood at 63% of the EU average in 2018. [161]

Real GDP growth in 2018 was 2,6 per cent. [162] The average net salary of a Croatian worker in January 2019 was 6,400 HRK per month (roughly 865 EUR), and the average gross salary was 8,670 HRK per month (roughly 1,175 EUR). [163] As of July 2019, the unemployment rate dropped to 7.2% from 9.6% in December 2018. The number of unemployed persons was 106.703. Unemployment Rate in Croatia in years 1996–2018 averaged 17.38%, reaching an all-time high of 23.60% in January 2002 and a record low of 8.40% in September 2018. [164] In 2017, economic output was dominated by the service sector which accounted for 70.1% of GDP, followed by the industrial sector with 26.2% and agriculture accounting for 3.7% of GDP. [165] According to 2017 data, 1.9% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, 27.3% by industry and 70.8% in services. [165] The industrial sector is dominated by shipbuilding, food processing, pharmaceuticals, information technology, biochemical and timber industry. In 2018, Croatian exports were valued at 108  billion kuna (€14.61 billion) with 176 billion kuna (€23.82 billion) worth of imports. Croatia's largest trading partner was the rest of the European Union, with top three countries being Germany, Italy and Slovenia. [166]

Istrian vineyards; Wine is produced in nearly all regions of Croatia Istria3.JPG
Istrian vineyards; Wine is produced in nearly all regions of Croatia

Privatization and the drive toward a market economy had barely begun under the new Croatian Government when war broke out in 1991. As a result of the war, the economic infrastructure sustained massive damage, particularly the revenue-rich tourism industry. From 1989 to 1993, the GDP fell 40.5%. The Croatian state still controls a significant part of the economy, with government expenditures accounting for as much as 40% of GDP. [167] A backlogged judiciary system, combined with inefficient public administration, especially on issues of land ownership and corruption, are particular concerns. In the 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index, published by Transparency International, the country is ranked 60th with a score of 48, where zero denotes "highly corrupt" and 100 "very clean". [168] In June 2013, the national debt stood at 59.5% of the nation's GDP. [169]

Tourism

Zlatni Rat beach on the Island of Brac is one of the foremost spots of tourism in Croatia. Island Brac (20785918360).jpg
Zlatni Rat beach on the Island of Brač is one of the foremost spots of tourism in Croatia.

Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector and accounts for up to 20% of Croatian GDP. Annual tourist industry income for 2017 was estimated at €9.5 billion. [170] Its positive effects are felt throughout the economy of Croatia in terms of increased business volume observed in retail business, processing industry orders and summer seasonal employment. The industry is considered an export business, because it significantly reduces the country's external trade imbalance. [171] Since the end of the Croatian War of Independence, the tourist industry has grown rapidly, recording a fourfold rise in tourist numbers, with more than 11 million tourists each year. [172] The most numerous are tourists from Germany, Slovenia, Austria, Italy, and Poland as well as Croatia itself. [173] Length of a tourist stay in Croatia averaged 4.9 days in 2011. [174]

The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Opatija was the first holiday resort. It first became popular in the middle of the 19th century. By the 1890s, it had become one of the most significant European health resorts. [175] Later a number of resorts sprang up along the coast and islands, offering services catering to both mass tourism and various niche markets. The most significant are nautical tourism, as there are numerous marinas with more than 16 thousand berths, cultural tourism relying on appeal of medieval coastal cities and numerous cultural events taking place during the summer. Inland areas offer agrotourism, mountain resorts, and spas. Zagreb is also a significant tourist destination, rivalling major coastal cities and resorts. [176]

Croatia has unpolluted marine areas reflected through numerous nature reserves and 116 Blue Flag beaches. [177] Croatia is ranked as the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world. [178] About 15% of these visitors, or over one million per year, are involved with naturism, an industry for which Croatia is world-famous. It was also the first European country to develop commercial naturist resorts. [179]

Infrastructure

Krk Bridge Krk Bridge Tihi Kanal-2.jpg
Krk Bridge
Highway network in Croatia Kroatien Autobahnen (aktueller Stand).svg
Highway network in Croatia
New terminal of the Franjo Tudjman Airport Zagreb Airport New Terminal.jpg
New terminal of the Franjo Tudjman Airport

The highlight of Croatia's recent infrastructure developments is its rapidly developed motorway network, largely built in the late 1990s and especially in the 2000s (decade). By September 2011, Croatia had completed more than 1,100 kilometres (680 miles) of motorways, connecting Zagreb to most other regions and following various European routes and four Pan-European corridors. [180] [181] [182] The busiest motorways are the A1, connecting Zagreb to Split and the A3, passing east–west through northwest Croatia and Slavonia. [183]

A widespread network of state roads in Croatia acts as motorway feeder roads while connecting all major settlements in the country. The high quality and safety levels of the Croatian motorway network were tested and confirmed by several EuroTAP and EuroTest programs. [184] [185]

Croatia has an extensive rail network spanning 2,722 kilometres (1,691 miles), including 984 kilometres (611 miles) of electrified railways and 254 kilometres (158 miles) of double track railways. [186] The most significant railways in Croatia are found within the Pan-European transport corridors Vb and X connecting Rijeka to Budapest and Ljubljana to Belgrade, both via Zagreb. [180] All rail services are operated by Croatian Railways. [187] There are international airports in Dubrovnik, Osijek, Pula, Rijeka, Split, Zadar, and Zagreb. [188] The largest and busiest is Franjo Tuđman Airport in Zagreb. [189] As of January 2011, Croatia complies with International Civil Aviation Organization aviation safety standards and the Federal Aviation Administration upgraded it to Category 1 rating. [190]

The busiest cargo seaport in Croatia is the Port of Rijeka and the busiest passenger ports are Split and Zadar. [191] [192] In addition to those, a large number of minor ports serve an extensive system of ferries connecting numerous islands and coastal cities in addition to ferry lines to several cities in Italy. [193] The largest river port is Vukovar, located on the Danube, representing the nation's outlet to the Pan-European transport corridor VII. [180] [194]

There are 610 kilometres (380 miles) of crude oil pipelines in Croatia, connecting the Port of Rijeka oil terminal with refineries in Rijeka and Sisak, as well as several transhipment terminals. The system has a capacity of 20 million tonnes per year. [195] The natural gas transportation system comprises 2,113 kilometres (1,313 miles) of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines, and more than 300 associated structures, connecting production rigs, the Okoli natural gas storage facility, 27 end-users and 37 distribution systems. [196]

Croatian production of energy sources covers 85% of nationwide natural gas demand and 19% of oil demand. In 2008, 47.6% of Croatia's primary energy production structure comprised use of natural gas (47.7%), crude oil (18.0%), fuel wood (8.4%), hydro power (25.4%) and other renewable energy sources (0.5%). In 2009, net total electrical power production in Croatia reached 12,725 GWh and Croatia imported 28.5% of its electric power energy needs. [107] The bulk of Croatian imports are supplied by the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, 50% owned by Hrvatska elektroprivreda, providing 15% of Croatia's electricity. [197]

Demographics

With an estimated population of 4.13 million in 2019, Croatia ranks 127th by population in the world. [198] Its population density stood in 2018 at 72,9 inhabitants per square kilometer, making Croatia one of the more sparsely populated European countries. [199] The overall life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 76.3 years in 2018. [165]

Most populous cities of Croatia

Zagreb (29255640143).jpg
Zagreb
Split (20897562701).jpg
Split

Rank City County Urban populationCity-governed population

Rijeka Riva promenade aerial.jpg
Rijeka
Osijek-Tvrdja DSC 0144 999.jpg
Osijek

1 Zagreb City of Zagreb 688,163790,017
2 Split Split-Dalmatia 167,121178,102
3 Rijeka Primorje-Gorski Kotar 128,314128,624
4 Osijek Osijek-Baranja 83,104108,048
5 Zadar Zadar 71,47175,082
6 Pula Istria 57,46057,460
7 Slavonski Brod Brod-Posavina 53,53159,143
8 Karlovac Karlovac 46,83355,705
9 Varaždin Varaždin 38,83946,946
10 Šibenik Šibenik-Knin 34,30246,332
Source: 2011 Census [200]
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1890 2,854,558    
1900 3,161,456+10.8%
1910 3,460,584+9.5%
1921 3,443,375−0.5%
1931 3,785,455+9.9%
1948 3,779,958−0.1%
1953 3,936,022+4.1%
1961 4,159,696+5.7%
1971 4,426,221+6.4%
1981 4,601,469+4.0%
1991 4,784,265+4.0%
2001 4,492,049−6.1%
2011 4,456,096−0.8%
As of 29 June 2011

The total fertility rate of 1.41 children per mother, is one of the lowest in the world, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 6.18 children born per woman in 1885. [201] [165] Since 1991, Croatia's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. [107] Croatia subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.3 years. [202] Since the late 1990s, there has been a positive net migration into Croatia, reaching a level of more than 26,000 net immigrants in 2018. [203] [204] The Croatian Bureau of Statistics forecast that the population may shrink to 3.85 million by 2061, depending on actual birth rate and the level of net migration. [205] The population of Croatia rose steadily from 2.1 million in 1857 until 1991, when it peaked at 4.7 million, with exception of censuses taken in 1921 and 1948, i.e. following two world wars. [107] The natural growth rate of the population is currently negative [108] with the demographic transition completed in the 1970s. [206] In recent years, the Croatian government has been pressured each year to increase permit quotas for foreign workers, reaching an all-time high of 68.100 in 2019. [207] In accordance with its immigration policy, Croatia is trying to entice emigrants to return. [208]

Population pyramid 2017 Croatiapop.svg
Population pyramid 2017

The population decrease was also a result of the Croatian War of Independence. During the war, large sections of the population were displaced and emigration increased. In 1991, in predominantly occupied areas, more than 400,000 Croats were either removed from their homes by the rebel Serb forces or fled the violence. [209] During the final days of the war in 1995, about 150−200,000 Serbs fled before the arrival of Croatian forces during the Operation Storm. [91] [210] After the war, the number of displaced persons fell to about 250,000. The Croatian government has taken care of displaced persons by the social security system, and since December 1991 through the Office of Displaced Persons and Refugees. [211] Most of the territories which were abandoned during the Croatian War of Independence were settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly from north-western Bosnia, while some of the displaced people returned to their homes. [212] [213]

According to the 2013 United Nations report, 17.6% of Croatia's population were foreign-born immigrants. [214] Majority of the inhabitants of Croatia are Croats (90.4%), followed by Serbs (4.4%), Bosniaks (0.73%), Italians (0.42%), Albanians (0.41%, Roma (0.40%), Hungarians (0.33%), Slovenes (0.25%), Czechs (0.22%), Montenegrins (0.11%), Slovaks (0.11%), Macedonians (0.10%), and others (2.12%). [4] Approximately 4 million Croats live abroad. [215]

Religion

Religion in Croatia [216]
religionpercent
Roman Catholicism
86.28%
Eastern Orthodoxy
4.44%
Islam
1.47%
Protestantism
0.34%
Atheism or Agnosticism
4.57%
Others and unspecified
3.24%

Croatia has no official religion. Freedom of religion is a right defined by the Constitution which also defines all religious communities as equal before the law and separated from the state. [217]

According to the 2011 census, 91.36% of Croatians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 86.28% of the population, after which follows Eastern Orthodoxy (4.44%), Protestantism (0.34%) and other Christian (0.30%). The largest religion after Christianity is Islam (1.47%). 4.57% of the population describe themselves as non-religious. [218]

Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik was included on the UNESCO Cultural World Heritage List in 2000 Sibenik, Katedrala sv. Jakova - sjeveroistok.jpg
Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik was included on the UNESCO Cultural World Heritage List in 2000

In the Eurostat Eurobarometer Poll of 2010, 69% of the population of Croatia responded that "they believe there is a God". [219] In a 2009 Gallup poll, 70% answered yes to the question "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" [220] However, only 24% of the population attends religious services regularly. [221]

Languages

Croatian is the official language of Croatia, and became the 24th official language of the European Union upon its accession in 2013. [222] [223] Minority languages are in official use in local government units where more than a third of population consists of national minorities or where local legislation defines so. Those languages are Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Ruthenian, Serbian, and Slovak. [224]

Map of the dialects of Croatia Hrvatska narjecja.png
Map of the dialects of Croatia

According to the 2011 Census, 95.6% of citizens of Croatia declared Croatian as their native language, 1.2% declared Serbian as their native language, while no other language is represented in Croatia by more than 0.5% of native speakers among population of Croatia. [2] Croatian is a member of the South Slavic languages of Slavic languages group, and is written using the Latin alphabet. There are three major dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, with standard Croatian based on the Shtokavian dialect. The Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects are distinguished by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax. [225]

Croatian replaced Latin as the official language of the Croatian government in the 19th century. [226] In Yugoslavia, from 1972 to 1989, the language was constitutionally designated as the "Croatian literary language" and the "Croatian or Serbian language". It was the result of the resistance to "Serbo-Croatian" in the form of a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language and Croatian Spring. [227] Croatians are protective of their Croatian language from foreign influences and are known for Croatian linguistic purism, as the language was under constant change and threats imposed by previous rulers (i.e. Austrian German, Hungarian, Italian, and Turkish words were changed and altered to Slavic looking or sounding ones).

A 2011 survey revealed that 78% of Croatians claim knowledge of at least one foreign language. [228] According to a survey ordered by the European Commission in 2005, 49% of Croatians speak English as the second language, 34% speak German, 14% speak Italian, and 10% speak French. Russian is spoken by 4% each, and 2% of Croatians speak Spanish. However, there are large municipalities that have minority languages that include substantial populations that speak these languages. An odd-majority of Slovenes (59%) have a certain level of knowledge of Croatian. [229] The country is a part of various language-based international associations most notably the European Union Language Association. [230]

Education

University of Zagreb is the largest Croatian university and the oldest university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe (1669) University of Zagreb.jpg
University of Zagreb is the largest Croatian university and the oldest university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe (1669)
The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek Trg sv. Trojstva Osijek1.jpg
The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek

Literacy in Croatia stands at 99.2 per cent. [231] A worldwide study about the quality of living in different countries published by Newsweek in August 2010 ranked the Croatian education system at 22nd, to share the position with Austria. [232] Primary education in Croatia starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2007 a law was passed to increase free, noncompulsory education until 18 years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school.

Secondary education is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools. As of 2017, there are 2,049 elementary schools and 701 schools providing various forms of secondary education. [233] Primary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognized minorities in Croatia, where classes are held in Italian, Czech, German, Hungarian, and Serbian languages. [234]

National and University Library. National and University Library in Zagreb.jpg
National and University Library.

There are 137 elementary and secondary level music and art schools, as well as 120 schools for disabled children and youth and 74 schools for adults. [233] Nationwide leaving exams (Croatian : državna matura) were introduced for secondary education students in the school year 2009–2010. It comprises three compulsory subjects (Croatian language, mathematics, and a foreign language) and optional subjects and is a prerequisite for university education. [235]

Croatia has eight public universities, the University of Dubrovnik, University of Osijek, University of Pula, University of Rijeka, University of Split, University of Zadar and University of Zagreb, and two private universities, Catholic University of Croatia and Dubrovnik International University. [236] The University of Zadar, the first university in Croatia, was founded in 1396 and remained active until 1807, when other institutions of higher education took over until the foundation of the renewed University of Zadar in 2002. [237] The University of Zagreb, founded in 1669, is the oldest continuously operating university in Southeast Europe. [238] There are also 15 polytechnics, of which two are private, and 30 higher education institutions, of which 27 are private. [236] In total, there are 55 institutions of higher education in Croatia, attended by more than 157 thousand students. [233]

There are 205 companies, government or education system institutions and non-profit organisations in Croatia pursuing scientific research and development of technology. Combined, they spent more than 3 billion kuna (€400 million) and employed 10,191 full-time research staff in 2008. [107] Among the scientific institutes operating in Croatia, the largest is the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. [239] The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb is a learned society promoting language, culture, arts and science from its inception in 1866. [240]

Croatia has been the home of many famous inventors, including Fausto Veranzio, Giovanni Luppis, Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, Franjo Hanaman and Nikola Tesla, as well as scientists, such as Franciscus Patricius, Nikola Nalješković, Nikola Vitov Gučetić, Josip Franjo Domin, Marino Ghetaldi, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Andrija Mohorovičić, Ivan Supek, Ivan Đikić, Miroslav Radman and Marin Soljačić. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to two Croatian laureates, Lavoslav Ružička (1939) and Vladimir Prelog (1975).

Health

University Hospital Centre Zagreb KBC Rebro aerial.jpg
University Hospital Centre Zagreb

Croatia has a universal health care system, whose roots can be traced back to the Hungarian-Croatian Parliament Act of 1891, providing a form of mandatory insurance of all factory workers and craftsmen. [241] The population is covered by a basic health insurance plan provided by statute and optional insurance. In 2017, annual healthcare related expenditures reached 22.0 billion kuna (€3.0 billion). [242] Healthcare expenditures comprise only 0.6% of private health insurance and public spending. [243] In 2017, Croatia spent around 6.6% of its GDP on healthcare. [244] In 2015, Croatia ranked 36th in the world in life expectancy with 74.7 years for men and 81.2 years for women, and it had a low infant mortality rate of 3 per 1,000 live births. [245] [246]

There are hundreds of healthcare institutions in Croatia, including 79 hospitals and clinics with 23,967 beds. The hospitals and clinics care for more than 700 thousand patients per year and employ 5,205 medical doctors, including 3,929 specialists. There are 6,379 private practice offices, and a total of 41,271 health workers in the country. There are 63 emergency medical service units, responding to more than a million calls. The principal cause of death in 2008 was cardiovascular disease at 43.5% for men and 57.2% for women, followed by tumours, at 29.4% for men and 21.4% for women. In 2009 only 13 Croatians had been infected with HIV/AIDS and six had died from the disease. [107] In 2008 it was estimated by the WHO that 27.4% of Croatians over the age of 15 are smokers. [247] According to 2003 WHO data, 22% of the Croatian adult population is obese. [248]

Culture

Historic centre of Trogir has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Site since 1997. TrogirView.jpg
Historic centre of Trogir has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Site since 1997.

Because of its geographical position, Croatia represents a blend of four different cultural spheres. It has been a crossroads of influences from western culture and the east—ever since the schism between the Western Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire—and also from Mitteleuropa and Mediterranean culture. [250] The Illyrian movement was the most significant period of national cultural history, as the 19th century proved crucial to the emancipation of the Croatian language and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of art and culture, giving rise to a number of historical figures. [45]

The Ministry of Culture is tasked with preserving the nation's cultural and natural heritage and overseeing its development. Further activities supporting the development of culture are undertaken at the local government level. [251] The UNESCO's World Heritage List includes ten sites in Croatia. The country is also rich with intangible culture and holds 15 of UNESCO's World's intangible culture masterpieces, ranking fourth in the world. [252] A global cultural contribution from Croatia is the necktie, derived from the cravat originally worn by the 17th-century Croatian mercenaries in France. [253] [254]

Trakoscan Castle is one of the best preserved historic buildings in the country. Trakoscan 2007.JPG
Trakošćan Castle is one of the best preserved historic buildings in the country.
Historic centre of Dubrovnik has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Site since 1979. Dubrovnik june 2011..JPG
Historic centre of Dubrovnik has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Site since 1979.

Croatia has 95 professional theatres, 30 professional children's theatres and 52 amateur theatres visited by more than 1.54 million viewers per year. The professional theatres employ 1,195 artists. There are 46 professional orchestras, ensembles, and choirs in the country, attracting an annual attendance of 317 thousand. There are 166 cinemas with attendance exceeding 4.814 million. [256] Croatia has 222 museums, visited by more than 2.7 million people in 2016. Furthermore, there are 1,768 libraries in the country, containing 26.8 million volumes, and 19 state archives. [257]

In 2010, 7,348 books and brochures were published, along with 2,676 magazines and 267 newspapers. There are also 135 radio stations and 25 TV stations operating in the country. In the past five years, film production in Croatia produced up to five feature films and 10 to 51 short films, with an additional 76 to 112 TV films. As of 2009, there are 784 amateur cultural and artistic associations and more than 10 thousand cultural, educational, and artistic events held annually. [107] The book publishing market is dominated by several major publishers and the industry's centrepiece event—Interliber exhibition held annually at Zagreb Fair. [258]

Croatia is categorised as having established a very high level of human development in the Human Development Index, with a high degree of equality in HDI achievements between women and men. [9] It promotes disability rights. [259] Recognition of same-sex unions in Croatia has gradually improved over the past decade, culminating in registered civil unions in July 2014, granting same-sex couples equal inheritance rights, tax deductions and limited adoption rights. [260] However, in December 2013 Croatians voted in a constitutional referendum and approved changes to constitution to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman. [261]

Arts and literature

1st-century Pula Arena was the sixth largest amphitheatre in the Roman Empire Pula Arena, Istria, Croatia.JPG
1st-century Pula Arena was the sixth largest amphitheatre in the Roman Empire
Historical nucleus of Split with the 4th-century Diocletian's Palace was inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1979. Peristyle, Split 1.jpg
Historical nucleus of Split with the 4th-century Diocletian's Palace was inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1979.
Ivan Gundulic, the most prominent
Croatian Baroque poet De Gondola.jpg
Ivan Gundulić, the most prominent Croatian Baroque poet

Architecture in Croatia reflects influences of bordering nations. Austrian and Hungarian influence is visible in public spaces and buildings in the north and in the central regions, architecture found along coasts of Dalmatia and Istria exhibits Venetian influence. [262] Large squares named after culture heroes, well-groomed parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of these orderly towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque urban planning took place, for instance in Osijek (Tvrđa), Varaždin, and Karlovac. [263] [264] Subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau was reflected in contemporary architecture. [265] Along the coast, the architecture is Mediterranean with a strong Venetian and Renaissance influence in major urban areas exemplified in works of Giorgio da Sebenico and Niccolò Fiorentino such as the Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik. The oldest preserved examples of Croatian architecture are the 9th-century churches, with the largest and the most representative among them being Church of St. Donatus in Zadar. [266] [267]

Besides the architecture encompassing the oldest artworks in Croatia, there is a long history of artists in Croatia reaching the Middle Ages. In that period the stone portal of the Trogir Cathedral was made by Radovan, representing the most important monument of Romanesque sculpture from Medieval Croatia. The Renaissance had the greatest impact on the Adriatic Sea coast since the remainder of Croatia was embroiled in the Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War. With the waning of the Ottoman Empire, art flourished during the Baroque and Rococo. The 19th and the 20th centuries brought about affirmation of numerous Croatian artisans, helped by several patrons of the arts such as bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer. [268] Croatian artists of the period achieving worldwide renown were Vlaho Bukovac and Ivan Meštrović. [266]

The Baška tablet, a stone inscribed with the glagolitic alphabet found on the Krk island and dated to 1100, is considered to be the oldest surviving prose in Croatian. [269] The beginning of more vigorous development of Croatian literature is marked by the Renaissance and Marko Marulić. Besides Marulić, Renaissance playwright Marin Držić, Baroque poet Ivan Gundulić, Croatian national revival poet Ivan Mažuranić, novelist, playwright and poet August Šenoa, children's writer Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, writer and journalist Marija Jurić Zagorka, poet and writer Antun Gustav Matoš, poet Antun Branko Šimić, expressionist and realist writer Miroslav Krleža, poet Tin Ujević and novelist and short story writer Ivo Andrić are often cited as the greatest figures in Croatian literature. [270] [271]

Media

In Croatia, the freedom of the press and the freedom of speech are guaranteed by the Constitution. [272] Croatia ranked 64th in the 2019 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders which noted that journalists who investigate corruption, organised crime or war crimes face challenges and that the Government was trying to influence the public broadcaster HRT's editorial policies. [273] In its 2019 Freedom in the World report, the Freedom House classified freedoms of press and speech in Croatia as generally free from political interference and manipulation, noting that journalists still face threats and occasional attacks. [274] The state-owned news agency HINA runs a wire service in Croatian and English on politics, economics, society and culture. [275]

Radio Zagreb, now a part of Croatian Radiotelevision, was the first public radio station in Southeast Europe. Zgrada HRT Zagreb.jpg
Radio Zagreb, now a part of Croatian Radiotelevision, was the first public radio station in Southeast Europe.

As of December 2018, there are fourteen nationwide free-to-air DVB-T television channels, with Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT) operating four, Nova TV and RTL Televizija operating two of the channels each, and the remaining three operated by the Croatian Olympic Committee, Kapital Net d.o.o. and Author d.o.o. companies. In addition there are 21 regional or local DVB-T television channels. [277] The HRT is also broadcasting a satellite TV channel. [278] In 2018, there were 147 radio stations and 27 TV stations in Croatia. [279] Cable television and IPTV networks are gaining ground in the country, as the cable TV networks already serve 450 thousand people, 10% of the total population of the country. [280] [281]

In 2010, 314 newspapers and 2,678 magazines were published in Croatia. [107] The print media market is dominated by the Croatian-owned Hanza Media and Austrian-owned Styria Media Group who publish their flagship dailies Jutarnji list , Večernji list and 24sata . Other influential newspapers are Novi list and Slobodna Dalmacija . [282] [283] In 2013, 24sata was the most widely circulated daily newspaper, followed by Večernji list and Jutarnji list. [284]

Croatia's film industry is small and heavily subsidised by the government, mainly through grants approved by the Ministry of Culture with films often being co-produced by HRT. [285] [286] Croatian cinema produces between five and ten feature films per year. [287] Pula Film Festival, the national film awards event held annually in Pula, is the most prestigious film event featuring national and international productions. [288] Animafest Zagreb, founded in 1972, is the prestigious annual film festival entirely dedicated to the animated film. The first greatest accomplishment by Croatian filmmakers was achieved by Dušan Vukotić when he won the 1961 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for Ersatz (Croatian : Surogat). [289] Croatian film producer Branko Lustig won the Academy Awards for Best Picture for Schindler's List and Gladiator . [290]

Cuisine

Teran wine from Istria County Vino Teran (Croatia).jpg
Teran wine from Istria County

Croatian traditional cuisine varies from one region to another. Dalmatia and Istria draw upon culinary influences of Italian and other Mediterranean cuisines which prominently feature various seafood, cooked vegetables and pasta, as well as condiments such as olive oil and garlic. The continental cuisine is heavily influenced by Austrian, Hungarian, and Turkish culinary styles. In that area, meats, freshwater fish and vegetable dishes are predominant. [291]

Lobster from Dalmatia Homar 3.jpg
Lobster from Dalmatia

There are two distinct wine-producing regions in Croatia. The continental region in the northeast of the country, especially Slavonia, is capable of producing premium wines, particularly whites. Along the north coast, Istrian and Krk wines are similar to those produced in neighbouring Italy, while further south in Dalmatia, Mediterranean-style red wines are the norm. [291] Annual production of wine exceeds 140 million litres. [107] Croatia was almost exclusively a wine-consuming country up until the late 18th century when a more massive production and consumption of beer started; [292] the annual consumption of beer in 2008 was 83.3 litres per capita which placed Croatia in 15th place among the world's countries. [293]

Sports

Marin Cilic, Croatian professional tennis player Cilic WM17 (30) (36016692952).jpg
Marin Čilić, Croatian professional tennis player

There are more than 400,000 active sportspeople in Croatia. [294] Out of that number, 277,000 are members of sports associations and nearly 4,000 are members of chess and contract bridge associations. [107] Association football is the most popular sport. The Croatian Football Federation (Croatian : Hrvatski nogometni savez), with more than 118,000 registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country. [295] The Prva HNL football league attracts the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the country. In season 2010–11, it attracted 458,746 spectators. [296]

Croatia national football team came in second at the 2018 World Cup Croatia WC2018 final.jpg
Croatia national football team came in second at the 2018 World Cup

Croatian athletes competing at international events since Croatian independence in 1991 won 44 Olympic medals, including 15 gold medals—at the 1996 and 2004 Summer Olympics in handball, 2000 Summer Olympics in weightlifting, 2002 and 2006 Winter Olympics in alpine skiing, 2012 Summer Olympics in discus throw, trap shooting, and water polo, and in 2016 Summer Olympics in shooting, rowing, discus throw, sailing and javelin throw. [297] In addition, Croatian athletes won 16 gold medals at world championships, including four in athletics at the World Championships in Athletics held in 2007, 2009, 2013 and 2017, one in handball at the 2003 World Men's Handball Championship, two in water polo at the 2007 World Aquatics Championships and 2017 World Aquatics Championships, one in rowing at the 2010 World Rowing Championships, six in alpine skiing at the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships held in 2003 and 2005 and two at the World Taekwondo Championships in 2011 and 2007. Croatian athletes also won Davis cup in 2005 and 2018. The Croatian national football team came in third in 1998 and second in the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Croatia hosted several major sport competitions, including the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship, the 2007 World Table Tennis Championships, the 2000 World Rowing Championships, the 1987 Summer Universiade, the 1979 Mediterranean Games and several European Championships.

The governing sports authority in the country is the Croatian Olympic Committee (Croatian : Hrvatski olimpijski odbor), founded on 10 September 1991 and recognised by the International Olympic Committee since 17 January 1992, in time to permit the Croatian athletes to appear at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France representing the newly independent nation for the first time at the Olympic Games. [298]

See also

Notes

  1. In the recognized minority languages and the most spoken minority languages of Croatia:
    • Czech: Chorvatská republika
    • French: République de Croatie
    • German: Republik Kroatien
    • Hungarian: Horvát Köztársaság
    • Italian: Repubblica di Croazia
    • Rusyn: Републіка Хорватія
    • Serbian: Република Хрватска
    • Slovak: Chorvátska republika
    • Slovene: Republika Hrvaška
    • Ukrainian: Респу́бліка Хорва́тія
  2. Apart from Croatian, state counties have official regional languages that are used for official government business and commercially. Istria County is Italian-speaking [1] [2] while select counties bordering Serbia speak standard Serbian. [3] Other notable–albeit significantly less present–minority languages in Croatia include: Czech, Hungarian, and Slovak.
  3. The writing system of Croatia is legally protected by federal law. Efforts to alter the official writing system, on a local level, has drawn considerable backlash.
  4. IPA transcription of "Republika Hrvatska": (Croatian pronunciation:  [ˈrepǔblika ˈxř̩ʋaːtskaː] ).

Related Research Articles

Croatia first appeared as two duchies in the 7th century, the Duchy of Croatia and the Duchy of Pannonian Croatia, which were united and elevated into the Kingdom of Croatia which lasted from 925 until 1918. From the 12th century the Kingdom of Croatia entered a Personal Union with the Kingdom of Hungary, it remained a distinct state with its ruler (Ban) and Sabor, but it elected Royal dynasties from neighboring powers, primarily Hungary, Naples and Austria.

Demographics of Croatia

The demographic characteristics of the population of Croatia are known through censuses, normally conducted in ten-year intervals and analysed by various statistical bureaus since the 1850s. The Croatian Bureau of Statistics has performed this task since the 1990s. The latest census in Croatia was performed in April 2011. The permanent population of Croatia at the 2011 census had reached 4.29 million. The population density is 75.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, and the overall life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 78 years in 2012. The population rose steadily from 2.1 million in 1857 until 1991, when it peaked at 4.7 million. Since 1991, Croatia's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate; the natural growth rate of the population is negative. Croatia is in the fourth or fifth stage of the demographic transition. In terms of age structure, the population is dominated by the 15‑ to 64‑year‑old segment. The median age of the population is 41.4, and the gender ratio of the total population is 0.93 males per 1 female. The country is projected to lose 350,000 citizens by 2045.

The Republic of Croatia is a sovereign country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean that declared its independence from SFR Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991. Croatia is a member of the European Union (EU), United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO), Union for the Mediterranean and a number of other international organizations. Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 181 countries. President and the Government, through the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, co-operate in the formulation and implementation of foreign policy.

Slavonia Historical region of Croatia

Slavonia is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia. Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five Croatian counties: Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica-Podravina and Vukovar-Srijem, although the territory of the counties includes Baranya, and the definition of the western extent of Slavonia as a region varies. The counties cover 12,556 square kilometres or 22.2% of Croatia, inhabited by 806,192—18.8% of Croatia's population. The largest city in the region is Osijek, followed by Slavonski Brod and Vinkovci.

Croatian Parliament Legislative branch of Croatia

The Croatian Parliament or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature. Under the terms of the Croatian Constitution, the Sabor represents the people and is vested with legislative power. The Sabor is composed of 151 members elected to a four-year term on the basis of direct, universal and equal suffrage by secret ballot. Seats are allocated according to the Croatian Parliament electoral districts: 140 members of the parliament are elected in multi-seat constituencies, 8 from the minorities and 3 from the Croatian diaspora. The Sabor is presided over by a Speaker, who is assisted by at least one deputy speaker.

The Government of Croatia, formally the Government of the Republic of Croatia, commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government, is the main executive branch of government in Croatia. It is led by the President of the Government, informally abbreviated to premier or prime minister. The prime minister is nominated by the President of the Republic from among those candidates who enjoy majority support in the Croatian Parliament; the candidate is then chosen by the Parliament. There are 20 other government members, serving as deputy prime ministers, government ministers or both; they are chosen by the prime minister and confirmed by the Parliament (Sabor). The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises its executive powers in conformity with the Croatian Constitution and legislation enacted by the Croatian Parliament. The current government is led by Prime Minister Andrej Plenković.

Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia administrative division that existed between 1868 and 1918 within the Austro-Hungary

The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a nominally autonomous kingdom and constitutionally defined separate political nation within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868. It was associated with the Hungarian Kingdom within the dual Austro-Hungarian state, being within the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, also known as Transleithania. While Croatia had been granted a wide internal autonomy with "national features", in reality, Croatian control over key issues such as tax and military issues was minimal and hampered by Hungary. It was internally officially referred to as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, also simply known as the Triune Kingdom, and had claims on Dalmatia, which was administrated separately by the Austrian Cisleithania. The city of Rijeka, following a disputed section in the 1868 Settlement known as the Rijeka Addendum, became a corpus separatum and was legally owned by Hungary, but administrated by both Croatia and Hungary.

Islam in Croatia

Islam is the second-largest faith in Croatia after Christianity. The religion is followed by 1.47% of the country's population according to the 2011 census, compared to 91.06% Christians and 4.57% not religious, atheists, agnostics and sceptics.

Negoslavci Municipality in Syrmia, Croatia

Negoslavci is a village and a municipality in Vukovar-Srijem County, Croatia.

Matica hrvatska organization

Matica hrvatska is the oldest independent, non-profit and non-governmental Croatian national institution. It was founded on February 2, 1842 by the Croatian Count Janko Drašković and other prominent members of the Illyrian movement during the Croatian National Revival (1835–1874). Its main goals are to promote Croatian national and cultural identity in the fields of art, science, spiritual creativity, economy and public life as well as to care for social development of Croatia.

Croatia held an independence referendum on 19 May 1991, following the Croatian parliamentary elections of 1990 and the rise of ethnic tensions that led to the breakup of Yugoslavia. With 83 percent turnout, voters approved the referendum, with 93 percent in favor of independence. Subsequently, Croatia declared independence and the dissolution of its association with Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991, but it introduced a three-month moratorium on the decision when urged to do so by the European Community and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe through the Brioni Agreement. The war in Croatia escalated during the moratorium, and on 8 October 1991, the Croatian Parliament severed all remaining ties with Yugoslavia. In 1992, the countries of the European Economic Community granted Croatia diplomatic recognition and Croatia was admitted to the United Nations.

Zdravko Zovko is a former Croatian handball player who is currently the assistant coach of Győri Audi ETO KC.

Croatia–Hungary relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Croatia and Hungary

Croatia–Hungary relations refer to the bilateral relationship between Croatia and Hungary. Diplomatic relations among two states were established on January 18, 1992 following Croatia's independence from SFR Yugoslavia.

Austria–Croatia relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Austria and the Republic of Croatia

Austria–Croatia relations refer to the bilateral relationship between Croatia and Austria. Diplomatic relations among two countries were established on January 15, 1992 following Croatia's independence from SFR Yugoslavia.

Joint Council of Municipalities (Croatia) organization

The Joint Council of Municipalities in Croatia is elected consultative sui generis body which constitute a form of cultural self-government of Serbs in eastern Croatian borderland Danube region. The body was established in the initial aftermath of the Croatian War of Independence as a part of international community' efforts to peacefully settle the conflict in self-proclaimed Eastern Slavonia, Baranya and Western Syrmia. Establishment of the ZVO was one of explicit provisions of the Erdut Agreement which called upon the United Nations to establish it's UNTAES transitional mission.

Independence of Croatia the process which led to the independence of modern day croatia

The Independence of Croatia was a process started with the changes in the political system and the constitutional changes in 1990 that transformed the Socialist Republic of Croatia into the Republic of Croatia, which in turn proclaimed the Christmas Constitution, and held the 1991 Croatian independence referendum.

Požega Valley Geographic region of Slavonia in Croatia

The Požega Valley is a geographic microregion of Croatia, located in central Slavonia, encompassing the eastern part of the Požega-Slavonia County. It is located in the Pannonian Basin, bounded by Psunj, Papuk and Krndija mountains from west and north, and Požeška Gora and Dilj from south and east, as the Pannonian plain is interspersed by horst and graben structures. The largest settlement in the region is the city of Požega, followed by Pleternica and Kutjevo. The main watercourse in the region is Orljava River. The region covers 1,249 square kilometres and has a population of 60,599.

Freemasonry in Croatia may be traced to the second half of the 18th century when it was introduced by the officers that came back from the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). However, the fraternity has been repeatedly banned and re-founded since then.

Croatia during World War I

The Triune Kingdom was part of Austria-Hungary during World War I. Its territory was administratively divided between the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire; Međimurje and Baranja were in the Hungarian part (Transleithania), the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a separate entity associated with the Hungarian Kingdom, Dalmatia and Istria were in the Austrian part (Cisleithania), while the town of Rijeka had semi-autonomous status.

References

  1. "Europska povelja o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima" (in Croatian). Ministry of Justice (Croatia). 4 November 2011. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  2. 1 2 "Population by Mother Tongue, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  3. "Is Serbo-Croatian a language?". The Economist. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  4. 1 2 "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  5. "Population on 1 January". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat . Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  6. "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  7. 1 2 3 4 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018 – Croatia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  8. "First Results" . Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  9. 1 2 "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  10. Alemko Gluhak (1993). Hrvatski etimološki rječnik[Croatian Etymological Dictionary] (in Croatian). August Cesarec. ISBN   953-162-000-8.
  11. Marc L. Greenberg (April 1996). "The Role of Language in the Creation of Identity: Myths in Linguistics among the Peoples of the Former Yugoslavia" (PDF). University of Kansas . Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  12. Fučić, Branko (September 1971). "Najstariji hrvatski glagoljski natpisi" [The Oldest Croatian Glagolitic Inscriptions]. Slovo (in Croatian). Old Church Slavonic Institute. 21: 227–254. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  13. Mužić 2007, p. 27.
  14. 1 2 Mužić 2007, pp. 195–198.
  15. Igor Salopek (December 2010). "Krapina Neanderthal Museum as a Well of Medical Information". Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica. Hrvatsko znanstveno društvo za povijest zdravstvene kulture. 8 (2): 197–202. ISSN   1334-4366. PMID   21682056 . Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  16. Tihomila Težak-Gregl (April 2008). "Study of the Neolithic and Eneolithic as reflected in articles published over the 50 years of the journal Opuscula archaeologica". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 30 (1): 93–122. ISSN   0473-0992 . Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  17. Jacqueline Balen (December 2005). "The Kostolac horizon at Vučedol". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 29 (1): 25–40. ISSN   0473-0992 . Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  18. Tihomila Težak-Gregl (December 2003). "Prilog poznavanju neolitičkih obrednih predmeta u neolitiku sjeverne Hrvatske" [A Contribution to Understanding Neolithic Ritual Objects in the Northern Croatia Neolithic]. Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 27 (1): 43–48. ISSN   0473-0992 . Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  19. Hrvoje Potrebica; Marko Dizdar (July 2002). "Prilog poznavanju naseljenosti Vinkovaca i okolice u starijem željeznom dobu" [A Contribution to Understanding Continuous Habitation of Vinkovci and its Surroundings in the Early Iron Age]. Prilozi Instituta Za Arheologiju U Zagrebu (in Croatian). Institut za arheologiju. 19 (1): 79–100. ISSN   1330-0644 . Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  20. John Wilkes (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 114. ISBN   978-0-631-19807-9 . Retrieved 15 October 2011. ... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ...
  21. John Wilkes (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 115. ISBN   978-0-631-19807-9 . Retrieved 3 April 2012. The third Greek colony known in this central sector of the Dalmatian coast was Issa, on the north side of the island Vis.
  22. Edward Gibbon; John Bagnell Bury; Daniel J. Boorstin (1995). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Modern Library. p. 335. ISBN   978-0-679-60148-7 . Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  23. J. B. Bury (1923). History of the later Roman empire from the death of Theodosius I. to the death of Justinian. Macmillan Publishers. p. 408. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  24. Andrew Archibald Paton (1861). Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic. Trübner. pp. 218–219. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  25. Emil Heršak; Boris Nikšić (September 2007). "Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje)" [Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements)]. Migracijske I Etničke Teme (in Croatian). Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies. 23 (3): 251–268. ISSN   1333-2546.
  26. Mužić 2007, pp. 249–293.
  27. Mužić 2007, pp. 157–160.
  28. Mužić 2007, pp. 169–170.
  29. Antun Ivandija (April 1968). "Pokrštenje Hrvata prema najnovijim znanstvenim rezultatima" [Christianization of Croats according to the most recent scientific results]. Bogoslovska Smotra (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Catholic Faculty of Theology. 37 (3–4): 440–444. ISSN   0352-3101.
  30. Vladimir Posavec (March 1998). "Povijesni zemljovidi i granice Hrvatske u Tomislavovo doba" [Historical maps and borders of Croatia in age of Tomislav]. Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest (in Croatian). 30 (1): 281–290. ISSN   0353-295X . Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  31. Lujo Margetić (January 1997). "Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae u doba Stjepana II" [Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae in age of Stjepan II]. Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest (in Croatian). 29 (1): 11–20. ISSN   0353-295X . Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  32. 1 2 Ladislav Heka (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje. 8 (1): 152–173. ISSN   1332-4853 . Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  33. 1 2 3 4 "Povijest saborovanja" [History of parliamentarism] (in Croatian). Sabor. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 Frucht 2005, pp. 422–423.
  35. Márta Font (July 2005). "Ugarsko Kraljevstvo i Hrvatska u srednjem vijeku" [Hungarian Kingdom and Croatia in the Middle Ages]. Povijesni Prilozi (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History. 28 (28): 7–22. ISSN   0351-9767 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  36. Lane 1973, p. 409.
  37. "Povijest Gradišćanskih Hrvatov" [History of Burgenland Croats] (in Croatian). Croatian Cultural Association in Burgenland. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  38. Botica, Ivan (2005), Prilog istraživanju najstarijega spomena vlaškoga imena u hrvatskoj historiografiji (PDF), 37, Zagreb: Zavod za hrvatsku povijest, pp. 35–46, ISSN   0353-295X
  39. Gordana Uzelac (2006). The Development of the Croatian Nation: An Historical And Sociological Analysis. Edwin Mellen Press. p. 260. ISBN   978-0773457911 . Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  40. Branimir Anzulovic (1999). Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide. New York University Press. p. 43. ISBN   978-0-8147-0671-8 . Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  41. Stanko Guldescu (1970). The Croatian-Slavonian Kingdom: 1526–1792. The Hague, Mouton. p. 72. ISBN   978-9027905369 . Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  42. "Hrvatski sabor".
  43. Adkins & Adkins 2008, pp. 359–362.
  44. Harold Nicolson (2000). The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812–1822. Grove Press. p. 180. ISBN   978-0-8021-3744-9 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  45. 1 2 Nikša Stančić (February 2009). "Hrvatski narodni preporod – ciljevi i ostvarenja" [Croatian National Revival – goals and achievements]. Cris: časopis Povijesnog društva Križevci (in Croatian). 10 (1): 6–17. ISSN   1332-2567 . Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  46. Ante Čuvalo (December 2008). "Josip Jelačić – Ban of Croatia". Review of Croatian History. Croatian Institute of History. 4 (1): 13–27. ISSN   1845-4380 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  47. "Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary". H-net.org. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  48. Ladislav Heka (December 2007). "Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba u zrcalu tiska" [Croatian-Hungarian compromise in light of press clips]. Zbornik Pravnog Fakulteta Sveučilišta U Rijeci (in Croatian). University of Rijeka. 28 (2): 931–971. ISSN   1330-349X . Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  49. Branko Dubravica (January 2002). "Političko-teritorijalna podjela i opseg civilne Hrvatske u godinama sjedinjenja s vojnom Hrvatskom 1871–1886" [Political and territorial division and scope of civilian Croatia in the period of unification with the Croatian military frontier 1871–1886]. Politička Misao (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences. 38 (3): 159–172. ISSN   0032-3241 . Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  50. Max Polatschek (1989). Franz Ferdinand: Europas verlorene Hoffnung (in German). Amalthea. p. 231. ISBN   978-3-85002-284-2 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  51. Spencer Tucker; Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 1286. ISBN   978-1-85109-420-2 . Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  52. "Parlamentarni izbori u Brodskom kotaru 1923. godine" [Parliamentary Elections in the Brod District in 1932]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History – Slavonia, Syrmium and Baranya history branch. 3 (1): 452–470. November 2003. ISSN   1332-4853 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  53. Zlatko Begonja (November 2009). "Ivan Pernar o hrvatsko-srpskim odnosima nakon atentata u Beogradu 1928. godine" [Ivan Pernar on Croatian-Serbian relations after 1928 Belgrade assassination]. Radovi Zavoda Za Povijesne Znanosti HAZU U Zadru (in Croatian). Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (51): 203–218. ISSN   1330-0474 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  54. Cvijeto Job (2002). Yugoslavia's ruin: the bloody lessons of nationalism, a patriot's warning. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN   978-0-7425-1784-4 . Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  55. Klemenčič & Žagar 2004, pp. 121–123.
  56. Klemenčič & Žagar 2004, pp. 153–156.
  57. "ustaše - Hrvatska enciklopedija" . Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  58. Bogoljub Kočović (2005). Sahrana jednog mita: žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji [Burial of a Myth: World War II Victims in Yugoslavia] (in Serbian). Otkrovenje. ISBN   978-86-83353-39-2 . Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  59. Philip J. Cohen; David Riesman (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 106–111. ISBN   978-0-89096-760-7 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  60. Vladimir Geiger (2012). "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherand) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Revue für Kroatische Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Croate. Croatian Institute of History. VIII (1): 85–87.
  61. Yeomans, Rory (2015). The Utopia of Terror: Life and Death in Wartime Croatia. Boydell & Brewer. p. 18. ISBN   978-1-58046-545-8.
  62. Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. New York: Indiana University Press. p. 114. ISBN   978-0-253-34656-8.
  63. US Holocaust Museum, USHMM. "Jasenovac". US Holocaust Museum.
  64. Dragutin Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske, Naklada Pavičić, Zagreb, 2007. ISBN   978-953-6308-71-2, str. 441–442.
  65. Dragutin Pavličević (2007). Povijest Hrvatske. Naklada Pavičić. pp. 441–442. ISBN   978-953-6308-71-2.
  66. Matea Vipotnik (22 June 2011). "Josipović: Antifašizam je duhovni otac Domovinskog rata" [Josipović: Anti-Fascism is a Spiritual Forerunner of the Croatian War of Independence]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  67. Karakaš Obradov Marica (December 2008). "Saveznički zračni napadi na Split i okolicu i djelovanje Narodne zaštite u Splitu tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata" [Allied aerial attacks on Split and its surrounding and Civil Guard activity in Split during the World War II]. Historijski Zbornik (in Croatian). Društvo za hrvatsku povjesnicu. 61 (2): 323–349. ISSN   0351-2193 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  68. C.W. Bracewell, John R. Lampe (2012). "History of Croatia, World War II". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 25 March 2013.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  69. Marko Maurović (May 2004). "Josip protiv Josifa" [Josip vs. Iosif]. Pro Tempore – časopis Studenata Povijesti (in Croatian). Klub studenata povijesti ISHA (1): 73–83. ISSN   1334-8302 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  70. "Predsjednik Sabora Luka Bebić na obilježavanju 64. obljetnice pobjede nad fašizmom i 65. obljetnice trećeg zasjedanja ZAVNOH-a u Topuskom" [Speaker of the Parliament, Luka Bebić, at celebration of the 64th anniversary of the victory over fascism and the 65th anniversary of the 3rd session of the ZAVNOH session in Topusko] (in Croatian). Sabor. 9 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  71. Ivica Šute (April 1999). "Deklaracija o nazivu i položaju hrvatskog književnog jezika – Građa za povijest Deklaracije" [Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language – Declaration History Articles]. Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest (in Croatian). 31 (1): 317–318. ISSN   0353-295X.
  72. Vlado Vurušić (6 August 2009). "Heroina Hrvatskog proljeća" [Heroine of the Croatian Spring]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  73. Roland Rich (1993). "Recognition of States: The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union". European Journal of International Law. 4 (1): 36–65. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.ejil.a035834 . Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  74. Frucht 2005, p. 433.
  75. "Leaders of a Republic In Yugoslavia Resign". The New York Times . Reuters. 12 January 1989. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  76. Davor Pauković (1 June 2008). "Posljednji kongres Saveza komunista Jugoslavije: uzroci, tijek i posljedice raspada" [Last Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia: Causes, Consequences and Course of Dissolution](PDF). Časopis Za Suvremenu Povijest (in Croatian). Centar za politološka istraživanja. 1 (1): 21–33. ISSN   1847-2397 . Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  77. Branka Magas (13 December 1999). "Obituary: Franjo Tudjman". The Independent . Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  78. Chuck Sudetic (2 October 1990). "Croatia's Serbs Declare Their Autonomy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  79. Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Routledge. 1998. pp. 272–278. ISBN   978-1-85743-058-5 . Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  80. Chuck Sudetic (26 June 1991). "2 Yugoslav States Vote Independence To Press Demands". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  81. 1 2 "Ceremonial session of the Croatian Parliament on the occasion of the Day of Independence of the Republic of Croatia". Official web site of the Croatian Parliament. Sabor. 7 October 2004. Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  82. Chuck Sudetic (4 November 1991). "Army Rushes to Take a Croatian Town". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  83. "Croatia Clashes Rise; Mediators Pessimistic". The New York Times. 19 December 1991. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  84. Charles T. Powers (1 August 1991). "Serbian Forces Press Fight for Major Chunk of Croatia". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  85. Utjecaj srbijanske agresije na stanovništvo Hrvatske, Index.hr, 11. prosinca 2003., pristupljeno 12. rujna 2015.
  86. "SUMMARY OF JUDGEMENT FOR MILAN MARTIĆ". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  87. Stephen Kinzer (24 December 1991). "Slovenia and Croatia Get Bonn's Nod". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  88. 1 2 Paul L. Montgomery (23 May 1992). "3 Ex-Yugoslav Republics Are Accepted Into U.N." The New York Times . Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  89. Dean E. Murphy (8 August 1995). "Croats Declare Victory, End Blitz". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  90. "Officials Issue Messages for Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day". www.total-croatia-news.com. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  91. 1 2 Prodger, Matt (5 August 2005). "Evicted Serbs remember Storm". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
  92. Janine Natalya Clark (2014). International Trials and Reconciliation: Assessing the Impact of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. London: Routledge. p. 28. ISBN   978-1-31797-475-8.
  93. Chris Hedges (16 January 1998). "An Ethnic Morass Is Returned to Croatia". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  94. "Partnerstvo za mir – Hrvatska enciklopedija". www.enciklopedija.hr.
  95. "MVEP • Svjetska trgovinska organizacija (WTO)". www.mvep.hr.
  96. "Kronologija: Težak put od priznanja do kucanja na vrata EU".
  97. "Kada je i kome Republika Hrvatska podnijela zahtjev za članstvo u Europskoj uniji?". uprava.gov.hr.
  98. "Kako je izgledao put Republike Hrvatske ka punopravnom članstvu u Europskoj uniji?". uprava.gov.hr.
  99. "Evo kako je izgledao hrvatski put prema EU!".
  100. "History and Development of Croatian Constitutional Judicature - Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia". www.usud.hr.
  101. Ivo Goldstein, Povijest Hrvatske 1945-2011, 3. svezak, EPH Media d.o.o.
  102. "Hrvatska postala članica NATO saveza".
  103. "Et tu, Zagreb?". The Economist. 6 March 2011.
  104. "Croatia voters back EU membership". 1 June 2018 via www.bbc.com.
  105. "Croatia celebrates on joining EU". 1 July 2013 via www.bbc.com.
  106. "Šenada Šelo Šabić, Croatia's response to the refugee crisis, European Expression, Issue 100, 2016" (PDF).
  107. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "2010 – Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia" (PDF). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  108. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  109. Mate Matas (18 December 2006). "Raširenost krša u Hrvatskoj" [Presence of Karst in Croatia]. geografija.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  110. "The best national parks of Europe". BBC. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  111. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jasminka Radović; Kristijan Čivić; Ramona Topić, eds. (2006). Biodiversity of Croatia (PDF). State Institute for Nature Protection, Ministry of Culture (Croatia). ISBN   953-7169-20-0 . Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  112. "Venue". 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  113. 1 2 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015, p. 42.
  114. "Najviša izmjerena temperatura zraka u Hrvatskoj za razdoblje od kada postoje meteorološka motrenja". Klima.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  115. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015, p. 43.
  116. "Evolution in Europe; Conservatives Win in Croatia". The New York Times. 9 May 1990. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  117. "Croatia country profile". BBC News. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  118. 1 2 3 "Political Structure". Government of Croatia. 6 May 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  119. "Ivo Josipović – biography". Office of the President of the Republic of Croatia. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  120. "Members of the Government". Government of Croatia. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  121. "About the Parliament". Sabor. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  122. "Members of the 6th Parliament". Sabor. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  123. "Overview of EU–Croatia relations". Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Croatia. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  124. "Ustavne odredbe" [Provisions of the Constitution] (in Croatian). Croatian Supreme Court. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  125. "Zakon o sudovima".
  126. "Državno odvjetništvo Republike Hrvatske". www.dorh.hr.
  127. Oleg Mandić (1952). "O nekim pitanjima društvenog uređenja Hrvatske u srednjem vijeku" [On some issues of social system of Croatia in the Middle Ages](PDF). Historijski Zbornik (in Croatian). Školska knjiga. 5 (1–2): 131–138. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  128. Frucht 2005, p. 429.
  129. Biondich 2000, p. 11.
  130. "Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 30 December 1992. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  131. "Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 28 July 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  132. "Nacionalno izviješće Hrvatska" [Croatia National Report](PDF) (in Croatian). Council of Europe. January 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  133. Drago Pilsel (5 May 2011). "S kojim državama nemamo diplomatske odnose?" [Which countries do we have no diplomatic relations with?] (in Croatian). t-portal. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  134. "Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices to Croatia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  135. "Izviješće o obavljenoj reviziji – Ministarstvo vanjskih poslova i europskih integracija" [Audit Report – Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration](PDF) (in Croatian). State Audit Office (Croatia). August 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  136. "Foreign Policy Aims". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  137. 1 2 Eduard Šoštarić (17 October 2005). "Mesićeva podrška UN-u blokira ulazak Hrvatske u NATO" [Mesić's support to the UN blocks Croatian NATO accession]. Nacional (in Croatian) (517). Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  138. 1 2 "Izvješća o aktivnostima saborskih dužnosnika – rujan 2005: Odbor za parlamentarnu suradnju i odnose s javnošću Skupštine Zapadnoeuropske unije posjetio Hrvatski sabor" [Report on activities of Parliament officials – September 2005: Western European Union parliamentary cooperation and public relations committee visits Croatian Parliament] (in Croatian). Sabor. 26 September 2005. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  139. "EU closes accession negotiations with Croatia". European Commission. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  140. "Croatia signs EU accession treaty". European Union. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  141. Stephen Castle (10 June 2011). "Croatia Given Conditional Approval to Join E.U. in 2013". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  142. "EU stalls over talks with Croatia". BBC News. 10 March 2005. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  143. "Slovenia unblocks Croatian EU bid". BBC News. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  144. "Slovenians Seem to Favor Arbitration in Border Dispute With Croatia". The New York Times. Reuters. 6 June 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  145. "Overview of Croatia's Border Disputes with BiH, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Liberland". www.total-croatia-news.com. 22 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  146. Steven Lee Myers (5 April 2008). "Bush Champions Expansive Mission for NATO". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  147. "Nato welcomes Albania and Croatia". BBC News. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  148. "Membership of the Republic of Croatia in the UN Security Council 2008–2009". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 7 January 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  149. Stojan de Prato (4 February 2011). "Karamarko: Granični nadzor prema EU ukidamo 2015" [Karamarko: Border control towards the EU shall be abolished in 2015]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  150. 1 2 "Chain of Command in the CAF". Croatian Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  151. "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  152. Milan Jelovac (23 January 2001). "Vojni rok u Hrvatskoj kraći, nego drugdje u Europi i NATO-u". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  153. "Broj pripadnika OSRH u mirovnim misijama UN-a" (in Croatian). Croatian Ministry of Defence. 16 April 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  154. "Hrvatska šalje još vojnika u Afganistan". eZadar (in Croatian). 8 December 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  155. "Kosorica u službenom posjetu Kosovu". Index.hr (in Croatian). 24 August 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  156. 1 2 Franičević, Mile (6 March 2011). "Hrvatski izvoz oružja i opreme lani narastao na 650 milijuna kuna". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  157. "500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe" [500 largest Central European companies] (in Croatian). Deloitte. 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  158. "Rang lista 500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe" [Ranking of the 500 Largest Central European Companies](PDF) (in Croatian). Deloitte. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  159. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017" (PDF). United Nations. 2017. p. 156. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  160. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund . Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  161. "GDP per capita in PPS". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat . Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  162. "Real GDP growth rate". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  163. "Republic Of Croatia – Croatian Bureau Of Statistics". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  164. "Croatia Unemployment Rate". The Global Economy.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  165. 1 2 3 4 "Europe :: Croatia — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  166. "ROBNA RAZMJENA REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE S INOZEMSTVOM U 2018.KONAČNI PODACI/FOREIGN TRADE IN GOODS OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA, 2018 FINAL DATA". www.dzs.hr.
  167. "Background Note: Croatia". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
  168. "Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 Executive Summary p. 12" (PDF). transparency.org. Transparency International . Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  169. "Croatia National Debt on Country Economy". countryeconomy.com. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  170. "Prihodi u 2017. najbolje pokazuju napredak hrvatskog turizma" [Revenue in 2017 show best Croatian tourism's progress]. hr.n1info.com (in Croatian). N1. 30 March 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  171. Tomislav Pili; Davor Verković (1 October 2011). "Iako čini gotovo petinu BDP-a, i dalje niskoprofitabilna grana domaće privrede" [Even though it comprises nearly a fifth of the GDP, it is still a low-profit branch of the national economy]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  172. 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 412.
  173. 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 415.
  174. "Turistički prihod porast će prvi put nakon 2008" [Tourist income to rise for the first time since 2008]. t-portal.hr (in Croatian). T-Hrvatski Telekom. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  175. "History of Opatija". Opatija Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  176. "Activities and attractions". Croatian National Tourist Board . Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  177. "Croatia". Foundation for Environmental Education. Archived from the original on 2 December 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  178. "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer" (PDF). October 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  179. "Croatian highlights, Croatia". Euro-poi.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  180. 1 2 3 Tanja Poletan Jugović (11 April 2006). "The integration of the Republic of Croatia into the Pan-European transport corridor network". Pomorstvo. University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies. 20 (1): 49–65. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  181. "Odluka o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste" [Decision on classification of public roads as motorways]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 25 July 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  182. "Odluka o izmjenama i dopunama odluke o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste" [Decision on amendments and additions to the Decision on classification of public roads as motorways]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 30 January 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  183. "Traffic counting on the roadways of Croatia in 2009 – digest" (PDF). Hrvatske ceste. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  184. "EuroTest". Eurotestmobility.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  185. "Brinje Tunnel Best European Tunnel". Javno.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  186. 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 346.
  187. Tomislav Pili (10 May 2011). "Skuplje korištenje pruga uništava HŽ" [More Expensive Railway Fees Ruin Croatian Railways]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  188. "Air transport". Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia) . Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  189. "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 5 March 2016. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2018.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  190. "FAA Raises Safety Rating for Croatia". Federal Aviation Administration. 26 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  191. "Riječka luka –jadranski "prolaz" prema Europi" [The Port of Rijeka – Adriatic "gateway" to Europe] (in Croatian). World Bank. 3 March 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2011.[ permanent dead link ]
  192. "Luke" [Ports] (in Croatian). Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  193. "Plovidbeni red za 2011. godinu" [Sailing Schedule for Year 2011] (in Croatian). Agencija za obalni linijski pomorski promet. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  194. "Plovni putovi" [Navigable routes] (in Croatian). Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  195. "The JANAF system". Jadranski naftovod . Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  196. "Transportni sustav" [Transport system] (in Croatian). Plinacro . Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  197. "Croatia, Slovenia's nuclear plant safe: Croatian president". EU Business. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  198. World Population Prospects 2019, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
  199. "Croatia in Figures" (PDF). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  200. "Population in major towns and municipalities, 2011 census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  201. Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last two centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
  202. "The World FactBook - Croatia", The World Factbook , 12 July 2018PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  203. "U Hrvatskoj dvostruko više doseljenika" [Twice as many immigrants in Croatia]. Limun.hr. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2011.