Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics

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A diagram of the three main divisions of the NUTS system developed by Eurostat NUTS visual diagram.jpg
A diagram of the three main divisions of the NUTS system developed by Eurostat

Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics or NUTS (French : Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] The standard, adopted in 2003, [7] is developed and regulated by the European Union, and thus only covers the member states of the EU in detail. The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics is instrumental in the European Union's Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund delivery mechanisms and for locating the area where goods and services subject to European public procurement legislation are to be delivered.

Contents

For each EU member country, a hierarchy of three NUTS levels is established by Eurostat in agreement with each member state; the subdivisions in some levels do not necessarily correspond to administrative divisions within the country. A NUTS code begins with a two-letter code referencing the country, as abbreviated in the European Union's Interinstitutional Style Guide. [8] The subdivision of the country is then referred to with one number. A second or third subdivision level is referred to with another number each. Each numbering starts with 1, as 0 is used for the upper level. Where the subdivision has more than nine entities, capital letters are used to continue the numbering. Below the three NUTS levels are local administrative units (LAUs). A similar statistical system is defined for the candidate countries and members of the European Free Trade Association, but they are not part of NUTS governed by the regulations.

The current NUTS classification, dated 21 November 2016 and effective from 1 January 2018 (now updated to current members as of 2020), lists 92 regions at NUTS 1, 244 regions at NUTS 2, 1215 regions at NUTS 3 level, and 99,387 local administrative units (LAUs). [9] [10]

National structures

Not all countries have every level of division, depending on their size. For example, Luxembourg and Cyprus only have local administrative units (LAUs); the three NUTS divisions each correspond to the entire country itself.

Member states

Countries NUTS 1 NUTS 2NUTS 3Local administrative units (LAU)
Member State 27872411,19699,353
Austria AT Groups of states3 States 9Groups of districts 35 Municipalities (Gemeinden)2,098
Belgium BE Regions 3 Provinces (+ Brussels)11 Arrondissements (Verviers split into two)44 Municipalities (gemeenten / communes)581
Bulgaria BG Regions 2 Planning regions 6 Oblasts 28 Municipalities (общини, obshtini)265
Croatia HR 1Regions2 Counties (županije) + Zagreb 21 Municipalities (općine)556
Cyprus CY 111 Municipalities, communities (δήμοι, κοινότητες, dimoi, koinotites)615
Czech Republic CZ 1Statistical areas8 Administrative regions 14 Municipalities (obce)6,258
Denmark DK 1 Regions (Regioner)5 Provinces (Landsdele)11 Municipalities (kommuner) and 1 unincorporated area 99
Estonia EE 11Groups of counties 5 Municipalities (Vald, linn)79
Finland FI Mainland Finland, Åland 2Large areas (Suuralueet / Storområden)5 Regions (Maakunnat / Landskap)19 Municipalities (kunnat / kommuner)311
France FR Regions + DOM 14Former regions (1982 - 2015) + DOM27 Departments + DOM101 Communes 35,358
Germany DE States (Bundesland)16 Government regions (Regierungbezirk) (or equivalent)39 Districts (Kreis)429 Municipalities (Gemeinden)11,130
Greece EL Groups of development regions4 Regions 13 Prefectures 51Municipal districts/Community districts
(δημοτικό διαμέρισμα, κοινότικο διαμέρισμα, demotiko diamerisma, koinotiko diamerisma)
6,133
Hungary HU Statistical large regions (statisztikai nagyrégiók)3 Planning and statistical regions (tervezési-statisztikai régió)8 Counties (megye) + Budapest 20 Settlements (települések)3,155
Ireland IE 1 Regional Assemblies 3 Regional Authorities 8 Electoral divisions (toghroinn ceantair)3,440
Italy IT Groups of regions5 Regions (Trentino-Alto Adige split into two)21 Provinces 110 Municipalities (comuni, municipi)7,960
Latvia LV 11 Statistical regions 6 Districts, republic cities (Republikas pilsētas, novadi)119
Lithuania LT 1Vidurio ir vakarų Lietuvos regionas, Sostinės regionas2 Counties 10 Municipalities (savivaldybės)60
Luxembourg LU 111 Communes (French : communes, German : Gemeinden, Luxembourgish : Gemengen)102
Malta MT 11 Islands 2 Local councils (kunsilli)68
Netherlands NL Groups of provinces4 Provinces 12 COROP regions 40 Municipalities (gemeenten)355
Poland PL Macroregions (Makroregiony)7 Voivodeships (Masovian Voivodeship split into two)17Subregions (Podregiony)73 Municipalities (gminy)2,478
Portugal PT Continent + Azores + Madeira 3 Coordination and development regions + autonomous regions 7Groups of municipalities 25 Parishes (freguesias)3,400
Romania RO Macroregions4 Regions 8 Counties + Bucharest 42 Communes + Municipalities + Cities (comune + municipii + orașe)3,181
Slovakia SK 1Oblasts4 Regions (Kraje)8 Municipalities (obce)2,926
Slovenia SI 1Macroregions2 Statistical regions 12 Municipalities (občine)212
Spain ES Groups of autonomous communities7 17 Autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities 19 Provinces + Islands + Ceuta and Melilla 59 Municipalities (municipios)8,124
Sweden SE Regions (Grupper av riksområden)3 National Areas (Riksområde)8 Counties (Län)21 Municipalities (kommuner)290

Candidate countries

CountryNUTS 1NUTS 2NUTS 3LAU 1LAU 2
Candidate countries 517361311,20247,235
Albania AL 1Regions (non-administrative)3 Counties 12 Municipalities (Komunë) / Communes (Bashki / Komunë)373
Montenegro ME 111 Municipalities (општини, opštini)21Settlements (Насеља, naselja)1,256
North Macedonia MK 11 Statistical regions 8 Municipalities (општини, opštini)84Settlements (Населени места, naseleni mesta)1,776
Serbia RS Groups of regions 2 Regions 5 Districts 29 Municipalities 174Settlements (Насељена места, naseljena mesta)6,155
Turkey TR Regions12Sub-regions26 Provinces 81 Districts (ilçeler)923 Municipalities (belediye)37,675

EFTA countries

CountryNUTS 1NUTS 2NUTS 3LAU 1LAU 2
EFTA countries4416482653,242
Switzerland CH 1Regions7 Cantons 26 Districts (German : Bezirke, Ämter and Amtsbezirke; French : districts; Italian : distretti; Romansh : districts166 Municipalities (German : Gemeinden, Einwohnergemeinden and politische Gemeinden; French : communes ; Italian : comuni; Romansh : vischnancas)2,721
Iceland IS 11 Capital Region / Rest of country2 Regions (landshlutar)8 Municipalities (sveitarfélag)79
Liechtenstein LI 111Electoral districts (Landschaften)2 Municipalities (Gemeinden)11
Norway NO 1Regions7 Counties (Fylke)19Economic regions (Økonomiske regioner)89 Municipalities (kommuner)431

Former EU state

CountryNUTS 1NUTS 2NUTS 3LAU
United Kingdom UK Regions of England 9Sub-Regions

i: of counties; or
ii: individual counties; or
iii: of districts in Greater London. [=union]

30 Upper tier authorities and groups of unitary authorities and districts 93 Districts or unitary authorities326
Wales1Groups of Principal Areas 2Groups of Principal Areas 12 Principal Areas 22
Scotland1Groups of Council and/or Island Areas4Groups of Council Areas or Islands Areas 23 Council areas, subdivided by LEC where applicable41
Northern Ireland11Groups of districts 5 Districts 11

Maps

Establishment

NUTS regions are generally based on existing national administrative subdivisions. In countries where only one or two regional subdivisions exist, or where the population of existing subdivisions is too small or too large, a second and/or third level is created. This may be on the first level (ex. France, Italy, Greece, and Spain), on the second (ex. Germany) and/or third level (ex. Belgium). [11] In countries with small populations, where the entire country would be placed on the NUTS 2 or even NUTS 3 level (ex. Luxembourg, Cyprus), the regions at levels 1, 2 and 3 are identical to each other (and also to the entire country), but are coded with the appropriate length codes levels 1, 2 and 3.

The NUTS system favors existing administrative units, with one or more assigned to each NUTS level. Specific guidelines are based in population, leaving little or no role for other types of variables such as area, distance, topography, levels of jurisdiction or history, which can only be considered in (unspecified) types of special cases. [12] From the NUTS Regulation, the average population size of the regions in the respective level shall lie within the following thresholds:

LevelMinimumMaximum
NUTS 13 million7 million
NUTS 2800,0003 million
NUTS 3150,000800,000

For non-administrative units, deviations from these population marks exist for particular geographical, socio-economic, historical, cultural or environmental circumstances, especially for islands and outermost regions.

Examples

See also

Related Research Articles

In the NUTS codes of Finland (FI), the three levels are:

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Denmark for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Denmark is DK and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Denmark, the LAU 1 are municipalities and the LAU 2 is Parishes.

NUTS statistical regions of the Czech Republic

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of the Czech Republic for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for the Czech Republic is CZ and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In the Czech Republic, the LAU 1 is districts and the LAU 2 is municipalities.

NUTS statistical regions of Ireland

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Ireland for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Ireland is IE and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Ireland, the LAUs are electoral divisions.

NUTS statistical regions of the Netherlands

In the NUTS codes of the Netherlands (NL), the three levels are:

In the NUTS codes of Italy (IT), the three levels are:

The NUTS codes of Hungary have three levels:

NUTS statistical regions of Austria

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Austria for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Austria is AT and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Austria, the LAU 2 is municipalities.

NUTS statistical regions of Bulgaria

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Bulgaria for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Bulgaria is BG and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Bulgaria, the LAU 1 is municipalities and the LAU 2 is settlements.

NUTS statistical regions of Belgium

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Belgium for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Belgium is BE and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Belgium, the LAUs are municipalities.

In the NUTS codes of France (FR), the three levels are:

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Switzerland for statistical purposes. As a member of EFTA Switzerland is included in the NUTS standard, although the standard is developed and regulated by the European Union, an organization that Switzerland does not belong to. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Switzerland is CH and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Switzerland, the LAUs are districts (LAU-1) and municipalities (LAU-2).

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Germany for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Germany is DE and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Germany the LAUs 1 is collective municipalities, and the LAU 2 is municipalities.

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Estonia for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Estonia is EE and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Estonia, the LAU 1 is counties and the LAU 2 are municipalities.

NUTS statistical regions of Greece

The NUTS codes of Greece are part of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, an official nomenclature of the European Commission used by Eurostat for statistical purposes.

The three NUTS levels for Latvia (LV) are:

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Cyprus for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Cyprus is CY and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Cyprus does not have subdivisions covered by the NUTS levels, as the population is small enough to be covered in one level. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Cyprus, the LAU 1 is districts and the LAU 2 is municipalities.

In the NUTS codes of Luxembourg (LU), the three levels are:

NUTS statistical regions of Portugal

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is developed by Eurostat, and employed in Portugal for statistical purposes. The NUTS branch extends from NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions, with the complementary LAU sub-categorization being used to differentiate the local areas, of trans-national importance.

NUTS statistical regions of Turkey

As a candidate country of the European Union, Turkey (TR) is included in the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS). Defined in 2002 in agreement between Eurostat and the Turkish authorities, Turkey's NUTS classifications are officially termed statistical regions, as Turkey is not a member of the EU and Eurostat only defines NUTS for member states. The three NUTS levels are:

References

  1. "NUTS – Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  2. "Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 19 February 2010.
  3. "Regulation (EC) No 176/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 February 2008". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  4. "Regulation (EC) No 1888/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  5. "Commission Regulation (EC) No 105/2007 of 1 February 2007". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  6. "Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  7. "History of NUTS - Eurostat". ec.europa.eu.
  8. "Annex A6 Country and territory codes". publications.europa.eu. 1 February 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  9. "Background - Eurostat". ec.europa.eu.
  10. Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/2066 amending the annexes to Regulation (EC) 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS)
  11. "Europa – Eurostat – Regions – Basic principles of the NUTS". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  12. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/regions-and-cities/overview>