Country

Last updated

The marked territories on this global map are mostly of countries which are sovereign states with full international recognition (brackets denote the country of a marked territory that is not a sovereign state). Some territories are countries in their own right but are not recognized as such (e.g. Taiwan), and some few marked territories are disputed about which country they belong to (e.g. Kashmir) or if they are countries in their own right (e.g. Western Sahara (territory) or the state known by the same name). World Map (political).svg
The marked territories on this global map are mostly of countries which are sovereign states with full international recognition (brackets denote the country of a marked territory that is not a sovereign state). Some territories are countries in their own right but are not recognized as such (e.g. Taiwan), and some few marked territories are disputed about which country they belong to (e.g. Kashmir) or if they are countries in their own right (e.g. Western Sahara (territory) or the state known by the same name).

A country is a distinct part of the world, such as a state, nation, or other political entity. It may be a sovereign state or make up one part of a larger state. [1] For example, the country of Japan is an independent, sovereign state, while the country of Wales is a component of a multi-part sovereign state, the United Kingdom. A country may be a historically sovereign area (such as Korea), a currently sovereign territory with a unified government (such as Senegal), or a non-sovereign geographic region associated with certain distinct political, ethnic, or cultural characteristics (such as the Basque Country).

Contents

The definition and usage of the word "country" is flexible and has changed over time. The Economist wrote in 2010 that "any attempt to find a clear definition of a country soon runs into a thicket of exceptions and anomalies." [2] Most sovereign states, but not all countries, are members of the United Nations.

The largest country by area is Russia, while the smallest is the microstate Vatican City. The most populous is China, while the Pitcairn Islands are the least populous.

Etymology

The word country comes from Old French contrée, which derives from Vulgar Latin (terra) contrata ("(land) lying opposite"; "(land) spread before"), derived from contra ("against, opposite"). It most likely entered the English language after the Franco-Norman invasion during the 11th century. [3]

Definition of a country

In English

In English the word has increasingly become associated with political divisions, so that one sense, associated with the indefinite article – "a country" – is now frequently applied as a synonym for a state or a former sovereign state. It may also be used as a synonym for "nation". Taking as examples Canada, Sri Lanka, and Yugoslavia, cultural anthropologist Clifford Geertz wrote in 1997 that "it is clear that the relationships between 'country' and 'nation' are so different from one [place] to the next as to be impossible to fold into a dichotomous opposition as they are into a promiscuous fusion." [4]

Areas much smaller than a political state may be referred to as countries, such as the West Country in England, "big sky country" (used in various contexts of the American West), "coal country" (used to describe coal-mining regions in several sovereign states) and many other terms. [5] The word "country" is also used for the sense of native sovereign territory, such as the widespread use of Indian country in the United States. [6] The term "country" in English may also be wielded to describe rural areas, or used in the form "countryside." Raymond Williams, a Welsh scholar, wrote in 1975: [7]

'Country' and 'city' are very powerful words, and this is not surprising when we remember how much they seem to stand for in the experience of human communities. In English, 'country' is both a nation and a part of a 'land'; 'the country' can be the whole society or its rural area. In the long history of human settlements, this connection between the land from which directly or indirectly we all get our living and the achievements of human society has been deeply known.

The unclear definition of "country" in modern English was further commented upon by philosopher Simon Keller: [8]

Often, a country is presumed to be identical to a collection of citizens. Sometimes, people say that a country is a project, an idea, or an ideal. Occasionally, philosophers entertain more metaphysically ambitious pictures, suggesting that a country is an organic entity with its own independent life and character, or that a country is an autonomous agent, just like you or me. Such claims are rarely explained or defended, however, and it is not clear how they should be assessed. We attribute so many different kinds of properties to countries, speaking as though a country can feature wheat fields waving or be girt by sea, can have a founding date and be democratic and free, can be English speaking, culturally diverse, war-torn, or Islamic.

New Waves In Political Philosophy, "Making Nonsense of Loyalty to Country", page 96

Melissa Lucashenko, an Aboriginal Australian writer, expressed the difficulty of defining "country" in a 2005 essay, "Unsettlement": [9]

...What is this thing country? What does country mean? ... I spoke with others who said country meant Home, but who added the caveat that Home resided in people rather than places—a kind of portable Country... I tried to tease out some ways in which non-Indigenous people have understood country. I made categories: Country as Economy. Country as Geography. Country as Society. Country as Myth. Country as History. For all that I walked, slept, breathed and dreamed Country, the language still would not come.

In other languages

The equivalent terms in various Romance languages (e.g. the French pays ) have not carried the process of being identified with sovereign political states as far as the English country. These terms are derived from the Roman term pagus , which continued to be used in the Middle Ages for small geographical areas similar to the size of English counties. In many European countries, the words are used for sub-divisions of the national territory, as in the German Bundesländer, as well as a less formal term for a sovereign state. France has very many "pays" that are officially recognized at some level and are either natural regions, like the Pays de Bray, or reflect old political or economic entities, like the Pays de la Loire.

A version of "country" can be found in modern French as contrée, derived from the Old French word cuntrée, [5] that is used similarly to the word pays to define non-state regions, but can also be used to describe a political state in some particular cases. The modern Italian contrada is a word with its meaning varying locally, but usually meaning a ward or similar small division of a town, or a village or hamlet in the countryside.

Identification

Symbols of a country may incorporate cultural, religious or political symbols of any nation that the country includes. Many categories of symbols can be seen in flags, coats of arms, or seals.

Name

A number of non-sovereign entities nevertheless have country codes, such as PF (French Polynesia) and TK (Tokelau) Oceania without Asian country codes.jpg
A number of non-sovereign entities nevertheless have country codes, such as PF (French Polynesia) and TK (Tokelau)

Most countries have a long name and a short name. The long name is typically used in formal contexts and often describes the country's form of government. The short name is the country's common name by which it is typically identified. [10] [11] [12] [13] The names of most countries are derived from a feature of the land, the name of a historical tribe or person, or a directional description. [14] The International Organization for Standardization maintains a list of country codes as part of ISO 3166 to designate each country with a two-letter country code. [15] The name of a country can hold cultural and diplomatic significance. Upper Volta changed its name to Burkina Faso to reflect the end of French colonization, and the name of North Macedonia was disputed for years due to a conflict with the similarly named Macedonia region in Greece. [16]

Flags

Originally, flags representing a country would generally be the personal flag of its rulers; however, over time, the practice of using personal banners as flags of places was abandoned in favor of flags that had some significance to the nation, often its patron saint. Early examples of these were the maritime republics such as Genoa which could be said to have a national flag as early as the 12th century. [17] However, these were still mostly used in the context of marine identification.

Although some flags date back earlier, widespread use of flags outside of military or naval context begins only with the rise of the idea of the nation state at the end of the 18th century and particularly are a product of the Age of Revolution. Revolutions such as those in France and America called for people to begin thinking of themselves as citizens as opposed to subjects under a king, and thus necessitated flags that represented the collective citizenry, not just the power and right of a ruling family. [18] [19] With nationalism becoming common across Europe in the 19th century, national flags came to represent most of the states of Europe. [18] Flags also began fostering a sense of unity between different peoples, such as the Union Jack representing a union between England and Scotland, or began to represent unity between nations in a perceived shared struggle, for example, the Pan-Slavic colors or later Pan-Arab colors. [20]

As Europeans colonized significant portions of the world, they exported ideas of nationhood and national symbols, including flags, with the adoption of a flag becoming seen as integral to the nation-building process. [21] Political change, social reform, and revolutions combined with a growing sense of nationhood among ordinary people in the 19th and 20th centuries led to the birth of new nations and flags around the globe. [22] With so many flags being created, interest in these designs began to develop and the study of flags, vexillology, at both professional and amateur levels, emerged. After World War II, Western vexillology went through a phase of rapid development, with many research facilities and publications being established. [23]

National anthems

A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition symbolizing and evoking eulogies of the history and traditions of a country or nation. [24] Though the custom of an officially adopted national anthem became popular only in the 19th century, some national anthems predate this period, often existing as patriotic songs long before designation as national anthem. Several countries remain without an official national anthem. In these cases, there are established de facto anthems played at sporting events or diplomatic receptions. These include the United Kingdom ("God Save the Queen") and Sweden ( Du gamla, Du fria ). Some sovereign states that are made up of multiple countries or constituencies have associated musical compositions for each of them (such as with the United Kingdom, Russia, and the former Soviet Union). These are sometimes referred to as national anthems even though they are not sovereign states (for example, "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is used for Wales, part of the United Kingdom).

Other symbols

Sovereignty and recognition

When referring to a specific polity, the term "country" may refer to a sovereign state, a constituent country, or a dependent territory. A sovereign state is a political entity that has supreme legitimate authority over a part of the world. [25] There is no universal agreement on the number of "countries" in the world since several states have disputed sovereignty status, and a number of non-sovereign entities are commonly called countries.

By one application of the declarative theory of statehood and constitutive theory of statehood, [26] there are 206 sovereign states; of which 193 are members of the UN, two have observer status at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) (the Holy See and Palestine), and 11 others are neither a member nor observer at the UNGA. [27] [28]

Some countries, such as Taiwan and the Sahrawi Republic, have disputed sovereignty status. Some sovereign states are unions of separate polities, each of which may also be considered a country in its own right, called constituent countries. The Danish Realm consists of Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. [29] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of the Netherlands proper, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten. [30] [note 1] The United Kingdom consists of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

Dependent territories are the territories of a sovereign state that are outside of its proper territory. These include the Realm of New Zealand, the dependencies of Norway, the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies, the territories of the United States, the territories of Australia, the special administrative regions of China, the Danish Realm, Åland, Overseas France, and the Caribbean Netherlands. Most dependent territories have ISO country codes. [15] In total there are 249 ISO country codes, including all 193 UN members and a number of other countries. [31] Some dependent territories are treated as a separate "country of origin" in international trade, [32] [33] such as Hong Kong, [34] [35] [36] Greenland, [37] and Macau. [38]

Patriotism

A positive emotional connection to a country a person belongs to is called patriotism. Patriotism is a sense of love for, devotion to, and sense of attachment to one's country. This attachment can be a combination of many different feelings, and language relating to one's homeland, including ethnic, cultural, political, or historical aspects. It encompasses a set of concepts closely related to nationalism, mostly civic nationalism and sometimes cultural nationalism. [39] [40] [41]

Economy

Several organizations seek to identify trends to produce economy country classifications. Countries are often distinguished as developing countries or developed countries.

The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs annually produces the World Economic Situation and Prospects Report classifies states as developed countries, economies in transition, or developing countries. The report classifies country development based on per capita gross national income (GNI). The UN identifies subgroups within broad categories based on geographical location or ad hoc criteria. The UN outlines the geographical regions for developing economies like Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The 2019 report recognizes only developed countries in North America, Europe, Asia, and the Pacific. The majority of economies in transition and developing countries are found in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean.

The UN additionally recognizes multiple trends that impact the developmental status of countries in the World Economic Situation and Prospects. The report highlights fuel-exporting and fuel-importing countries, small island developing states, and landlocked developing countries. It also identifies heavily indebted developing countries. [42]

The World Bank also classifies countries based on GNI per capita. The World Bank Atlas method classifies countries as low-income economies, lower-middle-income economies, upper-middle-income economies, or high-income economies. For the 2020 fiscal year, the World Bank defines low-income economies as countries with a GNI per capita of $1,025 or less in 2018; lower-middle-income economies as countries with a GNI per capita between $1,026 and $3,995; upper-middle-income economies as countries with a GNI per capita between $3,996 and $12,375; high-income economies as countries with a GNI per capita of $12,376 or more. [43]

It also identifies regional trends. The World Bank defines its regions as East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, North America, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Lastly, the World Bank distinguishes countries based on its operational policies. The three categories include International Development Association (IDA) countries, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) countries, and Blend countries.

See also

Notes

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gross domestic product</span> Market value of goods and services produced within a country

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced and sold in a specific time period by countries. Due to its complex and subjective nature this measure is often revised before being considered a reliable indicator. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore, using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) may be more useful when comparing living standards between nations, while nominal GDP is more useful comparing national economies on the international market. Total GDP can also be broken down into the contribution of each industry or sector of the economy. The ratio of GDP to the total population of the region is the per capita GDP.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Developed country</span> Country with a developed industry and infrastructure

A developed country is a sovereign state that has a high quality of life, developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. Different definitions of developed countries are provided by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank; moreover, HDI ranking is used to reflect the composite index of life expectancy, education, and income per capita. Another commonly used measure of a developed country is the threshold of GDP (PPP) per capita of at least USD$22,000. In 2022, 36 countries fit all four criteria, while an additional 17 countries fit three out of four.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Developing country</span> Nation with a lower living standard relative to more developed countries

A developing country is a sovereign state with a lesser developed industrial base and a lower Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. The term low and middle-income country (LMIC) is often used interchangeably but refers only to the economy of the countries. The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on gross national income per capita: high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income countries. Least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states are all sub-groupings of developing countries. Countries on the other end of the spectrum are usually referred to as high-income countries or developed countries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gross national income</span> Total domestic and foreign economic output claimed by residents of a country

The gross national income (GNI), previously known as gross national product (GNP), is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents. Comparing GNI to GDP shows the degree to which a nation's GDP represents domestic or international activity. GNI has gradually replaced GNP in international statistics. While being conceptually identical, it is calculated differently. GNI is the basis of calculation of the largest part of contributions to the budget of the European Union. In February 2017, Ireland's GDP became so distorted from the base erosion and profit shifting ("BEPS") tax planning tools of U.S. multinationals, that the Central Bank of Ireland replaced Irish GDP with a new metric, Irish Modified GNI. In 2017, Irish GDP was 162% of Irish Modified GNI.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">State flag</span> Term referring to two types of flag

In vexillology, a state flag is either the flag of the government of a sovereign state, or the flag of an individual federated state.

An emerging market is a market that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not fully meet its standards. This includes markets that may become developed markets in the future or were in the past. The term "frontier market" is used for developing countries with smaller, riskier, or more illiquid capital markets than "emerging". As of 2006, the economies of China and India are considered to be the largest emerging markets. According to The Economist, many people find the term outdated, but no new term has gained traction. Emerging market hedge fund capital reached a record new level in the first quarter of 2011 of $121 billion. Emerging market economies’ share of global PPP-adjusted GDP has risen from 27 percent in 1960 to around 53 percent by 2013. The 10 largest emerging and developing economies by either nominal or PPP-adjusted GDP are 4 of the 5 BRICS countries along with Indonesia, Iran, South Korea, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan and Turkey.

This is a list of lists of countries and territories by various criteria. A country or territory is a geographical area, either in the sense of nation or state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">World Bank high-income economy</span> Income classification for countries

A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a nation with a gross national income per capita of US$12,696 or more in 2020, calculated using the Atlas method. While the term "high-income" is often used interchangeably with "First World" and "developed country," the technical definitions of these terms differ. The term "first world" commonly refers to countries that aligned themselves with the U.S. and NATO during the Cold War. Several institutions, such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) or International Monetary Fund (IMF), take factors other than high per capita income into account when classifying countries as "developed" or "advanced economies." According to the United Nations, for example, some high-income countries may also be developing countries. The GCC countries, for example, are classified as developing high-income countries. Thus, a high-income country may be classified as either developed or developing. Although the Vatican City is a sovereign state, it is not classified by the World Bank under this definition.

Income in India discusses the financial state in India. With rising economic growth and prosperity, India’s income is also rising rapidly. As an overview, India's per capita net national income or NNI was around 135 thousand rupees in 2020. The per-capita income is a crude indicator of the prosperity of a country. In contrast, the gross national income at constant prices stood at over 128 trillion rupees. The same year, GNI growth rate at constant prices was around 6.6 percent. While GNI and NNI are both indicators for a country's economic performance and welfare, the GNI is related to the GDP or the Gross Domestic Product plus the net receipts from abroad, including wages and salaries, property income, net taxes and subsidies receivable from abroad. On the other hand, the NNI of a country is equal to its GNI net of depreciation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Dominica</span> Overview of and topical guide to Dominica

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Dominica:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Kazakhstan</span> Overview of and topical guide to Kazakhstan

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kazakhstan:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Latvia</span> Overview of and topical guide to Latvia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Latvia:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Nauru</span> Overview of and topical guide to Nauru

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Nauru:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Serbia</span> Overview of and topical guide to Serbia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Serbia:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Australia</span> Overview of and topical guide to Australia

This outline of Australia is an overview of and topical guide to various aspects of the country of Australia.

The FAO Country Profiles are a multilingual web portal which repackages the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) information archive on its global activities in agriculture and food security in a single area and catalogues it exclusively by country and thematic areas.

References

  1. Jones, J (1964). "What Makes a Country?". Human Events. 24 (31): 14.
  2. "In quite a state". The Economist . 8 April 2010. ISSN   0013-0613. Archived from the original on 24 August 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  3. "Definition of COUNTRY". www.merriam-webster.com. Archived from the original on 5 August 2022. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  4. Geertz, Clifford (1997). "What is a Country if it is Not a Nation?". The Brown Journal of World Affairs. 4 (2): 235–247. ISSN   1080-0786. JSTOR   24590031.
  5. 1 2 Simpson, John; Weiner, Edmund (eds.). "country, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (1971 compact ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-861186-8.
  6. Matal, Joseph (1 December 1997). "A Revisionist History of Indian Country". Alaska Law Review. 14 (2): 283–352. ISSN   0883-0568. Archived from the original on 11 January 2023. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  7. Williams, Raymond (1973). The country and the city. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-519736-4. OCLC   624711. Archived from the original on 27 August 2022. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  8. Keller, Simon (2009). "Making Nonsense of Loyalty to Country". In De Bruin, Boudewijn; Zurn, Christopher F. (eds.). New waves in political philosophy. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 96. ISBN   978-0-230-23499-4. OCLC   441874932. Archived from the original on 27 August 2022. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  9. Lucashenko, Melissa (1 January 2005). "Country: Being and belonging on aboriginal lands". Journal of Australian Studies. 29 (86): 7–12. doi:10.1080/14443050509388027. ISSN   1444-3058. S2CID   143550941.
  10. "Publications Office – Interinstitutional Style Guide – Annex A5 – List of countries, territories and currencies". publications.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  11. "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  12. "FAO Country Profiles". www.fao.org. Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  13. "Countries: Designations and abbreviations to use". Archived from the original on 4 January 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  14. Ha, Thu-Huong (15 October 2017). "Nearly every country on earth is named after one of four things". Quartz. Archived from the original on 22 August 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  15. 1 2 "ISO 3166 — Country Codes". ISO. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  16. Savage, Jonathan (21 January 2018). "Why do names matter so much?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  17. Barraclough 1971, pp. 7–8.
  18. 1 2 Nadler 2016.
  19. Inglefield & Mould 1979, p. 48.
  20. Bartlett 2011, p. 31.
  21. Virmani 1999, p. 169.
  22. Inglefield & Mould 1979, p. 50.
  23. Xing 2013, p. 2.
  24. "National anthem - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 5 August 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  25. Philpott, Daniel (1995). "Sovereignty: An Introduction and Brief History". Journal of International Affairs. 48 (2): 353–368. ISSN   0022-197X. JSTOR   24357595. Archived from the original on 7 August 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  26. "Declaratory and Constitutive Theories of State/Country Recognition". LawTeacher.net. 26 November 2021. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015.
  27. "Non-Member-States". United Nations. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  28. "Member States". United Nations. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  29. "Greenland and the Faroe Islands". The Danish Parliament - EU Information Centre. 15 January 2020. Archived from the original on 9 February 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  30. "What are the different parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands?". Government of the Netherlands. Retrieved 21 July 2022.[ permanent dead link ]
  31. "Country names and code elements". ISO. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2020. Officially assigned codes 249
  32. "Canadian Importers Database - Home". 23 November 2021. Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  33. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, General Preferential Tariff and Least Developed Country Tariff Rules of Origin Regulations". 20 June 2017. Archived from the original on 17 April 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  34. "Made In The British Crown Colony". Thuy-Tien Crampton. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
  35. "Matchbox label, made in Hong Kong". delcampe.net. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014.
  36. "Carrhart Made In Hong Kong?". ContractorTalk. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  37. "Product of Greenland Inland Ice Trademark of Inland Ice Denmark ApS. Application Number: 017910465 :: Trademark Elite Trademarks". Archived from the original on 11 January 2023. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  38. "Phillumeny.dk The website for collectors of matchboxes". Archived from the original on 11 January 2023. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  39. Harvey Chisick (10 February 2005). Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment. ISBN   9780810865488. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  40. "Nationalism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  41. "Patriotism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 11 June 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  42. "World Economic and Situation Prospects 2019" (PDF). The United Nations. The United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  43. "How does the World Bank classify countries?". The World Bank. The World Bank. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.

Works cited

  • Barraclough, E.M.C. (1971). Flags of the World. Great Britain: William Cloves & Sons Ltd. ISBN   0723213380.
  • Bartlett, Ralph G. C. (2011). Unity in Flags (PDF). 24th International Congress of Vexillology. Alexandria, Virginia: International Federation of Vexillological Associations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 December 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  • Inglefield, Eric; Mould, Tony (1979). Flags. Ward Lock. ISBN   9780706356526.
  • Nadler, Ben (14 June 2016). "Where Do Flags Come From?". The Atlantic . Archived from the original on 24 November 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  • Virmani, Arundhati (August 1999). "National Symbols under Colonial Domination: The Nationalization of the Indian Flag, March-August 1923". Past & Present. Oxford University Press. 164 (164): 169–197. doi:10.1093/past/164.1.169. JSTOR   651278.
  • Xing, Fei (2013). The Study of Vexillology in China (PDF). 25th International Congress of Vexillology. Rotterdam: International Federation of Vexillological Associations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 June 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.

Further reading