Condominium (international law)

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In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.

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Although a condominium has always been recognized as a theoretical possibility, condominia have been rare in practice. A major problem, and the reason so few have existed, is the difficulty of ensuring co-operation between the sovereign powers; once the understanding fails, the status is likely to become untenable.

The word is recorded in English since c. 1714, from Modern Latin, apparently coined in Germany c. 1700 from Latin com- "together" + dominium "right of ownership" (compare domain). A condominium of three sovereign powers is sometimes called a tripartite condominium or tridominium.

Current condominia

Co-principality

Under French law, Andorra was once considered to be a French–Spanish condominium, although it is more commonly classed as a co-principality, since it is itself a sovereign state, not a possession of one or more foreign powers. However, the position of head of state is shared ex officio by two foreigners, one of whom is the President of France, currently Emmanuel Macron, and the other the Bishop of Urgell in Spain, Joan Enric Vives Sicília. [10]

Former condominia

Flag of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) Flag of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.svg
Flag of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956)

Proposed condominia

See also

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References

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  2. "Select DEFRLUBEDELU.PDF (Map of condominium boundaries)" . Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  3. The island that switches countries every six months, BBC News, 28 January 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
  4. Gómez Cruz, Ricardo Alonso (October 2004). Elementos Jurídicos para la Construcción de una Propuesta Tendente a la Recuperación Material y la Soberanía de la Isla Conejo en el Golfo de Fonseca (Legal Elements for the Construction of a Proposal to the Material Recovery and Sovereignty of Isla Conejo in the Gulf of Fonseca) (PDF) (Thesis). Universidad de El Salvador, Ciudad Universitaria, San Salvador, El Salvador. p. 33, 36, 46, 49 and 50. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
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  8. 1 2 Smith, Barry. "Fiat Objects" (PDF). Department of Philosophy, Center for Cognitive Science and NCGIA, SUNY at Buffalo (NY): 24–25. Retrieved 2 June 2013.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. AMENDMENT I TO THE CONSTITUTION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
  10. Coprince d'Andorre, Hollande rend visite à la principauté, Le Parisien , 12 June 2014
  11. Jozo Tomasevich. "The Chetniks". War and Revolution in Yugoslavia. Stanford University Press, 1975. Pp. 103. "The condominium in Croatia was the most important example of Italo-German collaboration in controlling and despoiling an occupied area [...]".
  12. Stephen R. Graubard, (ed.).Exit from Communism. Transaction Publishers, 1993. Pp. 153–154. "After the Axis attack on Yugoslavia in 1941, Mussolini and Hitler installed the Ustašas in power in Zagreb, making them the nucleus of a dependent regime of the newly created Independent State of Croatia, an Italo-German condominium predicated on the abolition of Yugoslavia."
  13. Günay Göksu Özdoğan, Kemâli Saybaşılı. Balkans: a mirror of the new international order. Marmara Üniversitesi. Dept. of International Relations, 1995. Pp. 143. "Croatia (with Bosnia-Hercegovina) formally became a new Axis ally – the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). This was in fact, Italo-German condominium, [...]".
  14. John R. Lampe (ed.), Mark Mazower (ed.). Ideologies and National Identities: The Case of Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe. Central European University Press, 2003. Pp. 103. "[...] the Independent State of Croatia (hereafter NDH, Nezavisna Drzava Hrvatska), in reality an Italo-German condominium[...]"
  15. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. The UAE: Internal Boundaries and the Boundary with Oman. 6. pp. 477–478. ISBN   1-85207-575-9.
  17. "Ajman/Muscat condominium". I don't know when the Hadf zone agreement was terminated, but it certainly was.
  18. Bromley, J S (editor) 1970, The New Cambridge Modern History Volume 6: The Rise of Great Britain and Russia, 1688-1715/25, Cambridge University Press, ISBN   978-0521075244 (p. 428)
  19. Namibia Yearbook, Issue 3, pages 18
  20. The Complacent Country Kevin Rudd. 4 February 2019
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  22. BBC News | Europe | Country profiles | Regions and territories: Gibraltar BBC News
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  24. SDLP backs British-Irish rule if Northern Ireland devolution fails, The Guardian , 11 January 2017