Direct-controlled municipality

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A direct-controlled municipality is the highest level classification for cities used by unitary states, with status equal to that of the provinces in the respective countries. A direct-controlled municipality is similar to, but not the same as, a federal district, a common designation in various countries for a municipality that is not part of any state, and which usually hosts some governmental functions. Usually direct-controlled municipality are under central government control with limited power. In some cases, a similar term in federal states is the federal city.

Many countries have adopted this system with some different variations. Geographically and culturally, many of the municipalities are enclaves in the middle of provinces. Some occur in strategic positions in between provinces.

CountryMunicipalitiesMain article
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Minsk
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia Kep, Pailin, Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China (PRC) Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin Direct-administered municipalities of China
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Almaty, Nur-Sultan, Baikonur, Shymkent
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea Pyongyang, Nampho, Rason, Kaesong Special cities of North Korea
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan, Sejong Special cities of South Korea
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Bishkek, Osh
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos Vientiane
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Chişinău, Bălți, Bender
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Ulaanbaatar
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Highly urbanized cities: Manila, Angeles City, Bacolod, Baguio, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caloocan, Cebu City, Davao City, General Santos, Iligan, Iloilo City, Lapu-Lapu, Las Piñas, Lucena, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Olongapo, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, San Juan, Tacloban, Taguig, Valenzuela, Zamboanga City;
Independent component cities: Cotabato City, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, Santiago
Independent municipality: Pateros
Cities of the Philippines § Independent cities
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan (ROC) Taipei, [1] Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taoyuan Special municipality (Taiwan)
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Ashgabat
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Kyiv, Sevastopol (disputed)
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Tashkent
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Da Nang, Cần Thơ Municipalities of Vietnam

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  1. Taipei City Government, Taipei Yearbook (2008).

See also