Ward (electoral subdivision)

Last updated

A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes. In some countries, wards are usually named after neighbourhoods, thoroughfares, parishes, landmarks, geographical features and in some cases historical figures connected to the area (e.g. William Morris Ward in the London Borough of Waltham Forest). It is common in the United States for wards to simply be numbered.

Contents

Origins

Centre (No. 5) and West (No. 6) wards in Cork, Ireland, were defined in 1853 and last used for elections in 1914. The boundary ran down the middle of Castle Street, where nameplates remained in situ in 2022. Castle Street Cork ward signs.png
Centre (No. 5) and West (No. 6) wards in Cork, Ireland, were defined in 1853 and last used for elections in 1914. The boundary ran down the middle of Castle Street, where nameplates remained in situ in 2022.

The word “ward”, for an electoral subdivision, appears to have originated in the Wards of the City of London, where gatherings for each ward known as “wardmotes” have taken place since the 12th century. [1] The word was much later applied to divisions of other cities and towns in England and Wales and Ireland.

In parts of northern England, a ward was an administrative subdivision of a county, very similar to a hundred in other parts of England.

Present day

In Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, wards are an electoral district, within a district or municipality, used in local government elections. In the United States, wards are usually subdivided into precincts for polling purposes.

In some cities of India, such as Mumbai and Delhi, a ward is an administrative unit of the city region; a city area is divided into Zones, which in turn contain numerous wards. The smallest administrative unit of Gram Panchayats in India is also known as a ward. [2] [3] In Bangladesh wards are subdivisions of a city or town which administrates under City Corporations and municipalities (pourashova)

In East Africa, the word ward used in English is translated into Swahili/Kiswahili as Kata.

In the case of a municipal amalgamation, the former cities and towns that make up the new metropolis may be referred to as wards.

Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, urban divisions were called wards and rural ones were called district electoral divisions. Both were renamed as electoral divisions in 1996. [4] The electoral districts for Irish local authorities are local electoral areas. [5] These are generally defined as combinations of electoral divisions, and in urban areas were formally described as combination of wards.

Similar concepts in other languages

In Japan, a ku (or 区 in Japanese writing) is an administrative unit of one of the larger cities, closely equivalent to the divisions or wards of a London Borough or a New York Borough. In Vietnam, a phường is an administrative subunit of an inner city district, or quận. Wards and electoral divisions of Nepal are political divisions which are grouped into Gaunpalika (Rural council) and Municipality. A rural municipality or municipality has minimum of five and maximum of 33 divisions.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Borough</span> Administrative division in some English-speaking countries

A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Municipality</span> Local government area

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">County</span> Geographical and administrative region in some countries

A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposes in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French comté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount. Literal equivalents in other languages, derived from the equivalent of "count", are now seldom used officially, including comté, contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, and zhupa in Slavic languages; terms equivalent to commune/community are now often instead used.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">District</span> Administrative division, in some countries, managed by local government

A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Administrative geography of the United Kingdom</span> Geographical subdivisions of local government in Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The administrative geography of the United Kingdom is complex, multi-layered and non-uniform. The United Kingdom, a sovereign state to the northwest of continental Europe, consists of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. For local government in the United Kingdom, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales each have their own system of administrative and geographic demarcation. Consequently, there is "no common stratum of administrative unit encompassing the United Kingdom".

An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Dublin</span> County in Ireland

South Dublin is a county in Ireland, within the province of Leinster and the Eastern and Midland Region. It is one of three successor counties to County Dublin, which was disestablished for administrative purposes in 1994. South Dublin County Council is the local authority for the county. The county contains both dense suburbs of Dublin and stretches of unpopulated mountain. In 2016 it had a population of 278,767, making it the third most populous county in the state.

Dublin County Council was a local authority for the administrative county of County Dublin in Ireland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown</span> County in Ireland

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown is a county in Ireland. It is part of the province of Leinster and the Eastern and Midland Region. It is one of three successor counties to County Dublin, which was disestablished in 1994. It is named after the former borough of Dún Laoghaire and the barony of Rathdown. Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 218,018 at the time of the 2016 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Urban district (Great Britain and Ireland)</span> Former type of local government district in Great Britain and Ireland

In England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland, an urban district was a type of local government district that covered an urbanised area. Urban districts had an elected urban district council (UDC), which shared local government responsibilities with a county council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Municipal borough</span> Former type of British and Irish local government

Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002. Broadly similar structures existed in Scotland from 1833 to 1975 with the reform of royal burghs and creation of police burghs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Local electoral area</span>

A local electoral area is an electoral area for elections to local authorities in Ireland. All elections use the single transferable vote. The Republic of Ireland is divided into 166 LEAs, with an average population of 28,700 and average area of 423.3 square kilometres (163.4 sq mi). The boundaries of LEAs are defined by statutory instrument, usually based lower-level units called electoral divisions (EDs), with a total of 3,440 EDs in the state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Local government in the Republic of Ireland</span> Tier of administration in Ireland

The functions of local government in the Republic of Ireland are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City, or City and County Councils. The principal decision-making body in each of the thirty-one local authorities is composed of the members of the council, elected by universal franchise in local elections every five years from multi-seat local electoral areas using the single transferable vote. Many of the authorities' statutory functions are, however, the responsibility of ministerially appointed career officials termed Chief executives. The competencies of the city and county councils include planning, transport infrastructure, sanitary services, public safety and the provision of public libraries. Each local authority sends representatives to one of three Regional Assemblies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Electoral division (Ireland)</span> Statistical division in Ireland

An electoral division is a legally defined administrative area in the Republic of Ireland, generally comprising multiple townlands, and formerly a subdivision of urban and rural districts. Until 1996, EDs were known as district electoral divisions in the 29 county council areas and wards in the five county boroughs. Until 1972, DEDs also existed in Northern Ireland. The predecessor poor law electoral divisions were introduced throughout the island of Ireland in the 1830s. The divisions were used as local-government electoral areas until 1919 in what is now the Republic and until 1972 in Northern Ireland.

A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations.

A municipal district is an administrative entity comprising a clearly-defined territory and its population. It can refer to a city, a town, a village, a small grouping of them, or a rural area.

A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division of a country that a local government is responsible for. The size of an LGA varies by country but it is generally a subdivision of a state, province, division, or territory.

In Ireland, the term city has somewhat differing meanings in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Limerick City and County Council</span> Local government authority for Limerick city and county in Ireland

Limerick City and County Council is the authority responsible for local government in the City of Limerick and County Limerick in Ireland. It came into operation on 1 June 2014 after the 2014 local elections. It was formed by the merger of Limerick City Council and Limerick County Council under the provisions of the Local Government Reform Act 2014. As a city and county council, it is governed by the Local Government Act 2001. The council is responsible for housing and community, roads and transportation, urban planning and development, amenity and culture, and environment. The council has 40 elected members. Elections are held every five years and are by single transferable vote. The head of the council has the title of Mayor. The city and county administration is headed by a Chief Executive, Pat Daly. The administrative centre is Limerick. Following a plebiscite in 2019, Limerick is due to become the first local authority in Ireland with a directly elected mayor.

References

  1. City of London: Statement as to the Origin, Position, Powers, Duties, and finance of the Corporation of London (Great Britain Royal Commission on London Government, October 1893), p. 6
  2. Zones Municipal Corporation of Delhi
  3. Elected Members: Rohini Zone (Ward-wise) at Municipal Corporation of Delhi
  4. Local Government Act 1994, s. 63: Electoral divisions ( No. 8 of 1994, s. 63 ). Act of the Oireachtas . Irish Statute Book .
  5. Local Government Act 1994, s. 24: Local electoral areas ( No. 8 of 1994, s. 24 ). Act of the Oireachtas . Irish Statute Book .