Military district

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Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are often more responsible for administrative than operational matters, and in countries with conscript forces, often handle parts of the conscription cycle.

Conscription Compulsory enlistment into national or military service

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military. Most European nations later copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and then transfer to the reserve force.

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Navies have also used a similar model, with organizations such as the United States Naval Districts. A number of navies in South America used naval districts at various points in time.

Algeria

Algerian military regions Regions militaires-Algerie.jpg
Algerian military regions

Algeria is divided into six numbered military regions, each with headquarters located in a principal city or town (see People's National Army (Algeria)#Military regions). This system of territorial organization, adopted shortly after independence, grew out of the wartime wilaya structure and the postwar necessity of subduing antigovernment insurgencies that were based in the various regions. Regional commanders control and administer bases, logistics, and housing, as well as conscript training. Commanders of army divisions and brigades, air force installations, and naval forces report directly to the Ministry of National Defence and service chiefs of staff on operational matters. Previously Algeria had formed France's tenth military region.

Military region commanders in 2003 included Brahim Fodel Chérif (1st Military Region), Kamel Abderrahmane (2nd Military Region, Abcène Tafer (3rd Military Region), Abdelmadjid Sahed (4th Military Region, Chérif Abderrazak (5th Military Region) and Ali Benali (6th Military Region). [2]

The 1st Military Region is a military region of the People's National Army of Algeria. It has its headquarters at Blida, and includes the capital of Algiers

The 2nd Military Region is a military region of the Algerian People's National Armed Forces. Its headquarters is at Oran.

China

Republic of China

There were 76 northern military districts or military regions (軍區), or war areas, which were the largest formations of the National Revolutionary Army, under the Military Affairs Commission, chaired by Chiang Kai-shek during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. During the Second Sino-Japanese War the National Revolutionary Army eventually organized itself into twelve Military Regions.

National Revolutionary Army Nationalist Army of the Republic of China

The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China. It also became the regular army of the ROC during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928. It was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces after the 1947 Constitution, which instituted civilian control of the military.

The command of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army was directed by the Military Affairs Commission, chaired by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. It was organized beginning on January 17, 1938, in the following way:

Chiang Kai-shek Chinese politician and military leader

Chiang Kai-shek, also known as Generalissimo Chiang or Chiang Chungcheng and romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese politician and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death. He was recognized by much of the world as the head of the legitimate government of China until 1971, during which the United Nations passed Resolution 2758.

People's Republic of China

The military regions (originally eleven, then seven) of the People's Liberation Army were divided into military districts (usually contiguous with provinces) and military sub-districts, under the command of the Central Military Commission.

Peoples Liberation Army combined military forces of the Peoples Republic of China

The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and its founding and ruling political party, the Communist Party of China (CPC). The PLA consists of five professional service branches: the Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Rocket Force, and the Strategic Support Force. Units around the country are assigned to one of five theater commands by geographical location. The PLA is the world's largest military force and constitutes the second largest defence budget in the world. It is one of the fastest modernising military powers in the world and has been termed as a potential military superpower, with significant regional defense and rising global power projection capabilities. China is also the third largest arms exporter in the world.

Central Military Commission (China) Peoples Republic of China political bodies governing the military

The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.

In February 2016, the 7 military regions were changed to 5 theater commands: [3]

France

Third Republic

Under the Third Republic, a military region comprised several departments which supported an army corps. For many years up to 21 military regions were active.

Fifth Republic

With the evolution of administrative organization, France was divided into regional administrative districts (circa 1963) (administrative region dependent of a prefect of the region). The military organisation then combined the administrative organization and in each CAR corresponded a territorial military division (TMD). On the defence side, these military divisions have been grouped into military regions. Their number varied depending on the period. The current number is six.

Germany

German Reich

During World War II, Germany used the system of military districts (German : Wehrkreis) to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the Field Army. The method they adopted was to separate the Field Army (Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres) from the Home Command (Heimatkriegsgebiet) and to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription, supply and equipment to that command.

The Commander of the Infantry Corps with the identical number also commanded the Wehrkreis in peacetime, but command of the Wehrkreis passed to his second-in command at the outbreak of war.

In peacetime, the Wehrkreis was the home to the Infantry Corps of the same number and all subordinate units of that Corps.

Federal Republic of Germany

Until 2013 the German Armed Forces ( Bundeswehr ) had four military districts – Wehrbereichskommando (WBK) as part of the Streitkräftebasis or Joint Service Support Command. Each WBK controlled several Landeskommandos (State Commands) due to the federal structure of Germany who have taken over functions carried out by the Verteidigungsbezirkskommandos (VBKs) or Military Region Commands (Defence District Commands) as. These command authorities are in charge of all military facilities. Now the Landeskommmandos are led by the National Territorial Command called Kommando Territoriale Aufgaben der Bundeswehr (KdoTerrAufgBw).

Indonesia

Kodam districts as of 2007 in Indonesia KodamLabel.png
Kodam districts as of 2007 in Indonesia
VI Mulawarman Military district command HQ, situated in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan Kodam VI Mulawarman, Balikpapan.jpg
VI Mulawarman Military district command HQ, situated in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan

The Indonesian Army (Bahasa Indonesia: Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Angkatan Darat "TNI-AD") uses military districts, known as Komando Daerah Militer (Military Region command) or KODAM. It was created by General Soedirman as a system initially called "Wehrkreise", adapted from the German system during World War II. The system was later ratified in "Surat Perintah Siasat No.1" (No.1 Strategy Command Letter), signed by General Soedirman on November 1948.

Military regional commands functioned as a means of circles of defense, or regional defense, to defend the designated islands/provinces under Indonesian territory. Each MRC commander had full authority to begin operations with assets available in the district. MRC commanders have command and autonomy over its military structures and organizations.

Current Indonesian Military Regional commands are:

  1. Kodam Jaya HQ in Jakarta
  2. Kodam Iskandar Muda HQ in Banda Aceh
  3. Kodam I/Bukit Barisan HQ in Medan
  4. Kodam II/Sriwijaya HQ in Palembang
  5. Kodam III/Siliwangi HQ in Bandung
  6. Kodam IV/Diponegoro HQ in Semarang
  7. Kodam V/Brawijaya HQ in Surabaya
  8. Kodam VI/Mulawarman HQ in Balikpapan
  9. Kodam IX/Udayana HQ in Denpasar
  10. Kodam XII/Tanjungpura HQ in Pontianak
  11. Kodam XIII/Merdeka HQ in Manado
  12. Kodam XIV/Hasanuddin HQ in Makassar
  13. Kodam XVI/Pattimura HQ in Ambon
  14. Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih HQ in Jayapura
  15. Kodam XVIII/Kasuari HQ in Sorong

Kazakhstan

Regional Commands of Kazakhstan VO Kazakhstana.svg
Regional Commands of Kazakhstan

A Regional Command (Kazakh : Аймақтық қолбасшылық, Aımaqtyq qolbasshylyq; Russian : Региональная команда, Regional'naya komanda) in Kazakhstan operates in a similar fashion to Russian military districts.

The Kazakh Ground Forces are divided into four regional commands: [4]

Poland

Initially, right after the First World War, Poland had five military districts (1918–1921):

In 1921, due to reorganization, the military districts were replaced with Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu (DOK – Corps District Command). In the Second Polish Republic there were ten DOKs:

Each DOK consisted of four large units (three infantry divisions and one cavalry brigade).

For district arrangements after World War II see Polish Land Forces. The Kraków Military District disbanded in 1953. From 1999 Poland has been divided into two military districts, the Pomeranian Military District and the Silesian Military District, both were disbanded by the end of 2011.

Russia and the Soviet Union

Russian Empire

Military districts of the Russian Empire in 1913 Map of Military Districts of Russian Empire 1913.png
Military districts of the Russian Empire in 1913

The Russian Empire's military district (Russian : вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) was a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type was utilized in Imperial Russia, USSR and is currently in use in Russian Federation.

Such territorial division provided convenient management of army units, their training and other activities regarding the country's readiness to defend itself.

Soviet Union

In the USSR, the military districts continued to perform the same role they had done in the Russian Empire, with first six military districts (Yaroslavsky, Moskovsky, Orlovsky, Belomorsky, Uralsky, and Privolzhsky) were formed on 31 March 1918 during the Russian Civil War.

This increased to 17 military districts of the USSR at the beginning of July 1940 shortly before the USSR was invaded by Germany and entered the Second World War, and were used to create combat Fronts after commencement of the German invasion of the USSR.

During the war the districts were further divided into geographic regions for logistic reasons, these being:[ citation needed ]

After the war, the number was increased to 33 to aid in demobilisation of forces, but by October 1946, they had been reduced to 21. [5]

By the end of the 1980s, immediately before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there were sixteen military districts, within three to five main strategic Theatre groupings.

Russian Federation

A military district (Russian : вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) in the Russian Federation operates under the command of the district headquarters, headed by the district commander, and is subordinated to the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.[ citation needed ] (Previously under Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces General Nikolai Kormiltsev, the military districts reported to the General Staff via the Russian Ground Forces staff.) It is a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type was historically adopted, originally by Imperial Russia, to provide a more efficient management of army units, their training and other operations activities related to combat readiness.

From 1992 to 2010, the Armed Forces maintained a diminishing number of former Soviet Armed Forces districts – Leningrad Military District, Moscow Military District, Volga-Urals Military District, North Caucasus Military District, Siberian Military District, Far East Military District.

Military districts of Russia as of 2016 Military districts of Russia 2016.svg
Military districts of Russia as of 2016

In 2009–2010, these districts were reorganised into 4 Military Districts comprising regional Joint Strategic Commands: [6] In 2014 Northern Fleet was reorganized into separate Joint Strategic Command.

Sweden

The military area (Swedish : Militärområde, usually abbreviated to Milo) was an administrative division of the Swedish Armed Forces, and was a higher regional level subdivision. The commander of a military area, the Militärområdesbefälhavare (also militärbefälhavare), commanded the Swedish Army divisions stationed in the region, the regional naval command, the regional air defence sector as well as the lower regional level subdivision defence areas that made up the military area. The commander answered directly to the Supreme Commander. The military areas in the modern form were created in 1966, and each area was named according to the geographical area they covered. Several changes were made, such as creating or merging areas, until all military areas were disbanded in 2000. After the Defence Act of 2000 the military areas were replaced by military districts (Swedish : Militärdistrikt, usually abbreviated to MD). The new military districts corresponded geographically to the former military areas, however, they did not have the same territorial and operational tasks which the military areas had. In 2005, the military districts were replaced to some extent by four Security and Cooperation Sections (Swedish : Säkerhets- och samverkanssektioner).

United Kingdom

British Army regional districts have evolved slowly over the previous 150 years or so. For many years there were regional commands in the UK, including Aldershot Command (from 1880), Eastern Command, Northern Command, Scottish Command, Southern Command and Western Command (from 1905). By 1985 these were superseded by districts, and until the spring of 1991 there were nine of them. Antony Beevor wrote in his revised edition of Inside the British Army in 1991 that '..the first of the minor districts to be amalgamated were North West District, Western District, and Wales, to form a new Western District.' HQ Northern Ireland remained separate and reported to HQ UK Land Forces only on non-operational matters. [7]

Structure Regional Forces c.2006 Regional Forces (UK).png
Structure Regional Forces c.2006

From 1995, UK commands and later districts were replaced by regenerative divisions. 2nd Division, 4th Division, 5th Division and London District acted as regional commands within the UK reporting to Commander Regional Forces. Scotland District was absorbed by 2nd Division in 2000. The divisions were responsible for training subordinate formations and units under their command for operations in the UK, such as Military Aid to the Civil Community, as well as training units for overseas deployments. 2nd, 4th and 5th Divisions were replaced by Support Command on 1 November 2011. [8]

United States

[9]

The military department was a military and administrative command of the US Army.

Present day US military organization is structured around Unified Combatant Commands, which encompass different geographical areas and responsibilities.

Vietnam

Vietnam People's Army has 8 Military Regions:

The Army of the Republic of Vietnam originally had four corps, for example I Corps (South Vietnam). Later they were redesignated Military Regions 1-4.

See also

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Silesian Military District

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Kodam Jaya is a military command area of the Military of Indonesia. It oversees Jakarta, the capital city, as well as three regions outside of Jakarta: Bekasi and Depok, which are administratively in West Java province; and Tangerang, which is in Banten province.

Kodam XII/Tanjungpura, is an Indonesian Army military region command that today is responsible for the defense of the two western provinces of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Kodam Tanjungpura also oversees the defense of Indonesian border region with the Malaysian state of Sarawak.

2nd Military Region Command/Sriwijaya is a territorial defence command, which includes the provinces of Bengkulu, Jambi, South Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung Islands and Lampung. The commander is Army Maj. Gen. Nugroho Widiyotomo, who has held the position since January 2008.

2008 Russian military reform

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The 36th Army was a military formation of the Red Army and the Soviet Ground Forces, formed twice.

Military districts of Poland were created in the aftermath of World War I, at a time when Poland regained its independence.

The Vietnam People's Army has the following military regions:

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The Armed Forces Reserve Command of Ministry of National Defense, is a division of the original "Reserve Command" adapted for the headquarters patterns, task planning and execution mobilization, management, service, civil defence, the establishment of the reserve potential. Provide each combat zone to carry out the first line of coastal defence and wartime operational areas required depth Reserve forces, and sustained implementation of the military mobilization, the use of the National defence mobilization mechanism, binding force after preparing to support ground operations, maintenance, Homeland Defence and Security Than in the past because of the number of troops, the reserve headquarters is now the main business is intensive recruitment, education convened training reserve forces, to defend the strategic implications of effective reserve.

Army Military Police Corps (Indonesia)

Puspomad or Army Military Police Command, which all of its personnel are part of the Military Police Corps (CPM) is one of the military general technical functions of the Indonesian Army which has the role for administering administrative assistance and as embodiment and guidance through the operation of Military Police functions. Its duties is basically to execute law enforcement towards the military which includes investigation activities and other policing duties within the scope of the army.

Kodam VI/Mulawarman is a military territorial command of the Indonesian Army. It has been in active service as the local division for the provinces of North Kalimantan, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan.

The 12th Rifle Corps was an infantry corps of the Red Army during the interwar period and World War II, formed four times.

References

  1. "Library of Congress Country Study, 1993, 258-260" (PDF). marines.mil.
  2. Isabelle Werenfels, 'Managing Instability in Algeria: Elites and Political Change since 1995,' p.186 (fn 51).
  3. http://news.ifeng.com/a/20160201/47322320_0.shtml#_zbs_baidu_bk
  4. http://www8.brinkster.com/vad777/sng/kazachztan/kazachstan-grand.htm Kazakh Ground Forces
  5. V.I. Feskov et al, The Soviet Army in the Period of the Cold War, Tomsk, 2004
  6. "Главная : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации". www.mil.ru.
  7. Beevor, 1991 revised edition, 232.
  8. Charles Heyman, 'The British Army: A Pocket Guide 2012-2013', p.31
  9. "Records of United States Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920". archives.gov. 15 August 2016.