Second lieutenant

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Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank.

Officer (armed forces) member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority

An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.

Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. Military ranks and the military rank system define among others dominance, authority, as well as roles and responsibility in a military hierarchy. The military rank system incorporates the principles of exercising power and authority, and the military chain of command – the succession of commanders superior to subordinates through which command is exercised – constructs an important component for organized collective action.

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Australia

The rank of second lieutenant existed in the military forces of the Australian colonies and Australian Army until 1986.

Colonial forces of Australia

Until Australia became a Federation in 1901, each of the six colonial governments was responsible for the defence of their own colony. From 1788 until 1870 this was done with British regular forces. In all, 24 British infantry regiments served in the Australian colonies. Each of the Australian colonies gained responsible government between 1855 and 1890, and while the Colonial Office in London retained control of some affairs, and the colonies were still firmly within the British Empire, the Governors of the Australian colonies were required to raise their own colonial militia. To do this, the colonial Governors had the authority from the British crown to raise military and naval forces. Initially these were militias in support of British regulars, but British military support for the colonies ended in 1870, and the colonies assumed their own defence. The separate colonies maintained control over their respective militia forces and navies until 1 March 1901, when the colonial forces were all amalgamated into the Commonwealth Forces following the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia. Colonial forces, including home raised units, saw action in many of the conflicts of the British Empire during the 19th century. Members from British regiments stationed in Australia saw action in India, Afghanistan, the Maori Wars of New Zealand, the Sudan conflict, and the Boer War in South Africa.

Australian Army land warfare branch of Australias defence forces

The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) commands the ADF, the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army (CA). The CA is therefore subordinate to the CDF, but is also directly responsible to the Minister for Defence. Although Australian soldiers have been involved in a number of minor and major conflicts throughout its history, only in World War II has Australian territory come under direct attack.

In the colonial forces, which closely followed the practices of the British military, the rank of second lieutenant began to replace ranks such as Ensign and Cornet from 1871.

Ensign is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank acquired the name. This rank has generally been replaced in army ranks by second lieutenant. Ensigns were generally the lowest ranking commissioned officer, except where the rank of subaltern existed. In contrast, the Arab rank of ensign, لواء, liwa', derives from the command of units with an ensign, not the carrier of such a unit's ensign, and is today the equivalent of a major general.

New appointments to the rank of second lieutenant ceased in the Regular Army in 1986. [1] Immediately prior to this change, the rank had been effectively reserved for new graduates from the Officer Cadet School, Portsea which closed in 1985. (Graduates of the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) and the Royal Military College, Duntroon (RMC-D) are commissioned as lieutenants.) [2] [3] . The rank of second lieutenant is only appointed to officers in special appointments such as training institutions, university regiments and while under probation during training. Trainees undertaking Special Service Officer (SSO) training are also appointed at higher rank (as second lieutenants) than General Service Officer (GSO) trainees who start off at the rank of officer cadet (ADFA/Australian Army Reserve officer trainees) or staff cadet (Royal Military College, Duntroon). [4]

Officer Cadet School, Portsea

The Officer Cadet School, Portsea was an officer training establishment of the Australian Army. Established at Portsea in Victoria, Australia, in 1951 to provide training to officer cadets prior to commissioning, for many years OCS provided the Australian Regular Army with the bulk of its junior officers. However, following a review of military training establishments in Australia in the mid-1980s, the school was eventually closed in 1985, as the Royal Military College, Duntroon, assumed sole responsibility for training Army officers.

Australian Defence Force Academy staff college

The Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) is a tri-service military Academy that provides military and tertiary academic education for junior officers of the Australian Defence Force in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). In 2016 the Academy began accepting civilian students in its undergraduate courses.

Royal Military College, Duntroon Australian Army training college

The Royal Military College, Duntroon, also known simply as Duntroon, is the Australian Army's officer training establishment. It was founded at Duntroon, in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, in 1911 and is located at the foot of Mount Pleasant near Lake Burley Griffin, close to the Department of Defence headquarters at Russell Hill. It is comparable with the United Kingdom's Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and the United States Military Academy at West Point. Duntroon is adjacent to the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA), which is Australian Defence Force's tri-service military academy that provides military and tertiary academic education for junior officers of the Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force and the Royal Australian Navy.

Ranks equivalent to second lieutanant are Acting Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Australian Navy and Pilot Officer in the Royal Australian Air Force.

Royal Australian Navy naval warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region.

Royal Australian Air Force Air warfare branch of Australias armed forces

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force (ADF). It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy also operate aircraft in various roles. It directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps (AFC), formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, and humanitarian support.

Canada

The Canadian Forces adopted the rank with insignia of a single gold ring around the service dress uniform cuff for both army and air personnel upon unification in 1968 until the late 2000s. [5] [6] For a time, naval personnel used this rank but reverted to the Royal Canadian Navy rank of acting sub-lieutenant, though the CF green uniform was retained until the mid-1980s. Currently, the Canadian Army insignia for second lieutenant is a pip and the Royal Canadian Air Force insignia for lieutenant is one thick braid. The equivalent rank for the Royal Canadian Navy is acting sub-lieutenant. Also known as an Ensign in the Foot Guards units (Canadian Grenadier Guards & Governor General's Foot Guards).

Canadian Army land component of the Canadian Armed Forces

The Canadian Army is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2018 the Army has 23,000 regular soldiers, about 17,000 reserve soldiers, including 5,000 rangers, for a total of 40,000 soldiers. The Army is supported by 3,000 civilian employees. It maintains regular forces units at bases across Canada, and is also responsible for the Army Reserve, the largest component of the Primary Reserve. The Commander of the Canadian Army and Chief of the Army Staff is Lieutenant-General Jean-Marc Lanthier.

Royal Canadian Air Force Air warfare branch of Canadas military

The Royal Canadian Air Force is the air force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant, responsive and effective airpower". The RCAF is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2013, the Royal Canadian Air Force consists of 14,500 Regular Force and 2,600 Primary Reserve personnel, supported by 2,500 civilians, and operates 258 manned aircraft and 9 unmanned aerial vehicles. Lieutenant-General Al Meinzinger is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force and Chief of the Air Force Staff.

Royal Canadian Navy maritime warfare branch of Canadas military

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2017, Canada's navy operates 12 frigates, 4 patrol submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels and 8 unarmed patrol/training vessels, as well as several auxiliary vessels. The Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 5,300 civilians. Vice-Admiral Ron Lloyd is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff.

France

The insignia consists of a metal-colored bar in accordance with the color of the ceremonial uniform buttons and hat's symbol.

For example, for the infantry, gold being the metal of the ceremonial dress' buttons, the symbol on the képi being a golden grenade with two crossed rifles, therefore the Sous-Lieutenant's insignia is a gold-colored bar.

For cavalry or forest rangers (light infantry mobilised from the Water and Forests Corp), ceremonial dress' buttons were silver, as was the hunting horn on the forest commissioned officer's képi, therefore the Sous-Lieutenant's insignia is a silver-colored bar.

Greece

The insignia consists of a single silver star (or a star and a bar for reserve officers). Officers holding this rank should be addressed as "Kyrie Anthypolochage" (Κύριε Ανθυπολοχαγέ) by their subordinates, or "Anthypolochage + family name" by their superior officers.

Indonesia

The second lieutenant rank insignia of the Indonesian Army Letda pdh ad.png
The second lieutenant rank insignia of the Indonesian Army

In Indonesia, "second lieutenant" is known as letnan dua (letda) which is the most junior ranked officer in the Indonesian Military. Cadets who graduate from the Indonesian Military Academy achieve this rank as young officers. Senior non-commissioned officers promoted to becoming commissioned officers go to the officer's candidate school (Sekolah Calon Perwira) in Bandung to achieve the second lieutenant rank. The lieutenant rank has two levels, which are second lieutenant (Letda) and First lieutenant (Lettu). Lieutenants in Indonesia usually command a platoon level of troops and are referred to as "danton" abbreviated from komandan pleton (platoon commander) in Indonesian.

Israel

Since 1951 in the Israel Defense Forces (סגן-משנה (סג"מ segen mishne (sagam) has been equivalent to a second lieutenant (NATO OF-1). From 1948 1951 the corresponding rank was that of a (סגן) segen, which since 1951 has been equivalent to lieutenant. Segen mishne means "junior lieutenant" and segen literally translates as "assistant". Typically it is the rank of a platoon commander. Note that the IDF uses this rank across all three of its services.

New Zealand

Like many other Commonwealth countries, the rank structures of the New Zealand Defence Force usually follow British traditions. Hence the New Zealand Army maintains a rank of second lieutenant and the Royal New Zealand Air Force has its exact equivalent, Pilot Officer.

However, the Royal New Zealand Navy breaks with British tradition and uses the name ensign for its most junior commissioned officer rank (rather than the usual equivalents, such as acting sub-lieutenant or second lieutenant).

Norway

The equivalent rank in Norway (O-1) is "fenrik". This is the first rank, where they are commanding officer. Fenriks are usually former experienced sergeants but to become a fenrik one has to go through officer's training and education. Fenriks fill roles as second in command within a platoon. Fenriks are in some cases executive officers. Most fenriks have finished the War Academy as well, and are fully trained officers. To qualify for the Military Academy, Fenriks are required to do minimum 6 months service in international missions, before or after graduation.

Pakistan

The Pakistan Army follows the British pattern of ranks. A second lieutenant is represented by one metal pip on each shoulder in case of "khaki uniform" and one four quadric[ clarification needed ] printed star on the chest in case of camouflage combat dress. However a second lieutenant in the Pakistan Army is usually promoted to lieutenant 6 months after commissioning.

Singapore

In Singapore, the rank of second lieutenant (2LT) is given to officer cadets who have completed their Officer Cadet Course, and is the lowest commissioned rank in the Singapore Armed Forces, below the rank of lieutenant and above the rank of chief warrant officer. The rank insignia of 2LT is a bar. [7]

United Kingdom & other Commonwealth countries

The rank of second lieutenant (2Lt; colloquially known as a one-pip) was introduced throughout the British Army in 1877 to replace the short-lived rank of sub-lieutenant, although it had long been used in the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, Fusilier and Rifle regiments. At first the rank bore no distinct insignia. In 1902, a single Bath star (now commonly referred to as a pip) was introduced; the ranks of lieutenant and captain had their number of stars increased by one to (respectively) two and three. The rank is also used by the Royal Marines.

New British Army officers are normally commissioned as second lieutenants at the end of their commissioning course at RMA Sandhurst, and continue with specific training with their units, often with mentoring from senior NCOs. Progression to lieutenant rank usually occurs after about a year. In the British armed forces, second lieutenant is a rank which is not used as a form of address. Instead a second lieutenant named, for example, Smith is addressed and referred to as Mr Smith, with the exception that the alternative titles ensign and cornet are still used verbally in the Foot Guards and the Blues and Royals [8] respectively. As these form six of the seven regiments that comprise the Household Division, the Life Guards are therefore the only Household regiment to which the exception does not apply.

In the Royal Air Force, the comparable rank is pilot officer. The Royal Navy has no exact equivalent rank, and a second lieutenant is senior to a Royal Navy midshipman but junior to a sub-lieutenant.

United States

In the United States, second lieutenant is the normal entry-level rank for most commissioned officers in the Army, Air Force and Marine Corps and is equivalent to the rank of ensign in the Navy and Coast Guard.

In the Army and Marine Corps, a second lieutenant typically leads a platoon-size element (16 to 44 soldiers or Marines). In the army, until December 1917, the rank bore no insignia other than a brown sleeve braid on blouses and an officer's cap device and hat cord. In December 1917, a gold-colored bar similar to the silver-colored bar of a first lieutenant was introduced. In US military slang, the rank is sometimes called "butterbar" in reference to the insignia. [9]

In the Air Force, depending upon the career field, a second lieutenant (2nd Lt) may supervise flights (of varying sizes) as a flight leader or deputy flight leader, or may work in a variety of administrative positions at the squadron, group, or wing level. A significant number of Air Force second lieutenants are full-time flight students in training for eventual designation as USAF pilots, combat systems officers or air battle managers.

Insignia

The following are a selection of second lieutenant rank insignia, attempting to illustrate the range of variation (and similarity) between the insignia. Note that although many air forces use the rank of second lieutenant, in most Commonwealth air forces the equivalent rank of pilot officer is used. Very few navies use the rank "second lieutenant".

AustraliaBulgariaCanadaFranceDenmarkNorwayGeorgiaGermanyGreeceIndiaIndonesiaIranIrelandItalyMexicoPakistanPolandRussiaThailandUKUSUS (1959–2014)
Army Australian Army OF-1a.svg Rank insignia of Leitenant of the Bulgarian Army.png Canadian Army OF-1a.svg Army-FRA-OF-01b.svg Rank insignia of sekondlojtnant of the Royal Danish Army.svg
Fenrik.png
Georgia Army OF-1b.png HD H 41 Leutnant FschJg.svg Army-GRE-OF-01b.svg 2nd Lieutenant Indian Army.gif 13-TNI Army-2LT.svg Sotvan 2.png IE-Army-OF1b.png Rank insignia of sottotenete of the Army of Italy (1973).svg Mexico army OF1a.svg OF-1(A) Pakistan Army.svg Army-POL-OF-01b.svg RAF A F1-2Lt 2010.png RTA OF-1a (Sub Lieutenant).svg British Army OF-1a.svg Army-USA-OF-01b.svg US Army O1.svg
Air
force
Pilot
officer
Rank insignia of Leitenant of the Bulgarian Air forces.png Canadian RCAF OF-1a.svg French Air Force-sous-lieutenant.svg RDAF 2nd Lt.svg
OF1 NOR - Fenrik Luft.png
Georgia Air Force OF-1b.png LD B 41 Leutnant.svg Hellenic Air Force OF-1B.svg Pilot
officer
13-TNI Air Force-2LT.svg 11- stwn dwm--IRIAF.png Ireland-AirForce-OF-1a.svg IT-Airforce-OF1.png Subteniente FAM.gif Pilot
officer
Rank insignia of podporucznik of the Air Force of Poland.svg RAF AF F1-2Lt 2010.png Pilot
officer
Pilot
officer
US Air Force O1 shoulderboard.svg
Naval
infantry
/Marines
French Navy-Rama NG-OF1.svg
Fenrik sjo.png
IN Sublieutenant.png 13-TNI Navy-ENS.svg IT-Navy-OF1-1-s.png POL PMW pagon1 podporucznik marynarki.svg British Royal Marines OF-1a.svg US Marine O1 shoulderboard vertical.svg
Forest & Environment Corps Sous-Lieutenant des Eaux et Forets.png
native designationFenrikLeutnant Letnan Dua PodporucznikLeytenant

Note: U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) second lieutenant insignia bars have rounded off edges (no bevels), identical to the U.S. Navy ensign rank. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Rank insignia in the French air force are worn on the sleeve or on shoulder marks of uniforms

References

  1. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-02-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. "Commissioned Officer Ranks". Australian Army. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  3. "General Service Officer". Defence Jobs. Defence Force Recruiting. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  4. https://www.army.gov.au/our-people/australian-army-rank-structure/commissioned-officer-ranks
  5. Navy marks centennial by reinstating 'executive curl' "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-26. Retrieved 2014-10-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. Canadian Army goes back to the future with return to British-style ranks and designations "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-06-28. Retrieved 2017-09-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. "CMPB | Ranks and drill commands". Central Manpower Base (CMPB). Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  8. "The Household Cavalry Command Structure - Forms of Address". householdcavalry.info. Enasec Ltd. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016. In The Blues And Royals, the most junior Officer rank (equivalent to 2nd Lieutenant) is known as "Cornet".
  9. Dalzell, Tom (2009). The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English. Taylor & Francis. p. 154. ISBN   978-0-415-37182-7.
  10. Marine Corps Uniform Regulations MARINE CORPS ORDER P1020.34G W/CH 1-5, CHAPTER 4. INSIGNIA AND REGULATIONS FOR WEAR, Sec. 4005. INSIGNIA OF GRADE, OFFICERS, Para. 2. Description by Grade, h. Captain, i. First Lieutenant, & j. Second Lieutenant (p. 4-25) and Figure 4-11. Officers' Grade Insignia (Shoulder/Collar) (p. 4-21)