Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

Last updated

Admiral of the Fleet
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
The flag of an admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals' flags. [1]
British Royal Navy OF-10-collected.svg
Insignia shoulder board and sleeve lace for Admiral of the Fleet
CountryFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Service branchNaval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg  Royal Navy
AbbreviationADMF
Rank group Flag officer
Rank Five-star
NATO rank code OF-10
Formation1688
Next lower rank Admiral
Equivalent ranks

Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy formally established in 1688. [2] The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a Marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments, no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995, and no honorary appointments have been made since 2014.

Contents

History

King George VI and Admiral Bruce Fraser aboard HMS Duke of York at Scapa Flow, August 1943 HM King George VI greeting the Flag Officers of the Home Fleet on board the flagship HMS DUKE OF YORK at Scapa Flow, 16 August 1943. A18577.jpg
King George VI and Admiral Bruce Fraser aboard HMS Duke of York at Scapa Flow, August 1943

The origins of the rank can be traced back to John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, who was appointed 'Admiral of the King's Southern, Northern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360. [3] The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time; this evolved into the post of Admiral of the Fleet. [4] In the days of sailing ships the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy included distinctions related to the fleet being divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue. Each division was assigned at least one admiral, who in turn commanded a number of vice-admirals and rear admirals. While the full admirals were nominally equals, tradition gave precedence to the Admiral of the White who held the fleet rank in addition to his substantive role. [2]

Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

The Restoration era brought a general reorganisation of naval ranks and structure, including formalisation of the admiral of the fleet role. In a break with tradition the rank was awarded to the most senior Admiral of the Red, who retained this substantive rank while also serving as Admiral of the Fleet. Appointments were for life, remunerated via a £5 daily stipend and an annual allowance of £1,014 for the hiring and maintenance of servants. It was intended that only one officer would hold the rank at any time, with their presence aboard any naval vessel to be denoted by the flying of the Royal Standard from the main mast. [5]

The ranks of Admiral of the Fleet and Admiral of the Red were formally separated from 1805, with an announcement in the London Gazette that "His Majesty [has] been pleased to order the Rank of Admirals of the Red to be restored" [6] in His Majesty's Navy..." as a separate role. The same Gazette promoted 22 men to that rank. [7] From the nineteenth century onward there were also occasional variations to the previous requirement that only one Admiral of Fleet could serve at one time. In 1821 George IV appointed Sir John Jervis as a second admiral of the fleet, to balance the Duke of Wellington 's promotion as a second Field Marshal in the British Army. In 1830 King William IV increased the number of admirals of the fleet to three, though these additional lifetime postings subsequently lapsed. Between 1854 and 1857 there was no admiral of the fleet at all as the most senior naval officer of the time Admiral of the Red Thomas Le Marchant Gosselin was mentally ill and had not served at sea for forty-five years. [8] [9] In deference to Gosselin's seniority the position was instead left vacant until his death in 1857, whereupon it was filled by Admiral Charles Ogle. [5]

In practice the rank had lost its formal authority from 1828, when the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904). Thereafter it was periodically granted to retiring First Naval Lords as an honorary promotion, only passing to the most senior Admiral if there was no other candidate. On occasion even this seniority principle was abandoned, as on the death of Provo Wallis in 1892 when the promotion went to John Edmund Commerell rather than the senior Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey. [10]

Twentieth century

The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, though the rank of admiral of the fleet was maintained. During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Sea Lord. e.g. Sir John Tovey. [11]

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was created an Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal New Zealand Navy in 1954, following the coronation of his wife Elizabeth II as Queen. This promotion was to a New Zealand rank, separate from the Royal Navy rank. [12]

Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord. The rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales (now King Charles III) became an honorary admiral of the fleet (as well as field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force), in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was also appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet. [13]

Admirals of the Fleet

Appointed
Image
Name
Born
Died
Notes
Reference
1688 George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth by John Riley.jpg George Legge
(later Baron Dartmouth)
16471691 [14]
1690 Gibson, Edward Russell.jpg Edward Russell
(later Earl of Orford)
16521727 [15]
1696 George Rooke2.jpg Sir George Rooke 16501709circa [16]
13 January 1705 Sir Cloudesley Shovell, 1650-1707.jpg Sir Cloudesley Shovell 16501707 [17]
8 January 1708 John Leake by Godfrey Kneller.jpg Sir John Leake 16561720 [18]
21 December 1708 Stafford Fairborne.jpg Sir Stafford Fairborne 16661742circa [19]
12 November 1709 MatthewAylmer.jpg Sir Matthew Aylmer 16501720 [20]
14 March 1718 George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington by Jeremiah Davison.jpg Sir George Byng
(later Viscount Torrington)
16631733 [21]
20 February 1734 Admiral Sir John Norris, cirka 1735.jpg Sir John Norris 16701749 [22]
1 July 1749 Chaloner Ogle.JPG Sir Chaloner Ogle 16811750 [23]
22 November 1751 No image.svg James Steuart 16901757 [24]
March 1757 No image.svg George Clinton 16861761 [25]
30 July 1761 1stLordAnson.jpg The Lord Anson 16971762 [26]
17 December 1762 Williamrowley.jpg Sir William Rowley 16901768circa [27]
15 January 1768 Edward Hawke 1.jpg Sir Edward Hawke
(later Lord Hawke)
17051781 [28]
24 October 1781 John Forbes portrait.jpg John Forbes 17141796 [29]
12 March 1796 Admiral of the Fleet Howe 1726-99 1st Earl Howe by John Singleton Copley.jpg The Earl Howe 17261799 [30]
16 September 1799 Sir peter parker NMM.JPG Sir Peter Parker 17211811 [31]
24 December 1811 William IV by Sir Martin Archer Shee.jpg The Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
(later King William IV)
17651837 [32]
19 July 1821 John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent by Francis Cotes.jpg The Earl of St Vincent 17351823acting from May 1814 [33]
28 June 1830 Captain William Peere Williams.jpg William Williams-Freeman 17421832 [34]
22 July 1830 James Gambier.jpg The Lord Gambier 17561833 [35]
22 July 1830 SirCharlesMoricePole.jpg Sir Charles Pole 17571830 [35]
24 April 1833 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Edmund Nugent.JPG Sir Charles Nugent 17591844 [36]
8 January 1844 HawkinsWhitshed.jpg Sir James Hawkins-Whitshed 17621849 [37]
9 November 1846 Admiral Sir George Martin.jpg Sir George Martin 17641847 [38]
13 October 1849 Portrait of Sir Thomas Byam Martin 1773-1854, Thomas Mackay, oil on canvas.jpg Sir Thomas Byam Martin 17731854 [39]
1 July 1851 Sir George Cockburn.jpg Sir George Cockburn 17721853 [40]
8 December 1857 Admiral Sir Charles Ogle, Bart - Amiral sir Charles Ogle, Bart.jpg Sir Charles Ogle 17751858 [41]
25 June 1858 Admiral of the Fleet Sir John West.JPG Sir John West 17741862 [42]
20 May 1862 No image.svg Sir William Gage 17771864 [43]
10 November 1862 No image.svg Sir Graham Hamond 17791862 [44]
27 April 1863 FrancisAusten.jpg Sir Francis Austen 17741865 [45]
27 April 1863 Sir William Parker.jpg Sir William Parker 17811866 [46]
11 January 1864 No image.svg Sir Lucius Curtis 17861869 [47]
12 September 1865 Thomas-john-cochrane.jpg Sir Thomas Cochrane 17891872 [48]
30 November 1866 George Francis Seymour.jpg Sir George Seymour 17871870 [49]
30 January 1868 Rear Admiral James Alexander Gordon.jpg Sir James Gordon 17821869on the Retired List [50]
15 January 1869 Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Bowles.JPG Sir William Bowles 17801869 [51]
2 July 1869 Conde de Penha Firme.JPG Sir George Sartorius 17901885 [52]
21 January 1870 Sir Fairfax Moresby.jpg Sir Fairfax Moresby 17861877 [53]
20 October 1872 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Houston Stewart.JPG Sir Houston Stewart 17911875 [54]
11 December 1875 Provo Wallis.jpg Sir Provo Wallis 17911892 [55]
22 January 1877 Rear-Admiral Henry John Codrington (1808-1877), by Cato Lowes Dickinson.jpg Sir Henry Codrington 18081877 [56]
5 August 1877 Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Keppel.jpg Sir Henry Keppel 18091904 [57]
27 December 1877 Thomas Maitland, 11th Earl of Lauderdale - Chusan conference 1840 (cropped).jpg The Earl of Lauderdale 18031878 [58]
27 December 1877 Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rodney Mundy.JPG Sir Rodney Mundy 18051884 [58]
15 June 1879 Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Hope.JPG Sir James Hope 18081881 [59]
15 June 1879 No image.svg Sir Thomas Symonds 18131894 [59]
10 June 1881 Admiral Alexander Milne (1808-1896), by Walter William Ouless.jpg Sir Alexander Milne, Bt. 18061896on the Retired List [60]
1 December 1881 No image.svg Sir Charles Elliot 18181895 [61]
29 April 1885 Ryderpic.jpg Sir Alfred Ryder 18201888 [62]
18 July 1887 Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg The Prince of Wales
(later King Edward VII)
18411910honorary to non-Navy royalty [63]
1 May 1888 Geoffrey Phipps Hornby.jpg Sir Geoffrey Hornby 18251895 [64]
8 December 1888 Lordjohnhay.jpg Lord John Hay 18271916 First Sea Lord 1886 [65]
2 August 1889 Wilhelm II, German Emperor, by Russell & Sons, c1890.jpg HIM German Emperor William II 18591941honorary, to foreign royalty [66]
13 February 1892 VCJohnEdmundCommerell.jpg Sir John Commerell 18291901 [67]
3 June 1893 Alfred-sachsen-coburg-gotha.jpg The Duke of Edinburgh
(later Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
18441900 [68]
20 February 1895 Richard Meade, 4th Earl of Clanwilliam.jpg The Earl of Clanwilliam 18321907 [69]
23 August 1897 Algernon McLennan Lyons.JPG Sir Algernon Lyons 18331908 [70]
29 November 1898 Admiral Frederick Richards, by Arthur Stockdale Cope.jpg Sir Frederick Richards 18331912 First Sea Lord 1893–1899 [71]
13 January 1899 Nowell Salmon VC.JPG Sir Nowell Salmon 18351912 [72]
3 October 1902 James Elphinstone Erskine.jpg Sir James Erskine 18381911 [73]
30 August 1903 Charles Frederick Hotham.jpg Sir Charles Hotham 18431925 [74]
16 June 1904 LordWalterKerr.jpg Lord Walter Kerr 18391927 First Sea Lord 1899–1904 [75]
20 February 1905 Sir Edward H. Seymour 2.jpg Sir Edward Seymour 18401929 [76]
5 December 1905 Adm. John Fisher.jpg Sir John Fisher
(later Lord Fisher)
18411920 First Sea Lord 1905–1910 and 1914–1915 [77]
1 March 1907 Awilson.gif Sir Arthur Wilson 18421921 First Sea Lord 1910–1911 [78]
11 June 1908 Nicolas II de russie.jpg HIM Tsar Nicholas II of Russia 18681918honorary, to foreign royalty [79]
2 December 1908 Gerard Noel.png Sir Gerard Noel 18451918 [80]
27 January 1910 Prinz Heinrich - as GrADM with baton - LC-B2- 2992-2(2).tiff Prince Henry of Prussia 18621929honorary, to foreign royalty [81]
30 April 1910 Adm. Sir A. Fanshawe (LOC).jpg Sir Arthur Fanshawe 18471936 [82]
6 May 1910 King George V 1911 color-crop.jpg King George V 18651936 [83]
20 March 1913 Portrait of William May.jpg Sir William May 18491930 [84]
5 March 1915 Hedworth Meux 1915.jpg Sir Hedworth Meux 18561929 [85]
2 April 1917 George Callaghan - Project Gutenberg eText 18334.jpg Sir George Callaghan 18521920 [86]
3 April 1919 John Jellicoe, Admiral of the Fleet.jpg The Viscount Jellicoe
(later Earl Jellicoe)
18591935 First Sea Lord 1916–1918 [87]
3 April 1919 Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty.jpg Sir David Beatty
(later Earl Beatty)
18711936 First Sea Lord 1919–1927 [88]
31 July 1919 Henry Bradwardine Jackson.jpg Sir Henry Jackson 18551929 First Sea Lord 1915–1916 [89]
1 November 1919 Rosslyn Erskine Wemyss, Baron Wester Wemyss by Sir William Orpen.jpg Sir Rosslyn Wemyss
(later Lord Wester Wemyss)
18641933 First Sea Lord 1918–1919 [90]
24 November 1920 Vice Admiral Cecil Burney (7307714298).jpg Sir Cecil Burney, Bt. 18581929 [91]
5 July 1921 Frederick Doveton Sturdee.jpg Sir Doveton Sturdee, Bt. 18591925 [92]
19 August 1921 LudwigBattenberg.jpg The Marquess of Milford Haven 18541921 First Sea Lord 1912–1914. On the Retired List [93]
31 July 1924 Charles Madden.jpg Sir Charles Madden, Bt. 18621935 First Sea Lord 1927–1930 [94]
8 May 1925 Admiral Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe (1922).jpg Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 18641937 [95]
24 November 1925 John Michael de Robeck.jpg Sir John de Robeck, Bt. 18621928 [96]
21 January 1928 Vice-admiral Sir Henry Francis Oliver, Kcb, Mvo Art.IWMART1763.jpg Sir Henry Oliver 18651965 [97]
31 July 1929 Rear-admiral Osmond de Beauvoir Brock Cb Cmg Art.IWMART1722.jpg Sir Osmond Brock 18691947 [98]
8 May 1930 Sir Roger Keyes.jpg Sir Roger Keyes, Bt.
(later Lord Keyes)
18721945 [99]
21 January 1933 Frederick Field (Royal Navy officer).jpg Sir Frederick Field 18711945 First Sea Lord 1930–1933 [100]
31 July 1934 ReginaldTyrwhittportraitbyDodd.jpg Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt, Bt. 18701951 [101]
8 May 1935 Echatfield.jpg Sir Ernle Chatfield
(later Lord Chatfield)
18731967 First Sea Lord 1933–1938 [102]
21 January 1936 Edward Prince of Wales during his visit to Canada in 1919.jpg King Edward VIII 18941972 [103]
12 July 1936 Sir John Kelly 18711936 [104]
11 December 1936 Georg VI England.jpg King George VI 18951952 [105]
21 January 1938 William Boyle.jpg The Earl of Cork and Orrery 18731967 [106]
7 July 1939 Rbackhouse.jpg Sir Roger Backhouse 18781939 First Sea Lord 1938–1939 [107]
31 July 1939 SirDudleyPound.jpg Sir Dudley Pound 18771943 First Sea Lord 1939–1943 [108]
8 May 1940 Charlesforbes1.JPG Sir Charles Forbes 18801960 [109]
21 January 1943 Andrew Cunningham.jpg Sir Andrew Cunningham
(later Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope)
18831963 First Sea Lord 1943–1946 [110]
22 October 1943 Tovey-TR 002931.jpg Sir John Tovey
(later Lord Tovey)
18851971 [111]
8 May 1945 INF3-77 pt8 Admiral Sir James Somerville.jpg Sir James Somerville 18821949 [112]
21 January 1948 INF3-76 pt3 Admiral Sir John Cunningham Artist Tim.jpg Sir John Cunningham 18851965 First Sea Lord 1946–1948 [113]
22 October 1948 BruceFraser.JPG The Lord Fraser of North Cape 18881981 First Sea Lord 1948–1951 [114]
20 March 1949 Admiral Sir Algernon Willis (1889-1976).jpg Sir Algernon Willis 18891976 [115]
22 April 1952 Sir Arthur John Power, 9 December 1944 IWM A 26998.jpg Sir Arthur Power 18891960 [116]
1 June 1952 Philip Louis Vian.png Sir Philip Vian 18941968 [117]
15 January 1953 Prince Phillip of Edinburgh.jpg The Duke of Edinburgh 19212021 Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom 2011–2021 [118] [119]
1 May 1953 Admiral Jerauld Wright and Admiral of the Fleet Sir Rhoderick McGrigor (cropped).jpg Sir Rhoderick McGrigor 18931959 First Sea Lord 1951–1955 [120]
22 April 1955 Rear Admiral George Creasy TR2627.jpg Sir George Creasy 18951972 [121]
22 October 1956 Lord Mountbatten Naval in colour Allan Warren.jpg The Earl Mountbatten of Burma 19001979 First Sea Lord 1955–1959 Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–1965 [122]
10 May 1960 Sir Charles Lambe 19001960 First Sea Lord 1959–1960 [123]
23 May 1962 Sir Caspar John 19031984 First Sea Lord 1960–1963 [124]
12 August 1968 Sir Varyl Begg 19081995 First Sea Lord 1966–1968 [125]
30 June 1970 Sir Michael Le Fanu 19131970 First Sea Lord 1968–1970 [126]
12 March 1971 Peter Hill-Norton (cropped).jpg Sir Peter Hill-Norton
(later Lord Hill-Norton)
19152004 First Sea Lord 1970–1971 Chief of the Defence Staff 1971–73 [127]
1 March 1974 Michael Pollock.jpg Sir Michael Pollock 19162006 First Sea Lord 1971–1974 [128]
9 February 1977 Sir Edward Ashmore 19192016 First Sea Lord 1977-1977 Chief of the Defence Staff 1977 [129]
6 July 1979 Sir Terence Lewin
(later Lord Lewin)
19201999 First Sea Lord 1977–1979 Chief of the Defence Staff 1979–1982 [130]
1 December 1982 Sir Henry Leach 19232011 First Sea Lord 1979–1982 [131]
2 August 1985 Bust of Lord Fieldhouse (cropped).jpg Sir John Fieldhouse
(later Lord Fieldhouse)
19281992 First Sea Lord 1982–1985 Chief of the Defence Staff 1985–1988 [132]
12 April 1988 Olav V of Norway.jpg King Olav V of Norway 19031991honorary, to foreign royalty [133]
25 May 1989 Sir William Staveley 19281997 First Sea Lord 1985–1989 [134]
2 March 1993 Sir Julian Oswald 19332011 First Sea Lord 1989–1993 [135]
10 July 1995 No image.svg Sir Benjamin Bathurst 1936Living First Sea Lord 1993–1995 [136]
16 June 2012 Carlos de Gales (2011).jpg The Prince of Wales (later King Charles III)1948Living [137]
13 June 2014 Lord Boyce.jpg The Lord Boyce 19432022 Chief of the Defence Staff 2001–2003. Honorary rank [138]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peter Hill-Norton</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Peter John Hill-Norton, Baron Hill-Norton, was a senior Royal Navy officer. He fought in the Second World War as gunnery officer in a cruiser operating on the Western Approaches and in the North Sea taking part in the Norwegian Campaign, then in a cruiser taking part in the Arctic convoys and finally in a battleship operating in the Eastern Fleet. After the War he commanded a destroyer and then an aircraft carrier. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff and then Chief of the Defence Staff in early 1970s. In the latter role he gave the final commitment to Project Chevaline, the Polaris missile improvement programme. He went on to be Chairman of the NATO Military Committee.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bruce Fraser, 1st Baron Fraser of North Cape</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Bruce Austin Fraser, 1st Baron Fraser of North Cape, was a senior Royal Navy officer. He served in the First World War, saw action during the Gallipoli Campaign and took part in the internment of the German High Seas Fleet at the end of the war. He also served in the Second World War initially as Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy and then as second-in-command and afterwards as commander of the Home Fleet, leading the force that destroyed the German battleship Scharnhorst. He went on to be First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff in which role he assisted in establishing NATO and agreed to the principle that the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic should be an American admiral, in the face of fierce British opposition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom)</span> Professional head of the Royal Air Force

The Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board. The post was created in 1918 with Major General Sir Hugh Trenchard as the first incumbent. The current and 30th Chief of the Air Staff is Air Chief Marshal Sir Michael Wigston, who succeeded Sir Stephen Hillier in July 2019.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Michael Le Fanu</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Michael Le Fanu was a Royal Navy officer. He fought in the Second World War as gunnery officer in a cruiser operating in the Home Fleet during the Norwegian campaign and the Battle of the Mediterranean and then as gunnery officer in a battleship operating in the Eastern Fleet before becoming liaison officer between the British Pacific Fleet and the United States Third Fleet. After the War he commanded a frigate, a training establishment and an aircraft carrier. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff in the late 1960s. In that role, in the face of economic difficulties, he worked hard to reshape the Navy as an anti-submarine force operating primarily in the Atlantic Ocean.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Algernon Lyons</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Algernon McLennan Lyons was a senior Royal Navy officer who served as First and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp to Queen Victoria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Reginald Tyrwhitt</span> Royal Navy officer (1870–1951)

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Reginald Yorke Tyrwhitt, 1st Baronet, was a Royal Navy officer. During the First World War he served as commander of the Harwich Force. He led a supporting naval force of 31 destroyers and two cruisers at the Battle of Heligoland Bight in August 1914, in which action the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron under Sir David Beatty sank three German cruisers and one German destroyer with minimal loss of allied warships. Tyrwhitt also led the British naval forces during the Cuxhaven Raid in December 1914, when British seaplanes destroyed German Zeppelin airships and at the Battle of Dogger Bank in January 1915, in which action Tyrwhitt again supported Beatty's powerful battlecruiser squadron.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terence Lewin</span> Royal Navy admiral of the fleet (1920–1999)

Admiral of the Fleet Terence Thornton Lewin, Baron Lewin, was a Royal Navy officer. He served in the Second World War and then commanded a destroyer, the Royal yacht, two frigates and an aircraft carrier before achieving higher command. He was First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff in the late 1970s and in that role he worked hard to secure a decent wage for servicemen and helped win them a 32% pay rise. He went on to be Chief of the Defence Staff during the Falklands War, serving as chief war planner and as Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's chief advisor during the war. He was also the first Chief of Defence Staff to act as head of the Armed Forces rather than just Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dudley Pound</span> British naval officer

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Alfred Dudley Pickman Rogers Pound, was a British senior officer of the Royal Navy. He served in the First World War as a battleship commander, taking part in the Battle of Jutland with notable success, contributing to the sinking of the German cruiser Wiesbaden. He served as First Sea Lord, the professional head of the Royal Navy, for the first four years of the Second World War. In that role his greatest achievement was his successful campaign against the German U-boats and the winning of the Battle of the Atlantic but his judgment has been questioned over the failed Norwegian Campaign in 1940, and his dismissal of Admiral Dudley North in 1940. His order in July 1942 to disperse Convoy PQ 17 and withdraw its covering forces, to counter a threat from heavy German surface ships, led to its destruction by submarines and aircraft. His health failed in 1943 and he resigned, dying shortly thereafter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henry Oliver</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Francis Oliver, was a Royal Navy officer. After serving in the Second Boer War as a navigating officer in a cruiser on the Cape of Good Hope and West Coast of Africa Station, he became the first commanding officer of the new navigation school HMS Mercury in the early years of the 20th century. He went to be commanding officer first of the armoured cruiser HMS Achilles and then of the new battleship HMS Thunderer before becoming Director of the Intelligence Division at the Admiralty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth</span>

George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth PC was an English Royal Navy officer, who was appointed Admiral of the Fleet by James II in September 1688. However, he failed to intercept the invasion force under William III that landed at Torbay on 5 November 1688 and was dismissed following the Glorious Revolution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lord Walter Kerr</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Lord Walter Talbot Kerr, was a Royal Navy officer. After taking part in the Crimean War and then the Indian Mutiny, he supervised the handover of Ulcinj to Montenegro to allow Montenegro an outlet to the sea in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Berlin. He became Flag Captain to the Commander-in-Chief, Channel Squadron and then Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet. He went on to be Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet, then Commander-in-Chief of the Channel Squadron and finally became First Naval Lord. In that capacity he presided over a period of continued re-armament in the face of German naval expansion but was unceasingly harassed by Admiral Sir John Fisher.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caspar John</span> Royal Navy admiral of the fleet (1903–1984)

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Caspar John was a senior Royal Navy officer who served as First Sea Lord from 1960 to 1963. He was a pioneer in the Fleet Air Arm and fought in the Second World War in a cruiser taking part in the Atlantic convoys, participating in the Norwegian campaign and transporting arms around the Cape of Good Hope to Egypt for use in the western desert campaign. His war service continued as Director-General of Naval Aircraft Production, as naval air attaché at the British embassy in Washington D.C. and then as Commanding Officer of two aircraft carriers. He went on to serve as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff in the early 1960s. In that capacity he was primarily concerned with plans for the building of the new CVA-01 aircraft-carriers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Lambe</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Edward Lambe, was a senior Royal Navy officer. He fought in the Second World War in command of a cruiser, as Director of Naval Plans and then in command of an aircraft carrier. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from 1959 until 1960 when he was forced to retire early because of a heart condition. He died only a few months later.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sydney Dacres</span>

Admiral Sir Sydney Colpoys Dacres was an officer of the Royal Navy who saw service during the Greek War of Independence, when he was involved in an attack on the Turkish forces at Morea, and later during the Crimean War. Born into a substantial naval dynasty during the Napoleonic Wars, he eventually rose to the rank of Admiral and became First Naval Lord. His only significant action as First Naval Lord was to press for the abolition of masts. He went on to be Visitor and Governor of Greenwich Hospital.

Admiral Sir Dudley Burton Napier North, was a Royal Navy officer who served during First and Second World Wars.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William May (Royal Navy officer)</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Henry May was a Royal Navy Officer. As a junior officer he took part an expedition to rescue Commander Albert Markham who had got into difficulty trying to reach the North Pole via Smith Sound, the sea passage between Greenland and Canada's northernmost island, Ellesmere Island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Algernon Willis</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Algernon Usborne Willis was a Royal Navy officer. He served in the First World War and saw action at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916. He also served in the Second World War as Commander-in-Chief, South Atlantic in which capacity he led actions against German and Japanese raiding ships. He continued his war service as Flag Officer commanding 3rd Battle Squadron and Second in command of the Eastern Fleet and then as Flag Officer commanding Force H, the force which covered North African Operations, the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and then the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943. He spent the final years of the war as Commander-in-Chief, Levant, in which capacity he conducted naval operations in support of the Dodecanese Campaign, and then as Second Sea Lord, in which capacity he arranged the manpower for the campaign in the Pacific Ocean against the Imperial Japanese Navy. After the war he served as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet, in which role he was faced with unrest in Mandatory Palestine, before he became Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Rowley (Royal Navy officer)</span>

Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Rowley KB was a Royal Navy officer. He distinguished himself by his determination as commander of the vanguard at the Battle of Toulon in February 1744 during the War of the Austrian Succession. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1744 and successfully kept the Spanish and French fleets out of the Mediterranean area but was relieved of his command following criticism of his decision as presiding officer at a court-martial.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sir Robert Harland, 1st Baronet</span> Royal Navy officer

Admiral Sir Robert Harland, 1st Baronet was a Royal Navy officer. He commanded HMS Tilbury at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in October 1747 during the War of the Austrian Succession and commanded HMS Princess Louisa at the Battle of Lagos in August 1759 during the Seven Years' War. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies Station and then First Naval Lord.

Eastman's Royal Naval Academy, originally in Southsea and later at Winchester, both in England, was a preparatory school. Between 1855 and 1923 it was known primarily as a school that prepared boys for entry to the Royal Navy. Thereafter, it was renamed Eastman's Preparatory School and continued until the 1940s. According to Jonathan Betts, it was "considered one of the top schools for boys intended for the Navy".

References

  1. Prothero, David (3 December 2002). "United Kingdom: Royal Navy rank flags". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 28 June 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
  2. 1 2 "Information sheet no 055: Squadron Colours" (PDF). nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  3. St. George Tucker (1996). Blackstone's commentaries: with notes of reference to the constitution and laws, of the federal government of the United States, and of the Commonwealth of Virginia; with an appendix to each volume, containing short tracts upon such subjects as appeared necessary to form a connected view of the laws of Virginia as a member of the federal union. Vol. 1 (Originally published: Philadelphia : William Young Birch, and Abraham Small, 1803. ed.). Union, NJ: Lawbook Exchange. p. xxxiii. ISBN   9781886363168.
  4. "Trafalgar Ancestors, Glossary". nationalarchives.gov.uk. National Archives, 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  5. 1 2 Kemp, Peter, ed. (1993). The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN   0192820842.
  6. The Dictionary of National Biography (Volume 20, page 394) says of James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier that he "seems to have been as ignorant of naval history as careless of naval prestige, and must be considered one of the chief of the perpetrators of the official blunder which, in the warrant of 9 Nov. 1805 appointing admirals of the red, spoke of the rank as restored to the navy, whereas, in point of fact, it had never previously existed."
  7. "No. 15859". The London Gazette . 5 November 1805. p. 1373.
  8. O'Byrne, William Richard (1849). "Gosselin, Thomas Le Marchant"  . A Naval Biographical Dictionary  . John Murray via Wikisource.
  9. Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney, eds. (1890). "Gosselin, Thomas le Marchant"  . Dictionary of National Biography . Vol. 22. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  10. "Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy) - The Dreadnought Project". www.dreadnoughtproject.org.
  11. "No. 36255". The London Gazette . 19 November 1943. p. 5088.
  12. Heald, Tim (1991). The Duke: A Portrait of Prince Philip. London: Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 264–267. ISBN   0-340-54607-7.
  13. "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  14. "Naval Ranks NMRN Portsmouth". www.nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy, Portsmouth. 2019. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  15. "Russell, Edward, Earl of Orford" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24304 . Retrieved 16 May 2015.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  16. Hattendorf, John B. (2004). "Rooke, Sir George" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24059 . Retrieved 16 May 2015.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  17. "Shovell, Sir Cloudesley" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25470 . Retrieved 16 May 2015.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  18. "Leake, Sir John" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16238 . Retrieved 16 May 2015.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  19. "Fairborne, Stafford" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9069 . Retrieved 16 May 2015.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  20. "Aylmer, Matthew" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/936 . Retrieved 16 May 2015.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  21. "Byng, George, first Viscount Torrington" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4262 . Retrieved 16 May 2015.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  22. Heathcote, p. 197.
  23. "No. 8864". The London Gazette . 4 July 1749. p. 6.
  24. Heathcote p. 236.
  25. Heathcote, p. 45.
  26. "No. 10126". The London Gazette. 28 July 1761. p. 2.
  27. "No. 10275". The London Gazette. 1 January 1763. p. 1.
  28. Heathcote, p. 109.
  29. Heathcote, p. 87.
  30. "No. 13875". The London Gazette. 15 March 1796. p. 258.
  31. Heathcote, p. 271.
  32. "No. 16554". The London Gazette. 21 December 1811. p. 2454.
  33. "No. 17727". The London Gazette. 20 July 1821. p. 1511.
  34. "No. 18701". The London Gazette. 2 July 1830. p. 1369.
  35. 1 2 "No. 18709". The London Gazette. 23 July 1830. p. 1539.
  36. "No. 19042". The London Gazette. 26 April 1833. p. 793.
  37. "No. 20305". The London Gazette. 16 January 1844. p. 146.
  38. "No. 20660". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1846. p. 3994.
  39. "No. 21037". The London Gazette. 13 November 1849. p. 3387.
  40. "No. 21225". The London Gazette. 8 July 1851. p. 1769.
  41. "No. 22071". The London Gazette. 11 December 1857. p. 4367.
  42. "No. 22157". The London Gazette. 29 June 1858. p. 3090.
  43. "No. 22627". The London Gazette. 20 May 1862. p. 2616.
  44. "No. 22679". The London Gazette. 10 November 1862. p. 5343.
  45. "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  46. "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  47. "No. 22806". The London Gazette. 12 January 1864. p. 157.
  48. "No. 23014". The London Gazette. 15 September 1865. p. 4466.
  49. "No. 23187". The London Gazette. 20 November 1866. p. 6158.
  50. "No. 23349". The London Gazette. 4 February 1868. p. 537.
  51. "No. 23462". The London Gazette. 26 January 1869. p. 407.
  52. "No. 23516". The London Gazette. 13 July 1869. p. 3958.
  53. "No. 23582". The London Gazette. 1 February 1870. p. 598.
  54. "No. 23915". The London Gazette. 1 November 1872. p. 5106.
  55. "No. 24278". The London Gazette. 24 December 1875. p. 6577.
  56. "No. 24411". The London Gazette. 30 January 1877. p. 436.
  57. "No. 24497". The London Gazette. 24 August 1877. p. 4957.
  58. 1 2 "No. 24537". The London Gazette. 1 January 1878. p. 2.
  59. 1 2 "No. 24734". The London Gazette. 17 June 1879. p. 3967.
  60. "No. 24997". The London Gazette. 19 July 1881. p. 3548.
  61. "No. 25044". The London Gazette. 2 December 1881. p. 6470.
  62. "No. 25466". The London Gazette. 1 May 1885. p. 1984.
  63. Heathcote, p. 68.
  64. "No. 25816". The London Gazette. 15 May 1888. p. 2766.
  65. "No. 25883". The London Gazette. 14 December 1888. p. 7140.
  66. Heathcote, p. 261.
  67. "No. 26262". The London Gazette. 26 February 1892. p. 1108.
  68. Heathcote, p. 10.
  69. "No. 26601". The London Gazette. 22 February 1895. p. 1066.
  70. "No. 26885". The London Gazette. 24 August 1897. p. 4726.
  71. "No. 27029". The London Gazette. 2 December 1898. p. 7818.
  72. "No. 27043". The London Gazette. 17 January 1899. p. 298.
  73. "No. 27483". The London Gazette. 17 October 1902. p. 6569.
  74. "No. 27593". The London Gazette. 1 September 1903. p. 5476.
  75. "No. 27692". The London Gazette. 5 July 1904. p. 4259.
  76. "No. 27766". The London Gazette. 21 February 1905. p. 1279.
  77. "No. 27861". The London Gazette. 8 December 1905. p. 8812.
  78. "No. 28001". The London Gazette. 5 March 1907. p. 1574.
  79. Heathcote, p. 192.
  80. "No. 28201". The London Gazette. 1 December 1908. p. 9182.
  81. Heathcote, p. 113.
  82. "No. 28362". The London Gazette. 3 May 1910. p. 3063.
  83. Heathcote, p. 98.
  84. "No. 28703". The London Gazette. 21 March 1913. p. 2159.
  85. "No. 29094". The London Gazette. 9 March 1915. p. 2365.
  86. "No. 30008". The London Gazette. 3 April 1917. p. 3206.
  87. "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  88. "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  89. "No. 31489". The London Gazette. 5 August 1919. p. 9961.
  90. "No. 31715". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 January 1920. p. 57.
  91. "No. 32150". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 December 1920. p. 11942.
  92. "No. 32394". The London Gazette. 19 July 1921. p. 5733.
  93. Order in Council of 19 August 1921; ADM 196/38.
  94. "No. 32962". The London Gazette. 5 August 1924. p. 5889.
  95. "No. 33049". The London Gazette. 22 May 1925. p. 3445.
  96. "No. 33110". The London Gazette. 1 December 1925. p. 7950.
  97. "No. 33354". The London Gazette. 7 February 1928. p. 856.
  98. "No. 33523". The London Gazette. 6 August 1929. p. 5145.
  99. "No. 33604". The London Gazette. 9 May 1930. p. 2867.
  100. "No. 33905". The London Gazette. 24 January 1933. p. 524.
  101. "No. 34076". The London Gazette. 7 August 1934. p. 5054.
  102. "No. 34159". The London Gazette. 10 May 1935. p. 3048.
  103. Heathcote, p. 69.
  104. "No. 34308". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 1936. p. 4742.
  105. Heathcote, p. 99.
  106. "No. 34476". The London Gazette. 25 January 1938. p. 512.
  107. Heathcote, p. 21.
  108. "No. 34651". The London Gazette. 4 August 1939. p. 5393.
  109. "No. 34849". The London Gazette. 14 May 1940. p. 2892.
  110. Heathcote, p. 60.
  111. "No. 36255". The London Gazette. 19 November 1943. p. 5088.
  112. Heathcote, p. 233.
  113. "No. 38210". The London Gazette. 17 February 1948. p. 1128.
  114. Heathcote, p. 90.
  115. "No. 38595". The London Gazette. 26 April 1949. p. 2052.
  116. "No. 39571". The London Gazette. 13 June 1952. p. 3238.
  117. "No. 39606". The London Gazette. 25 July 1952. p. 3999.
  118. Heathcote, p. 210.
  119. "No. 39754". The London Gazette. 16 January 1953. p. 358.
  120. Heathcote, p. 162.
  121. "No. 40487". The London Gazette. 24 May 1955. p. 3011.
  122. "No. 40927". The London Gazette. 16 November 1956. p. 6492.
  123. "No. 42058". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 June 1960. p. 4037.
  124. "No. 42704". The London Gazette. 15 June 1962. p. 4777.
  125. Heathcote, p. 29.
  126. "No. 45138". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 June 1970. p. 7183.
  127. "No. 45331". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 March 1971. p. 2937.
  128. "No. 46225". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 March 1974. p. 2887.
  129. "No. 47160". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 March 1977. p. 2825.
  130. "No. 47904". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 July 1979. p. 8998.
  131. "No. 49174". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 November 1982. p. 15293.
  132. Heathcote, p. 78.
  133. "No. 51297". The London Gazette (3rd supplement). 12 April 1988. p. 4327.
  134. Heathcote, p. 235.
  135. Oswald, Julian (1993). "Conventional Deterrence and Military Diplomacy". The RUSI Journal. RUSI. 138 (2): 29–30. doi:10.1080/03071849308445694.
  136. Heathcote, p. 23.
  137. "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557.
  138. "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.

Sources