|Admiral of the Fleet|
Insignia shoulder board and Sleeve lace for Admiral of the Fleet
The flag of an admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals' flags.
|Next lower rank||Admiral|
| Admiral of|
| Field marshal or|
General of the Army
| Marshal of|
the air force
|Admiral||General||Air chief marshal|
|Vice admiral||Lieutenant general||Air marshal|
|Rear admiral||Major general||Air vice-marshal|
|Commodore|| Brigadier or|
|Commander||Lieutenant colonel||Wing commander|
| Major or|
junior grade or
| Lieutenant or|
| Ensign or|
|Second lieutenant||Pilot officer|
|Officer cadet||Officer cadet||Flight cadet|
| Warrant officer or|
chief petty officer
| Warrant officer or|
|Leading seaman|| Corporal or|
|Seaman|| Private or|
| Aircraftman or|
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy formally established in 1688.The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995.
A five-star rank is a very senior military rank, first established in the United States in 1944, with a five-star general insignia, and corresponding ranks in other countries. The rank is that of the most senior operational military commanders, and within NATO's "standard rank scale" it is designated by the code OF-10.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium.
The origins of the rank can be traced back to Sir John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, who was appointed 'Admiral of the King's Southern, Northern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360.The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time; the post evolved into the post of Admiral of the Fleet. In the days sailing ships the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue. Each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a vice-admiral and a rear admiral. The rank of Admiral of the Fleet was formally established in 1688 prior to this date the Admiral of the White was pre-eminent and regarded informally as the admiral of the fleet In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time. The admiral of the red was pre-eminent and became known as the admiral of the fleet.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Paveley de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick KG was the third son of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, and brother of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, with whom he became a founder and the tenth Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.
The Admiral of the South, North and West formally known as Admiral of the Kings Southern, Northern and Western Fleets or Admiral of all the Fleets about England was a senior English Navy appointment and Commander-in-Chief of the English Navy from 1360 to 1369.
Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank of admiral of the fleet. Royal Navy officers holding the ranks of rear admiral, vice admiral and admiral of the fleet are sometimes considered generically to be admirals. The rank of admiral is currently the highest rank to which a serving officer in the Royal Navy can be promoted, admiral of the fleet being in abeyance except for honorary promotions of retired officers and members of the Royal Family.
In November 1805, a new rank of Admiral of the Red immediately junior to that of Admiral of the Fleet was created, the announcement on page 1373 of issue 15859 of the London Gazette stating "His Majesty having been pleased to order the Rank of Admirals of the Red to be restoredin His Majesty's Navy..." and promoting 22 men then serving as Admirals to that rank.
The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign. When the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord in 1828 (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904), the rank of admiral of the fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one admiral of the fleet to exist at one time. It was broadly customary for the senior Admiral on the active list to be made an Admiral of the Fleet (after 1870 Admirals were obliged to retire at 65) whether or not he had served as First Naval Lord. However, there was no Admiral of the Fleet between 1854 and 1857 (the senior Admiral, Thomas Le Marchant Gosselinhad never actually served since he was a Captain in 1809) and on the death of Provo Wallis in 1892 the promotion went to John Edmund Commerell rather than the senior Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey. In 1914 the criteria were revised and in 1940 the Admirals of the Fleet were exempted from compulsory retirement.
The White Ensign, at one time called the St George's Ensign due to the simultaneous existence of a cross-less version of the flag, is an ensign flown on British Royal Navy ships and shore establishments. It consists of a red St George's Cross on a white field with the Union Flag in the upper canton.
The First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff (1SL/CNS) is the professional head of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service. Originally the title was the Senior Naval Lord to the Board of Admiralty when the post was created in 1689. The office holder was then re-styled First Naval Lord from 1771. The concept of a professional "First Naval Lord" was introduced in 1805 and the title of the First Naval Lord was changed to "First Sea Lord" on the appointment of Sir Jackie Fisher in 1904. From 1923 onward, the First Sea Lord was a member of the Chiefs of Staff Committee; he now sits on the Defence Council and the Admiralty Board.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Provo William Parry Wallis, was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer, following the capture of USS Chesapeake by the frigate HMS Shannon during the War of 1812, the wounding of HMS Shannon's captain and the death of her first lieutenant in the action, he served as the temporary captain of HMS Shannon for a period of exactly six days as she made her way back to Halifax, Nova Scotia, with Chesapeake flying the Blue Ensign above the Stars and Stripes.
Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, and four members of foreign royal families have been appointed admirals of the fleet. Of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) had not seen service in the Royal Navy.
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Sea Lord. Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord. The rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet (as well as field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force), in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was also appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet.
The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister. The Chief of the Defence Staff is based at the Ministry of Defence and works alongside the Permanent Under Secretary, the Ministry's senior civil servant. The Chief of the Defence Staff is the British equivalent position of what in NATO and the European Union is known as the Chief of Defence.
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, and the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and the Truman Doctrine of 1947, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir David Benjamin Bathurst is a former Royal Navy officer. After training as a pilot and qualifying as a helicopter instructor, Bathurst commanded a Naval Air Squadron and then two frigates before achieving higher command in the Navy. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from 1993 to 1995: in that capacity he advised the British Government on the deployment of Naval Support including Sea Harriers during the Bosnian War.
|1688|| George Legge |
(later Earl of Dartmouth)
|1690|| Edward Russell |
(later Earl of Orford)
|1696||Sir George Rooke||1650||1709||circa|
|13 January 1705||Sir Cloudesley Shovell||1650||1707|
|8 January 1708||Sir John Leake||1656||1720|
|21 December 1708||Sir Stafford Fairborne||1666||1742||circa|
|12 November 1709||Sir Matthew Aylmer||1650||1720|
|14 March 1718||Sir George Byng |
(later Viscount Torrington)
|20 February 1734||Sir John Norris||1670||1749|
|1 July 1749||Sir Chaloner Ogle||1681||1750|
|22 November 1751||James Steuart||1690||1757|
|March 1757||The Hon. George Clinton||1686||1761|
|30 July 1761||The Lord Anson||1697||1762|
|17 December 1762||Sir William Rowley||1690||1768||circa|
|15 January 1768||Sir Edward Hawke |
(later Lord Hawke)
|24 October 1781||The Hon. John Forbes||1714||1796|
|12 March 1796||The Earl Howe||1726||1799|
|16 September 1799||Sir Peter Parker||1721||1811|
|24 December 1811||HRH The Duke of Clarence and St Andrews |
(later HM King William IV)
|19 July 1821||The Earl of St Vincent||1735||1823||acting from May 1814|
|28 June 1830||William Williams-Freeman||1742||1832|
|22 July 1830||The Lord Gambier||1756||1833|
|22 July 1830||Sir Charles Pole||1757||1830|
|24 April 1833||Sir Charles Nugent||1759||1844|
|8 January 1844||Sir James Hawkins-Whitshed||1762||1849|
|9 November 1846||Sir George Martin||1764||1847|
|13 October 1849||Sir Thomas Byam Martin||1773||1854|
|1 July 1851||Sir George Cockburn||1772||1853|
|8 December 1857||Sir Charles Ogle||1775||1858|
|25 June 1858||Sir John West||1774||1862|
|20 May 1862||Sir William Gage||1777||1864|
|10 November 1862||Sir Graham Hamond||1779||1862|
|27 April 1863||Sir Francis Austen||1774||1865|
|27 April 1863||Sir William Parker||1781||1866|
|11 January 1864||Sir Lucius Curtis||1786||1869|
|12 September 1865||Sir Thomas Cochrane||1789||1872|
|30 November 1866||Sir George Seymour||1787||1870|
|30 January 1868||Sir James Gordon||1782||1869||on the Retired List|
|15 January 1869||Sir William Bowles||1780||1869|
|2 July 1869||Sir George Sartorius||1790||1885|
|21 January 1870||Sir Fairfax Moresby||1786||1877|
|20 October 1872||Sir Houston Stewart||1791||1875|
|11 December 1875||Sir Provo Wallis||1791||1892|
|22 January 1877||Sir Henry Codrington||1808||1877|
|5 August 1877||Sir Henry Keppel||1809||1904|
|27 December 1877||The Earl of Lauderdale||1803||1878|
|27 December 1877||Sir Rodney Mundy||1805||1884|
|15 June 1879||Sir James Hope||1808||1881|
|15 June 1879||Sir Thomas Symonds||1813||1894|
|10 June 1881||Sir Alexander Milne, Bt.||1806||1896||on the Retired List|
|1 December 1881||Sir Charles Elliot||1818||1895|
|29 April 1885||Sir Alfred Ryder||1820||1888|
|18 July 1887||HRH The Prince of Wales |
(later HM King Edward VII)
|1841||1910||honorary to non-Navy royalty|
|1 May 1888||Sir Geoffrey Hornby||1825||1895|
|8 December 1888||Lord John Hay||1827||1916||First Sea Lord 1886|
|2 August 1889||HIM German Emperor William II||1859||1941||honorary, to foreign royalty|
|13 February 1892||Sir John Commerell||1829||1901|
|3 June 1893||HRH The Duke of Edinburgh |
(later Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
|20 February 1895||The Earl of Clanwilliam||1832||1907|
|23 August 1897||Sir Algernon Lyons||1833||1908|
|29 November 1898||Sir Frederick Richards||1833||1912||First Sea Lord 1893-1899|
|13 January 1899||Sir Nowell Salmon||1835||1912|
|3 October 1902||Sir James Erskine||1838||1911|
|30 August 1903||Sir Charles Hotham||1843||1925|
|16 June 1904||Lord Walter Kerr||1839||1927||First Sea Lord 1899-1904|
|20 February 1905||Sir Edward Seymour||1840||1929|
|5 December 1905||Sir John Fisher |
(later Lord Fisher)
|1841||1920||First Sea Lord 1905-1910 and 1914-1915|
|1 March 1907||Sir Arthur Wilson||1842||1921||First Sea Lord 1910-1911|
|11 June 1908||HIM Tsar Nicholas II of Russia||1868||1918||honorary, to foreign royalty|
|2 December 1908||Sir Gerard Noel||1845||1918|
|27 January 1910||HRH Prince Henry of Prussia||1862||1929||honorary, to foreign royalty|
|30 April 1910||Sir Arthur Fanshawe||1847||1936|
|6 May 1910||HM King George V||1865||1936|
|20 March 1913||Sir William May||1849||1930|
|5 March 1915||The Honourable Sir Hedworth Meux||1856||1929|
|2 April 1917||Sir George Callaghan||1852||1920|
|3 April 1919||The Viscount Jellicoe |
(later Earl Jellicoe)
|1859||1935||First Sea Lord 1916-1918|
|3 April 1919||Sir David Beatty |
(later Earl Beatty)
|1871||1936||First Sea Lord 1919-1927|
|31 July 1919||Sir Henry Jackson||1855||1929||First Sea Lord 1915-1916|
|1 November 1919||Sir Rosslyn Wemyss |
(later Lord Wester Wemyss)
|1864||1933||First Sea Lord 1918-1919|
|24 November 1920||Sir Cecil Burney, Bt.||1858||1929|
|5 July 1921||Sir Doveton Sturdee, Bt.||1859||1925|
|19 August 1921||The Marquess of Milford Haven||1854||1921||First Sea Lord 1912-1914. On the Retired List|
|31 July 1924||Sir Charles Madden, Bt.||1862||1935||First Sea Lord 1927-1930|
|8 May 1925||The Honourable Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe||1864||1937|
|24 November 1925||Sir John de Robeck, Bt.||1862||1928|
|21 January 1928||Sir Henry Oliver||1865||1965|
|31 July 1929||Sir Osmond Brock||1869||1947|
|8 May 1930||Sir Roger Keyes, Bt. |
(later Lord Keyes)
|21 January 1933||Sir Frederick Field||1871||1945||First Sea Lord 1930-1933|
|31 July 1934||Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt, Bt.||1870||1951|
|8 May 1935||Sir Ernle Chatfield |
(later Lord Chatfield)
|1873||1967||First Sea Lord 1933-1938|
|21 January 1936||Edward VIIIHM King||1894||1972|
|12 July 1936||Sir John Kelly||1871||1936|
|11 December 1936||George VIHM King||1895||1952|
|21 January 1938||The Earl of Cork and Orrery||1873||1967|
|7 July 1939||Sir Roger Backhouse||1878||1939||First Sea Lord 1938-1939|
|31 July 1939||Sir Dudley Pound||1877||1943||First Sea Lord 1939-1943|
|8 May 1940||Sir Charles Forbes||1880||1960|
|21 January 1943||Sir Andrew Cunningham |
(later Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope)
|1883||1963||First Sea Lord 1943-1946|
|22 October 1943||Sir John Tovey |
(later Lord Tovey)
|8 May 1945||Sir James Somerville||1882||1949|
|21 January 1948||Sir John Cunningham||1885||1965||First Sea Lord 1946-1948|
|22 October 1948||The Lord Fraser of North Cape||1888||1981||First Sea Lord 1948-1951|
|20 March 1949||Sir Algernon Willis||1889||1976|
|22 April 1952||Sir Arthur Power||1889||1960|
|1 June 1952||Sir Philip Vian||1894||1968|
|15 January 1953||HRH The Duke of Edinburgh||1921||Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom 2011–present|
|1 May 1953||Sir Rhoderick McGrigor||1893||1959||First Sea Lord 1951-1955|
|22 April 1955||Sir George Creasy||1895||1972|
|22 October 1956||The Earl Mountbatten of Burma||1900||1979||First Sea Lord 1955-1959 Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–1965|
|10 May 1960||Sir Charles Lambe||1900||1960||First Sea Lord 1959-1960|
|23 May 1962||Sir Caspar John||1903||1984||First Sea Lord 1960-1963|
|12 August 1968||Sir Varyl Begg||1908||1995||First Sea Lord 1966-1968|
|30 June 1970||Sir Michael Le Fanu||1913||1970||First Sea Lord 1968-1970|
|12 March 1971||Sir Peter Hill-Norton |
(later Lord Hill-Norton)
|1915||2004||First Sea Lord 1970–1971 Chief of the Defence Staff 1971–73|
|1 March 1974||Sir Michael Pollock||1916||2006||First Sea Lord 1971–1974|
|9 February 1977||Sir Edward Ashmore||1919||2016||First Sea Lord 1977-1977 Chief of the Defence Staff 1977|
|6 July 1979||Sir Terence Lewin |
(later Lord Lewin)
|1920||1999||First Sea Lord 1977–1979 Chief of the Defence Staff 1979–1982|
|1 December 1982||Sir Henry Leach||1923||2011||First Sea Lord 1979–1982|
|2 August 1985||Sir John Fieldhouse |
(later Lord Fieldhouse)
|1928||1992||First Sea Lord 1982–1985 Chief of the Defence Staff 1985–1988|
|12 April 1988||HM King Olav V of Norway||1903||1991||honorary, to foreign royalty|
|25 May 1989||Sir William Staveley||1928||1997||First Sea Lord 1985–1989|
|2 March 1992||Sir Julian Oswald||1933||2011||First Sea Lord 1989–1993|
|10 July 1995||Sir Benjamin Bathurst||1936||First Sea Lord 1993–1995|
|16 June 2012||HRH The Prince of Wales||1948||Honorary rank|
|13 June 2014||The Lord Boyce||1943||Chief of the Defence Staff 2001-2003. Honorary rank|
Admiral of the Fleet Peter John Hill-Norton, Baron Hill-Norton, was a senior Royal Navy officer. He fought in the Second World War as gunnery officer in a cruiser operating on the Western Approaches and in the North Sea taking part in the Norwegian Campaign, then in a cruiser taking part in the Arctic convoys and finally in a battleship operating in the Eastern Fleet. After the War he commanded a destroyer and then an aircraft carrier. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff and then Chief of the Defence Staff in early 1970s. In the latter role he gave the final commitment to Project Chevaline, the Polaris missile improvement programme. He went on to be Chairman of the NATO Military Committee.
Admiral of the Fleet Bruce Austin Fraser, 1st Baron Fraser of North Cape, was a senior Royal Navy officer. He served in the First World War, saw action during the Gallipoli Campaign and took part in the internment of the German High Seas Fleet at the end of the war. He also served in the Second World War initially as Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy and then as second-in-command and afterwards as commander of the Home Fleet, leading the force that destroyed the German battleship Scharnhorst. He went on to be First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff in which role he assisted in establishing NATO and agreed to the principle that the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic should be an American admiral, in the face of fierce British opposition.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Michael Le Fanu was a Royal Navy officer. He fought in the Second World War as gunnery officer in a cruiser operating in the Home Fleet during the Norwegian Campaign and the Battle of the Mediterranean and then as gunnery officer in a battleship operating in the Eastern Fleet before becoming liaison officer between the British Pacific Fleet and the United States Third Fleet. After the War he commanded a frigate, a training establishment and an aircraft carrier. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff in the late 1960s. In that role, in the face of economic difficulties, he worked hard to reshape the Navy as an anti-submarine force operating primarily in the Atlantic Ocean.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet, was a Royal Navy officer. As a captain he was present at the Battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797 during the French Revolutionary Wars and commanded the naval support at the reduction of Martinique in February 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars. He also directed the capture and Burning of Washington on 24 August 1814 as an advisor to Major General Robert Ross during the War of 1812. He went on to be First Naval Lord and in that capacity sought to improve the standards of gunnery in the fleet, forming a gunnery school at Portsmouth; later he ensured that the Navy had latest steam and screw technology and put emphasis of the ability to manage seamen without the need to resort to physical punishment.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Reginald Yorke Tyrwhitt, 1st Baronet was a Royal Navy officer. During the First World War he served as commander of the Harwich Force. He led a supporting naval force of 31 destroyers and two cruisers at the Battle of Heligoland Bight in August 1914 in which action the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron under Sir David Beatty sunk three German cruisers and one German destroyer with minimal loss of allied warships. Tyrwhitt also led the British naval forces during the Cuxhaven Raid in December 1914 when British seaplanes destroyed German Zeppelin airships and at the Battle of Dogger Bank in January 1915, in which action Tyrwhitt again supported Beatty's powerful battlecruiser squadron.
Admiral of the Fleet Terence Thornton Lewin, Baron Lewin, was a Royal Navy officer. He served in the Second World War and then commanded a destroyer, the Royal yacht, two frigates and an aircraft carrier before achieving higher command. He was First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff in the late 1970s and in that role he worked hard to secure a decent wage for servicemen and helped win them a 32% pay rise. He went on to be Chief of the Defence Staff during the Falklands War, serving as chief war planner and as Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's chief advisor during the war. He was also the first Chief of Defence Staff to act as head of the Armed Forces rather than just Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Alfred Dudley Pickman Rogers Pound, was a senior officer of the Royal Navy. He served in the First World War as a battleship commander, taking part in the Battle of Jutland with notable success, contributing to the sinking of the German cruiser Wiesbaden. He served as First Sea Lord, the professional head of the Royal Navy, for the first four years of the Second World War. In that role his greatest achievement was his successful campaign against the German U-boats and the winning of the Battle of the Atlantic but his judgment has been questioned over the failed Norwegian Campaign in 1940, his dismissal of Admiral Dudley North in 1940, Japan's sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse in late 1941. His order in July 1942 to disperse Convoy PQ 17 and withdraw its covering forces, to counter a non-existent threat from heavy German surface ships, led to its destruction by submarines and aircraft. His health failed in 1943 and he resigned, dying shortly thereafter.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Beckwith Ashmore, was a senior Royal Navy officer. He saw active service in the Second World War and later commanded two frigates before achieving high command in the Navy. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff in the mid-1970s and in that role he advised the incoming Labour government on a major defence review and on the implications of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. He went on to be Chief of the Defence Staff, serving briefly in a caretaker capacity following the death of his predecessor.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Conyers Leach, was a Royal Navy officer who, as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff during the early 1980s, was instrumental in convincing British prime minister Margaret Thatcher that retaking the Falkland Islands from Argentina was feasible. On account of the determination he showed in the matter, journalist and political commentator Andrew Marr described him as Thatcher's "knight in shining gold braid".
Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Julian Robertson Oswald was a senior Royal Navy officer. After training as a gunnery specialist, Oswald commanded a frigate and then a destroyer before achieving higher command in the navy. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff in the early 1990s. In that capacity he advised the British Government on the reduction in the size of the fleet under the Options for Change restructuring programme and on the deployment of Naval Support for the Gulf War in 1991: he also made the decision that members of the Women's Royal Naval Service should be allowed to serve in Royal Navy ships.
Admiral of the Fleet The Honourable Sir Hedworth Meux, formerly Hedworth Lambton was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he was present at the bombardment of Alexandria during the Anglo-Egyptian War.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Frederick Laurence Field, was a senior Royal Navy officer. He served in the Boxer Rebellion as commander of a raiding party and in the First World War as commanding officer of the battleship HMS King George V, flagship of Admiral Martyn Jerram at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet before serving as First Sea Lord during the early 1930s in which role dealt with the response to the Invergordon Mutiny in September 1931 and ensured the abandonment in 1932 of the 'ten year rule', an attempt by the treasury to control defence expenditure by requesting the Foreign Office to declare whether there was any risk of war during the next ten years.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Rhoderick Robert McGrigor GCB was a senior Royal Navy officer. He fought in the First World War and saw action during the Gallipoli Campaign and then the Battle of Jutland. He also served in the Second World War, taking part in the sinking of the Bismarck in May 1941, carrying out the office of Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Weapons) and commanding the 1st Cruiser Squadron during operations off the Norwegian coast and convoys to North Russia. He served as First Sea Lord in the early 1950s and is most remembered as a leading proponent of carrier-based air power.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur John Power was a Royal Navy officer. He took part in the First World War as a gunnery officer and saw action in the Dardanelles Campaign. During the inter-war years he commanded the gunnery school at HMS Excellent and then the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. During the Second World War he played a leading role in the planning for the Allied invasion of Sicily and for the Allied invasion of Italy and then commanded the naval forces for the actual landing of V Corps at Taranto in Italy in September 1943. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies Fleet in the closing stages of the war and conducted naval strikes on the Imperial Japanese Army in Borneo and Malaya. After the War he became Second Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Personnel, Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet and then Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Cecil Burney, 1st Baronet, was a Royal Navy officer. After seeing action as a junior office in naval brigades during both the Anglo-Egyptian War and the Mahdist War, he commanded a cruiser in operational service during the Second Boer War. As a flag officer he commanded the Plymouth Division of the Home Fleet, the 5th Cruiser Squadron, the Atlantic Fleet and then the 3rd Battle Squadron.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Morton Forbes, was a Royal Navy officer. He served in the First World War, seeing action in the Dardanelles Campaign and at the Battle of Jutland and, as captain of a cruiser, was present at the surrender of the German fleet. During the Second World War, he served as Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet: his fleet suffered heavy losses including the aircraft carrier HMS Glorious and nine destroyers during the Norwegian Campaign in Spring 1940. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth in May 1941 and in that capacity he organised the defence of Plymouth from air attack, prosecuted attacks on enemy shipping using the harbour at Brest as well as other ports along the French coast, and also initiated the St Nazaire Raid in March 1942 before retiring in August 1943.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Algernon Usborne Willis was a Royal Navy officer. He served in the First World War and saw action at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916. He also served in the Second World War as Commander-in-Chief, South Atlantic in which capacity he led actions against German and Japanese raiding ships. He continued his war service as Flag Officer commanding 3rd Battle Squadron and Second in command of the Eastern Fleet and then as Flag Officer commanding Force H, the force which covered North African Operations, the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and then the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943. He spent the final years of the war as Commander-in-Chief, Levant, in which capacity he conducted naval operations in support of the Dodecanese Campaign, and then as Second Sea Lord, in which capacity he arranged the manpower for the campaign in the Pacific Ocean against the Imperial Japanese Navy. After the war he served as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet, in which role he was faced with unrest in Mandatory Palestine, before he became Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Rowley KB was a Royal Navy officer. He distinguished himself by his determination as commander of the vanguard at the Battle of Toulon in February 1744 during the War of the Austrian Succession. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1744 and successfully kept the Spanish and French fleets out of the Mediterranean area but was relieved of his command following criticism of his decision as presiding officer at a court-martial.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Elvey Creasy, was a senior Royal Navy officer. After serving as a junior officer in the First World War, during which he took part in operations at Heligoland Bight in 1917, he trained as a torpedo officer.
|NATO rank code||Student officer||OF-1||OF-2||OF-3||OF-4||OF-5|| OF-6|
|Royal Navy||O Cdt||Mid||SLt||Lt||Lt Cdr||Cdr||Capt||Cdre|| RAdm |
| VAdm |
| Adm |
|Adm of the Fleet|
|Royal Marines||O Cdt||2Lt||Lt||Capt||Maj||Lt Col||Col||Brig||Maj-Gen||Lt-Gen|| Gen |
|Army||O Cdt||2Lt||Lt||Capt||Maj||Lt Col||Col||Brig|| Maj-Gen |
| Lt-Gen |
| Gen |
|Royal Air Force||Off Cdt / SO||APO / Plt Off||Fg Off||Flt Lt||Sqn Ldr||Wg Cdr||Gp Capt||Air Cdre||AVM||Air Mshl|| Air Chf Mshl |
|Mshl of the RAF|