Parts of this article (those related to Maersk Rapier has been sold) need to be updated.June 2020)(
|Royal Fleet Auxiliary|
|Role||Replenishment & Operational Support|
|Size||1,900 personnel 337,000 tonnes|
|RFA Headquarters||Leach Building, Whale Island, Portsmouth, England, UK|
|Colours||Blue and gold|
|Website||Royal Fleet Auxiliary|
|Commodore in Chief||The Earl of Wessex|
|Commodore RFA||Cdre Duncan Lamb|
|Royal Fleet Auxiliary Ensign|
|Royal Fleet Auxilllary Jack|
The Royal Fleet Auxiliary is the fifth fighting arm of the Royal Navy. It is made up of civilian-crewed ships operated by the Ministry of Defence. It provides vital – and highly valued – logistical and operational support to the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. A committed team of personnel makes sure the Royal Navy and Royal Marines are well supplied and well supported, providing medical care, transporting kit, fuel and other essentials all over the world. In addition the RFA provides humanitarian aid, undertakes counter piracy patrols, counter narcotic operations, defence diplomacy together with assisting in preventing conflict or safeguarding the flow of international trade as single units.They are the uniformed civilian branch of the Naval Service, staffed by UK merchant sailors.
The RFA counts an Aviation Training ship/Hospital Ship and landing vessels amongst its assets. RFA personnel are employees of the Ministry of Defence, and since 2003, special members of the Royal Naval Reserve deemed sponsored reserves, which are civilians who must be part of the Armed Forces in some capacity, in order to carry out specialist civilian jobs in a military capacity. Although RFA officers wear Merchant Navy rank insignia with naval uniforms, they are classed as a part of the naval service and are under naval discipline when the vessel is engaged on warlike operations. RFA vessels are commanded and crewed by these officers and ratings, augmented with regular and reserve Royal Navy personnel to perform specialised functions such as operating and maintaining helicopters or providing hospital facilities. Royal Navy personnel are also needed to operate certain weapons, such as the Phalanx, however other weapons (such as the Bushmaster 30mm cannon, Oerlikon 20mm cannon, GPMG and the 7.62 minigun) are operated by RFA personnel.
The RFA was first established in 1905 to provide coaling ships for the Navy in an era when the change from sail to coal-fired steam engines as the main means of propulsion meant that a network of bases around the world with coaling facilities or a fleet of ships able to supply coal were necessary for a fleet to operate away from its home country. Since the Royal Navy of that era possessed the largest network of bases around the world of any fleet, the RFA at first took a relatively minor role.
The RFA firstly became heavily relied on by the Royal Navy during World War II, when the British fleet was often far from available bases, either due to the enemy capturing such bases, or, in the Pacific, because of the sheer distances involved. World War II also saw naval ships staying at sea for much longer periods than had been the case since the days of sail. Techniques of Replenishment at Sea (RAS) were developed. The auxiliary fleet comprised a diverse collection, with not only RFA ships, but also commissioned warships and merchantmen as well. The need for the fleet to be maintained was unambiguously demonstrated by World War II.
After 1945, the RFA became the Royal Navy's main source of support in the many conflicts that the Navy was involved in. The RFA performed important service to the Far East Fleet off Korea from 1950 until 1953, when sustained carrier operations were again mounted in Pacific waters. During the extended operations of the Konfrontasi in the 1960s, the RFA was also heavily involved. As the network of British bases overseas shrank during the end of the Empire, the Navy increasingly relied on the RFA to supply its ships during routine deployments.
The RFA played an important role in the largest naval war since 1945, the Falklands War in 1982 (where one vessel was lost and another badly damaged), and also the Gulf War, Kosovo War, Afghanistan Campaign and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
In July 2008, the RFA was presented with a Queen's Colour, an honour unique to a civilian organisation.
|Ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary|
|Amphibious warfare ships|
Ships in RFA service carry the ship prefix RFA, standing for Royal Fleet Auxiliary, and fly the Blue Ensign defaced with an upright gold killick anchor. All Royal Fleet Auxiliaries are built and maintained to Lloyd's Register and Department for Transport standards.
The most important role provided by the RFA is replenishment at sea (RAS), therefore the mainstay of the current RFA fleet are the replenishment ships.The Wave-class are 'Fleet Tankers', which primarily provide under way refuelling to Royal Navy ships, but can also provide a limited amount of dry cargo. The Rover-class that were decommissioned in 2017 are being replaced by the new Tide-class 'Fast Fleet Tankers' that were ordered in February 2012. The four new tankers have been ordered from DSME, South Korea with design support from Britain's BMT Defence Services, the first of which Tidespring entered service in 2017. The 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review confirmed that three "Fleet Solid Support" Ships were to be built and bidding for the contract was to have started in late 2016. However, late in 2019 this competition was stopped in the face of criticism that the competition permitted the potential construction of the ships outside the UK. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, this competition was anticipated as likely to be re-started in 2020 with revised terms of reference.
Fort Victoria is a 'one-stop' replenishment ship, capable of providing under way refuelling and dry cargoes (I.e rearming, victualling and spares). The older Fort Rosalie-class ships provide only dry cargoes. Both Fort Rosalie-class vessels (in addition to the Wave-class vessel Wave Ruler) were in "extended readiness" (reserve) as of June 2020.
The Wave-class, Fort Victoria and the Fort Rosalie-class have generous aviation facilities, providing aviation support and training facilities and significant vertical replenishment capabilities. They are capable of operating and supporting several Merlin and Lynx Wildcat helicopters, both of which are significant weapons platforms. The presence of aviation facilities on RFA ships allows for them to be used as 'force multipliers' for the task groups they support in line with Royal Navy doctrine.
The RFA is tasked with the role of supporting Royal Navy amphibious operations through its three Bay-class dock landing ships (LSD). Typically one Bay-class is also assigned as a permanent 'mothership' for Royal Navy mine countermeasures vessels in the Persian Gulf.
The unique support ship in the fleet is the aviation training ship Argus, a converted roll-on/roll-off (RoRo) container ship. She is tasked with peacetime aviation training and support. On active operations, she becomes the Primary Casualty Receiving Ship (PCRS); essentially a hospital ship. She cannot be described as such – and is not afforded such protection under the Geneva Convention – as she is armed. She can, however, venture into waters too dangerous for a normal hospital ship. Argus completed a refit in May 2007 intended to extend her operational life to 2020.
The Point-class sealift ships were acquired in 2002 under a £1.25bn private finance initiative with Foreland Shipping known as the 'Strategic Sealift Service'. These ships are Merchant Navy vessels leased to the Ministry of Defence as and when needed. Originally six ships were part of the deal, allowing the MoD use of four of the ships with two being made available for commercial charter, these latter two were released from the contract in 2012.The Ministry of Defence also contracts to secure fuel supplies for facilities overseas. For sometime this requirement was maintained through charter of the vessel Maersk Rapier. The ship was tasked with supplying fuel to the United Kingdoms various naval establishments at home and overseas, as well as providing aviation fuel to RAF stations at Cyprus, Ascension and the Falklands. The MoD chartered the vessel to commercial companies during periods where she was not in use for defence purposes. Since the end of the contract for the use of Maersk Rapier, a further contract for the use of another tanker, renamed the Raleigh Fisher, has been secured.
As of 2020, there are 13 ships in service with the Royal Fleet Auxiliary with a total displacement of approximately 376,000 tonnes. These figures exclude merchant navy vessels under charter to the Ministry of Defence.
|Class||Ship||Pennant No.||Entered service||Displacement||Type||Note|
|Tide-class||RFA Tidespring||A136||2017||39,000 tonnes||Replenishment tanker|
|Wave-class||RFA Wave Knight||A389||2003||31,500 tonnes||Fast fleet tanker|
|RFA Wave Ruler||A390||2003|
|Fort Victoria-class||RFA Fort Victoria||A387||1994||33,675 tonnes||Multi-role replenishment ship|
|Fort Rosalie-class||RFA Fort Rosalie||A385||1978||23,384 tonnes||Solid replenishment ship|
|RFA Fort Austin||A386||1979|
|Class||Ship||Pennant No.||Entered service||Displacement||Type||Note|
|Bay-class||RFA Lyme Bay||L3007||2007||16,160 tonnes||Dock landing ship auxiliary|
|RFA Mounts Bay||L3008||2006|
|RFA Cardigan Bay||L3009||2006|
|Class||Ship||Pennant No.||Entered service||Displacement||Type||Note|
|—||RFA Argus||A135||1988||28,081 tonnes||Aviation training & primary casualty receiving ship|
|Point-class||MV Hurst Point||Foreland Shipping||2002||23,000 tonnes||Ro-Ro Sealift|
|MV Hartland Point||2002|
|MV Anvil Point||2003|
|—||MV Raleigh Fisher||James Fisher and Sons||2005||35,000 DWT||Tanker|
Rank insignia of RFA officers are the same as for the Royal Navy; however, the RFA makes use of the diamond used by merchant shipping rather than the loop used by the RN. The rank of commodore is the most senior in the RFA.
|Rank||Commodore||Captain||Chief Officer||First Officer||Second Officer||Third Officer||Cadet|
|Analogous RN Rank*||Commodore||Captain||Commander||Lieutenant|
The RFA uses distinctive cloth to distinguish the branch of its officers. The Royal Navy ceased this practice for most officers in 1955, with the exception of medical and dental officers who are denoted by red and pink cloth respectively.
|Deck (X)||Logistics and Supply (LS)||Marine Engineering (ME)||Systems Engineering (SE)||Communications|
Marine Engineers may also have maroon coloured cloth in place of purple.
Ofiicers and Ratings of the RFA wear similar uniforms to the Royal Navy with RFA distinguishing marks.
This is the formal uniform worn on ceremonial occasions. For all officers it consists of a double-breasted, navy blue reefer jacket with four rows of two RFA buttons; matching trousers; white shirt and black tie; peaked cap; and black leather shoes. Rank insignia is denoted on the lower sleeve.
For ratings this uniform is a single breasted tunic fastened with four RFA buttons, with flapped chest pockets and hip pockets; white shirt and black tie, peaked cap for Petty Officers and above and a light blue beret for other ratings; and black leather shoes. Rank insignia is denoted on the lower sleeve.
Number 2A dress is the formal evening dress for ceremonial dinners; it consists of a navy blue mess jacket with a white waistcoat (black cummerbund for female officers) with miniature medals. 2B is "mess undress" for other mess functions, and is worn with either a black cummerbund or navy blue waistcoat and miniature medals. 2C, "red sea rig", is worn for informal evening wear on board ship; it consists of a white short sleeved shirt, worn with shoulderboards, without medals and with black trousers, black shoes and a black cummerbund.
This is worn all year round for general duties. It consists of a white shirt with rank insignia on the shoulders, and appropriate headgear. For officers 3A dress includes a long-sleeved shirt and tie, while 3B includes a short-sleeved shirt worn with hard shoulder boards. 3C is the same in all respects as 3A but with the addition of a navy blue woollen jersey. This is the same as for Officer's No. 3 dress but with the relevant rate insignia and beret. Junior rates are only issued with short-sleeve shirts and are not issued with ties. Thus No.3 dress is divided into 3B (without jersey) and 3C dress (navy-blue jersey worn over the shirt with the shirt collar out). There is no equivalent of 3A dress for junior ratings.
Number 4 dress is the working uniform of the RFA. It is referred to as Royal Fleet Auxiliary Personal Clothing System (RFAPCS); it consists of a navy blue fire-retardant jacket (worn tucked in and with the sleeves rolled up), navy blue beret, navy blue stable belt, navy-blue fire-retardant trousers, dms boots, navy-blue T-shirt and an optional navy-blue microfleece. Number 4R dress is the same only without the jacket and with an optional baseball cap. RFAPCS is distinguished from its RNPCS counterpart by the RFA blue ensign and 'ROYAL FLEET AUXILARY' tape replacing the white ensign and 'ROYAL NAVY' tape worn on the left arm and left chest pocket respectively. Junior ratings may also wear an RFA badged baseball cap in this order of dress, whilst undertaking courses at Royal Navy establishments.
Number 5 dress is the collective category for all specialist working uniforms. They are worn as required for duties.
The RFA recruits rates either directly from industry (or where they are suitably trained to allow direct entry), or as apprentices whilst undertaking training.
Officers are recruited in one of three ways
All new officers take part in a 10 week Initial Naval Training Officers (INT-O) course at BRNC Dartmouth that is designed to familiarise new officers to the RFA and develop leadership skills.
The post of Commodore of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (COMRFA) was created in 1951, and is the senior officer of the RFA.The following people have served as COMRFA:
RFA Orangeleaf was a Leaf-class fleet support tanker of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary.
RFA Fort Austin is a British Fort Rosalie-class dry stores ship of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary.
RFA Fort George was a combined fleet stores ship and tanker of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, and one of two Fort Victoria-class replenishment oilers.
RFA Gold Rover was a small fleet tanker of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary and one of five Rover-class ships that were designed by the Admiralty, all of which were built at the Swan Hunter shipyard.
RFA Fort Rosalie is the lead ship of her class of Royal Fleet Auxiliary fleet replenishment ships. Fort Rosalie was originally named RFA Fort Grange, but was renamed in May 2000 to avoid confusion with the now-decommissioned RFA Fort George, a change which was not universally popular. In February 2014, the ship arrived at North Western Ship repairs, Birkenhead, for further refit.
RFA Fort Victoria is a Fort-class combined fleet stores ship and tanker of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary of the United Kingdom tasked with providing ammunition, fuel, food and other supplies to Royal Navy vessels around the world.
RFA Black Rover was a Rover-class small fleet tanker of the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary. She was designed to replenish ships underway at sea with fuel, fresh water, and stores in all weather conditions. She had a helicopter deck served by a stores lift and was capable of conducting helicopter replenishment. Displacing 11,500 tonnes, she was powered by twin diesels and has a ship's company of 56.
HMS Ambush is an Astute-class nuclear fleet submarine of the Royal Navy, the second boat of her class. Ambush is the third vessel, and the second submarine, to bear the name in Royal Naval service. She was ordered in 1997, laid down in 2003 and commissioned in 2013.
RFA Cardigan Bay is a Bay-class landing ship dock of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA). Built by BAE Systems, the ship was dedicated into the RFA at the end of 2006.
Standing Royal Navy deployments is a list of operations and commitments undertaken by the United Kingdom's Royal Navy on a worldwide basis. The following list details these commitments and deployments sorted by region and in alphabetical order. Routine deployments made by the Navy's nuclear-powered submarines and their location of operations is classified.
Her Majesty's Naval Service, also known as the Senior Service, is the United Kingdom's naval warfare and maritime service. It consists of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, Royal Fleet Auxiliary, Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Marines Reserve and Naval Careers Service. The term Naval Service should be distinguished from the "UK Naval Services", which consist of the Naval Service and the Merchant Navy. The Naval Service as a whole falls under the command of the Navy Board, which is headed by the First Sea Lord. This position is currently held by Admiral Tony Radakin. The Defence Council delegates administration of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence.
The Fort Rosalie or Fort class of fleet replenishment vessel of the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary are designed to replenish Royal Navy taskgroups with all kinds of armaments and victualling stores while under way. Unlike the bigger Fort Victoria class, they supply dry stores but not fuel. RFA Fort Rosalie was originally known as Fort Grange but was renamed in 2000 to avoid confusion with the new Fort Victoria-class replenishment oiler RFA Fort George.
The Rover class is a British ship class of Small Fleet Tankers, active from 1970 to 2017 with the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. Two remain in service, one having been sold to Portugal and one to Indonesia; the rest have been scrapped or are awaiting disposal. They are tasked with the replenishment at sea of naval warships with fuel oils and with limited supplies of other naval stores. For RAS tasking, they can refuel a vessel on either beam and a third trailing astern and have a large flight deck to allow vertical replenishment with helicopters.
RFA Wave Ruler is a Wave-class tanker fast fleet tanker of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) of the United Kingdom tasked with providing fuel, food, fresh water, ammunition and other supplies to Royal Navy vessels around the world.
RFA Wave Knight is a Wave-class fast fleet tanker of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) of the United Kingdom tasked with providing fuel, food, fresh water, ammunition and other supplies to Royal Navy vessels around the world.
The Tide-class tanker is a class of four fast fleet tankers that entered service with the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary from 2017. The 37,000 t ships provide fuel, food, fresh water, ammunition and other supplies to Royal Navy vessels around the world. Norway ordered a similar 26,000 t version with a 48-bed hospital and greater solid stores capacity,but reduced liquid capacity it was delivered in November 2018 as HNoMS Maud two years after originally planned. The two classes are very similar, but are not directly comparable due to large variance in capabilities delivered.
This is a list of Active Royal Navy weapon systems.
A Fleet Solid Support Ship is a Royal Fleet Auxiliary ship designed to supply dry stores such as ammunition, explosives and food to Royal Navy ships at sea. The Royal Fleet Auxiliary currently operates two Solid Support Ships, RFA Fort Austin and RFA Fort Rosalie..
At the end of the Cold War in 1989, the Royal Navy structure was as follows:
The DS30B rapid fire cannon is a rapid-fire ship-protection system created by MSI-Defence Systems mounting a 30mm Oerlikon KCB gun.
The Royal Fleet Auxiliary – A Century of Service. Adams/Smith. London 2005. Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-86176-259-3.