General (United States)

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General
US-O10 insignia.svg
Army, Air Force and Marine Corps four-star insignia of the rank of general.
USN-USMC O10 insignia.svg
Shoulder four-star rank insignia of general for the above services.
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
Service branch
AbbreviationGEN (Army) or Gen (Air Force and Marine Corps)
Rank Four-star
NATO rank OF-9
Non-NATO rank O-10
Next higher rank
Next lower rank Lieutenant general
Equivalent ranks

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10. General ranks above lieutenant general and below General of the Army or General of the Air Force; the Marine Corps does not have an established grade above general. General is equivalent to the rank of admiral in the other uniformed services. Since the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force are reserved for wartime use only, and since the Marine Corps has no five-star equivalent, the grade of general is currently considered to be the highest appointment an officer can achieve in these three services.

United States Army Land warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.

United States Marine Corps Amphibious warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines or U.S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force. The U.S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

United States Air Force Air and space warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control.

Contents

Address

Formally, the term “General” is always used when referring to a four-star general. However, a number of different terms may be used to refer to them informally, since lower-ranking generals may also be referred to as simply “General”. These may include “Full General”, “Four-star General” (or simply four-star), or “O-10” (in reference to pay grade).

Statutory limits

U.S. Army insignia of the rank of General. Style and method of wear may vary between the services. Army-USA-OF-09.svg
U.S. Army insignia of the rank of General. Style and method of wear may vary between the services.
U.S. Marine Corps insignia of the rank of General. Style and method of wear may vary between the services. US Marine 10 shoulderboard.svg
U.S. Marine Corps insignia of the rank of General. Style and method of wear may vary between the services.
U.S. Air Force insignia of the rank of General. Style and method of wear may vary between the services. US Air Force O10 shoulderboard rotated.svg
U.S. Air Force insignia of the rank of General. Style and method of wear may vary between the services.
U.S. generals' flags
Flag of a United States Army general.svg
Rank flag of a general in the United States Army. The flag of a general of the Army Medical Department has a maroon background; the flag of a chaplain (general) has a black background. The Marine Corps equivalent has 4 stars in a circular manner; the Air Force equivalent has a blue background rather than red.
Flag of a United States Marine Corps general.svg
Flag of a United States Marine Corps general.
Flag of a United States Air Force general.svg
Flag of a United States Air Force general.

The United States Code explicitly limits the total number of general officers (termed flag officers in the Navy and Coast Guard) that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 231 for the Army, 62 for the Marine Corps, 198 for the Air Force, and 162 for the Navy. [1] No more than about 25% of a service's active duty general or flag officers may have more than two stars, [2] and statute sets the total number of four-star officers allowed in each service. [2] This is set at 7 four-star Army generals, 9 four-star Air Force generals, 2 four-star Marine generals, and 6 four-star Navy admirals. [2]

Several of these slots are reserved by statute. For example, the two highest-ranking members of each service (the service chief and deputy service chief) are designated as four-star generals. For the Army the Chief of Staff and the Vice Chief of Staff are four-star generals; for the Marine Corps, the Commandant and the Assistant Commandant are both four-star generals; and for the Air Force, the Chief of Staff and Vice Chief of Staff are four-star generals. In addition, for the National Guard, the Chief of the National Guard Bureau [3] is a four-star general under active duty in the Army or Air Force.

Chief of Staff of the United States Army statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army

The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army. As the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, the CSA is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Army. In a separate capacity, the CSA is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and, thereby, a military advisor to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President of the United States. The CSA is typically the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U.S. Army unless the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Army officers. . The Chief of Staff of the Army is an administrative position based in the Pentagon. While the CSA does not have operational command authority over Army forces proper, the CSA does exercise supervision of army units and organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Army.

Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army position

The Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army (VCSA) is the principal deputy to the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and is the second-highest-ranking officer on active duty in the Department of the Army.

Commandant of the Marine Corps member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) is normally the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CMC reports directly to the United States Secretary of the Navy and is responsible for ensuring the organization, policy, plans, and programs for the Marine Corps as well as advising the President, the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary of the Navy on matters involving the Marine Corps. Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine personnel and resources to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands. The Commandant performs all other functions prescribed in Section 5043 in Title 10 of the United States Code or delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in his administration in his name. As with the other joint chiefs, the Commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces.

There are several exceptions to these limits allowing more than allotted within the statute. [4]

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Highest ranking military officer in the United States

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces and is the principal military advisor to the President, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense. While the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff outranks all other commissioned officers, the Chairman is prohibited by law from having operational command authority over the armed forces; however, the Chairman does assist the President and the Secretary of Defense in exercising their command functions.

Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VJCS) is, by U.S. law, the second highest-ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces, ranking just below the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Vice Chairman outranks all respective heads of each service branch, with the exception of the Chairman, but does not have operational command authority over their service branches. The Goldwater–Nichols Act of 1986 created the position of VCJCS to assist the Chairman in exercising his or her duties. In the absence of the Chairman, the Vice Chairman presides over the meetings of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and all other duties prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 153 and may also perform other duties that the President, the Chairman, or the Secretary of Defense prescribes.

Joint Chiefs of Staff Body of senior uniformed leaders in the U. S. Department of Defense which advises the President on military matters

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense which advises the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters. The composition of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is defined by statute and consists of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS), the Military Service Chiefs from the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force, and the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, all appointed by the President following Senate confirmation. Each of the individual Military Service Chiefs, outside their Joint Chiefs of Staff obligations, works directly for the Secretary of the Military Department concerned, i.e., Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air Force.

Finally, all statutory limits may be waived at the President's discretion during time of war or national emergency. [7]

Appointment and tour length

Four-star grades go hand-in-hand with the positions of office to which they are linked, so the rank is temporary; the active rank of four-star general can only be held for so long- though upon retirement, if satisfactory service requirements are met, the general or admiral is normally allowed to hold that rank in retirement, rather than reverting to a lower position, as was formerly usually the case. [8] Their active rank expires with the expiration of their term of office, which is usually set by statute. [8] Generals are nominated for the appointment by the President from any eligible officers holding the rank of brigadier general or above who meet the requirements for the position, with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, service secretary (Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, or Secretary of the Air Force), and if applicable the Joint Chiefs of Staff. [8] For some positions, statute allows the President to waive those requirements for a nominee deemed to serve national interests. [9] The nominee must be confirmed by the United States Senate before the appointee can take office and assume the rank. [8] Four-star ranks may also be given by act of Congress but this is extremely rare. The standard tour for most four-star positions is three years, bundled as a two-year term plus a one-year extension, with the following exceptions:

Extensions of the standard tour length can be approved, within statutory limits, by their respective service secretaries, the Secretary of Defense, the President, or Congress but these are rare, as they block other officers from being promoted. Some statutory limits can be waived in times of national emergency or war.

Retirement

Other than voluntary retirement, statute sets a number of mandates for retirement. A four-star general must retire after 40 years of service unless he or she is reappointed to serve longer. [10] Otherwise all general officers must retire the month after their 64th birthday. [11] However, the Secretary of Defense can defer a four-star officer's retirement until the officer's 66th birthday [11] and the President can defer it until the officer's 68th birthday. [11]

General officers typically retire well in advance of the statutory age and service limits, so as not to impede the career paths of more junior officers. Since only a limited number of four-star slots are available to each service, typically one officer must leave office before another can be promoted. [12] Maintaining a four-star rank is a game of musical chairs: once an officer vacates a position bearing that rank, he or she has no more than 60 days to be appointed or reappointed to a position of equal or greater importance before he or she must involuntarily retire. [8] [12] Historically, officers leaving four-star positions were allowed to revert to their permanent two-star ranks to mark time in lesser jobs until statutory retirement, but now such officers are expected to retire immediately to avoid obstructing the promotion flow.

To retire at four-star grade, an officer must accumulate at least three years of satisfactory active duty service in that grade, as certified by the Secretary of Defense. [13] The Secretary of Defense may reduce this requirement to two years, but only if the officer is not being investigated for misconduct. Officers who do not meet the service-in-grade requirement revert to the next highest grade in which they served satisfactorily for at least six months. It is extraordinarily rare for a four-star officer not to retire in that grade.

Four-star officers typically step down from their posts up to 60 days in advance of their official retirement dates. Officers retire on the first day of the month, so once a retirement month has been selected, the relief and retirement ceremonies are scheduled by counting backwards from that date by the number of days of accumulated leave remaining to the retiring officer. During this period, termed transition leave or terminal leave, the officer is considered to be awaiting retirement but still on active duty.

History and origins

See also

Related Research Articles

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Vice Chief of Naval Operations military rank

The Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO) is the second highest-ranking commissioned United States Navy officer in the Department of the Navy and functions as the principal deputy of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO); and by statute, the VCNO is appointed as a four-star admiral.

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Admiral is a four-star commissioned naval flag officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, with the pay grade of O-10. Admiral ranks above vice admiral and below fleet admiral in the Navy; the Coast Guard and the Public Health Service do not have an established grade above admiral. Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps has never had an officer hold the grade of admiral. However, 37 U.S.C. § 201 of the U.S. Code established the grade for the NOAA Corps, in case a position is created that merits the four-star grade.

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9. Lieutenant general ranks above major general and below general. Lieutenant general is equivalent to the rank of vice admiral in the other uniformed services.

A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code. Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) admiral, (full) general, or air chief marshal. This designation is also used by some armed forces that are not North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) members.

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In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks above brigadier general and below lieutenant general. A major general typically commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, and is the highest-permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed-services. Higher ranks are technically-temporary ranks linked to specific positions, although virtually all officers promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank.

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References

  1. 10 USC 526. Authorized strength: general and flag officers on active duty.
  2. 1 2 3 4 10 USC 525. Distribution of commissioned officers on active duty in general officer and flag officer grades.
  3. 10 USC 10502 Chief of the National Guard Bureau: appointment; adviser on National Guard matters; grade; succession.
  4. 10 U.S. Code § 526. Authorized strength: general and flag officers on active duty
  5. 1 2 10 USC 604 Senior joint officer positions: recommendations to the Secretary of Defense
  6. 10 USC 528 Officers serving in certain intelligence positions: military status; exclusion from distribution and strength limitations; pay and allowances
  7. 10 USC 527 Authority to suspend sections 523, 525, and 526
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 10 USC 601 Positions of importance and responsibility: generals and lieutenant generals; admirals and vice admirals
  9. 10 164 Commanders of combatant commands: assignment; powers and duties
  10. 10 USC 636 Retirement for years of service: regular officers in grades above brigadier general and rear admiral (lower half)
  11. 1 2 3 10 USC 1253 Age 64: regular commissioned officers in general and flag officer grades; exception
  12. 1 2 DoD News Briefing on Thursday, June 6, 1996 Retirement of Admiral Leighton W. Smith, Jr.
  13. 10 USC 1370 Commissioned officers: general rule; exceptions