United States Secretary of the Army

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United States Secretary of the Army
Seal of the US Department of the Army.svg
Flag of the United States Secretary of the Army.svg
Flag of the Secretary [1]
Ryan McCarthy-Acting Secretary of the Army (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Ryan McCarthy

since July 23, 2019
Acting: July 23, 2019 – September 30, 2019
United States Department of the Army
Style Mr. Secretary
Reports to Secretary of Defense
AppointerThe President
with the advice and consent of the Senate
Term length No fixed term
Precursor Secretary of War
FormationSeptember 18, 1947
First holder Kenneth Claiborne Royall
Succession 2nd in SecDef succession
Deputy Under Secretary
(principal civilian deputy)
Chief of Staff
(military advisor and deputy)
Salary Executive Schedule, level II
Website Official website Blue pencil.svg

The secretary of the Army (SA, SECARM [2] or SECARMY) is a senior civilian official within the Department of Defense of the United States with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and equipment acquisition, communications, and financial management.

United States Department of Defense United States federal executive department

The United States Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government directly related to national security and the United States Armed Forces. The DoD is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active-duty service members as of 2016. More employees include over 826,000 National Guard and Reservists from the armed forces, and over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C., the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security".

United States Army Land warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.

Contents

The secretary of the Army is nominated by the president and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. The secretary is a non-Cabinet level official serving under the secretary of defense. [3] This position was created on September 18, 1947, replacing the secretary of war, when the Department of War was split into the Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force. [4]

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

United States Secretary of Defense Leader of the United States armed forces following the president

The secretary of defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S. The secretary of defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the president. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a defense minister in many other countries. The secretary of defense is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council.

On September 26, 2019, Ryan McCarthy was confirmed as the Secretary of the Army, and was sworn in to office on September 30, 2019.

Ryan McCarthy (U.S. Army) United States Secretary of the Army

Ryan D. McCarthy is the 24th and current United States Secretary of the Army and a former United States Army Ranger and business executive. In June 2017, President Donald Trump nominated him to become the United States Under Secretary of the Army. He was confirmed as United States Under Secretary of the Army by the United States Senate on August 1, 2017, by voice vote. From August 3 to November 20, 2017, he served as acting secretary of the Army. From June 24, 2019 to July 15, 2019, while secretary of the Army Mark Esper was acting secretary of Defense, McCarthy assumed performing duties as secretary of the Army. The President nominated McCarthy to become the Secretary of the Army on June 21, 2019. He was confirmed on September 26, 2019 and was sworn in on September 30, 2019 as Secretary of the Army.

Roles and responsibilities

The senior leadership of the Department of the Army consists of two civilians—the secretary of the army and the under secretary of the Army—and two military officers of four-star rank—the chief of staff of the Army and the vice chief of staff of the Army.

United States Under Secretary of the Army

The United States Under Secretary of the Army is the second-highest ranking civilian official of the United States Department of the Army, serving directly under the United States Secretary of the Army. The Secretary and Under Secretary, together with two military officers, the Chief of Staff of the United States Army and the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army, constitute the senior leaders of the United States Army.

A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code. Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) admiral, (full) general, or air chief marshal. This designation is also used by some armed forces that are not North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) members.

Chief of Staff of the United States Army Statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army

The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army. As the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, the CSA is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Army. In a separate capacity, the CSA is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and, thereby, a military advisor to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President of the United States. The CSA is typically the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U.S. Army unless the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Army officers.

The secretary of the Army (10 U.S.C.   § 3013) is in effect the chief executive officer of the Department of the Army, and the chief of staff of the Army works directly for the secretary of the Army. The secretary presents and justifies Army policies, plans, programs, and budgets to the secretary of defense, other executive branch officials, and to the Congressional Defense Committees. The secretary also communicates Army policies, plans, programs, capabilities, and accomplishments to the public. As necessary, the secretary convenes meetings with the senior leadership of the Army to debate issues, provide direction, and seek advice. The Secretary is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board.

Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code. It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense. Each of the five subtitles deals with a separate aspect or component of the armed services.

Chief executive officer Highest-ranking corporate officer or administrator

The chief executive officer (CEO), or just chief executive (CE), is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some government organizations. The CEO of a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc.

United States Congress Legislature of the United States

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 435 representatives and 100 senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house, sit and vote in congressional committees, and introduce legislation.

The secretary of the Army has several responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, including the authority to convene general courts-martial. Other duties include management of the Civilian Aides to the Secretary of the Army Program. [5]

The Uniform Code of Military Justice is the foundation of military law in the United States. It was established by the United States Congress in accordance with the authority given by the United States Constitution in Article I, Section 8, which provides that "The Congress shall have Power....To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval forces".

Office of the Secretary of the Army

The Office of the Secretary of the Army is composed of the under secretary of the Army, the assistant secretaries of the Army, the administrative assistant to the secretary of the Army, the general counsel of the Department of the Army, the inspector general of the Army, the chief of Legislative liaison, and the Army Reserve Forces Policy Committee. Other offices may be established by law or by the secretary of the Army. No more than 1,865 officers of the Army on the active-duty list may be assigned or detailed to permanent duty in the Office of the Secretary of the Army and on the Army staff. [6]

Chart showing the organization of the Office of the Secretary of Army and its relationship to the Army Staff. Organization of the Department of the Army Headquarters.png
Chart showing the organization of the Office of the Secretary of Army and its relationship to the Army Staff.

Chronological list of secretaries of the Army

Kenneth Claiborne Royall, the last secretary of war, became the first secretary of the army when the National Defense Act of 1947 took effect. Gordon Gray was the last Army secretary to hold the cabinet status, which was henceforth assigned to the secretary of defense. [4] [7]

Prior military service is not a requirement, but quite a few have served in the United States armed forces. Secretary Stone (1989-1993) is the only holder to serve in the military outside of the United States.

PhotoNameTerm of Office President(s) served under
KCR portrait.jpg Kenneth Claiborne Royall September 18, 1947 – April 27, 1949 Harry S. Truman
Gordon Gray - Project Gutenberg etext 20587.jpg Gordon Gray [8] April 28, 1949 – April 12, 1950
Frank Pace Sec. Army.jpg Frank Pace April 12, 1950 – January 20, 1953
Earl D. Johnson.jpg Earl D. Johnson
Acting [8]
January 20, 1953 – February 4, 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Robert Ten Broeck Stevens.jpg Robert T. Stevens February 4, 1953 – July 21, 1955
Wilber Marion Brucker.jpg Wilber M. Brucker July 21, 1955 – January 19, 1961
Elvis Jacob Stahr.jpg Elvis Jacob Stahr Jr. January 24, 1961 – June 30, 1962 John F. Kennedy
CyrusVanceSoS.jpg Cyrus Roberts Vance July 5, 1962 – January 21, 1964John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson
Stephen Ailes, official photo.jpg Stephen Ailes January 28, 1964 – July 1, 1965Lyndon B. Johnson
Stanley Rogers Resor, official photo.jpg Stanley R. Resor July 2, 1965 – June 30, 1971Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon
Robert Froehlke.jpg Robert F. Froehlke July 1, 1971 – May 14, 1973Richard Nixon
Howard Callaway.jpg Howard H. Callaway May 15, 1973 – July 3, 1975Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford
Norman Ralph Augustine.jpg Norman R. Augustine
Acting [8]
July 3, 1975 – August 5, 1975Gerald Ford
Martin Richard Hoffmann.jpg Martin R. Hoffmann August 5, 1975 – January 20, 1977
Clifford Alexander, speaking at a podium, March 1984.jpg Clifford Alexander Jr. February 14, 1977 – January 20, 1981 Jimmy Carter
No image.svg Percy A. Pierre
Acting [8]
January 21, 1981 – January 29, 1981
John Otho Marsh speaking at Arlington Cemetery, March 1985.jpg John O. Marsh Jr. January 30, 1981 – August 14, 1989 Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush
Michael Stone, official portrait, 1989.JPEG Michael P. W. Stone August 14, 1989 – January 20, 1993George H. W. Bush
John W. Shannon.JPEG John W. Shannon
Acting [9]
January 20, 1993 – August 26, 1993 Bill Clinton
General Gordon Sullivan, official military photo 1992.JPEG Gordon R. Sullivan
Acting [10] [11]
August 28, 1993 – November 21, 1993
Togo West, official DoD photo portrait, 1994.JPEG Togo D. West Jr. November 22, 1993 – May 4, 1997
Robert M Walker.jpg Robert M. Walker
Acting [8]
December 2, 1997 – July 1, 1998
CalderaLouis.jpg Louis Caldera July 2, 1998 – January 20, 2001
Gregory R Dahlberg.jpg Gregory R. Dahlberg
Acting
January 20, 2001 – March 4, 2001 George W. Bush
Joseph Westphal.jpg Joseph W. Westphal
Acting [8]
March 5, 2001 – May 31, 2001
Thomas E White, Secretary of the Army.jpg Thomas E. White May 31, 2001 – May 9, 2003
Les Brownlee, official DoD photo.jpg Les Brownlee
Acting
May 10, 2003 – November 18, 2004
Francis J. Harvey, official photo as Secretary of the Army.jpg Francis J. Harvey November 19, 2004 – March 9, 2007
Pete Geren, Secretary of the Army, official photo.jpg Pete Geren March 9, 2007 – September 21, 2009George W. Bush, Barack Obama
Army Secretary John McHugh.jpg John M. McHugh September 21, 2009 – November 1, 2015Barack Obama
Secretary of the Army Eric Fanning.jpg Eric Fanning
Acting
November 3, 2015 – January 11, 2016
Patrick J. Murphy official portrait.jpg Patrick Murphy
Acting
January 11, 2016 – May 17, 2016
Secretary of the Army Eric Fanning.jpg Eric Fanning May 17, 2016 – January 20, 2017
Robert M. Speer.jpg Robert Speer
Acting
January 20, 2017 – August 2, 2017 Donald Trump
Ryan McCarthy-Acting Secretary of the Army.jpg Ryan McCarthy
Acting
August 2, 2017 – November 20, 2017
Mark T. Esper.jpg Mark Esper November 20, 2017 – July 23, 2019 [12]
Ryan McCarthy-Acting Secretary of the Army.jpg Ryan McCarthy
Acting
June 24, 2019 – July 15, 2019
Ryan McCarthy-Acting Secretary of the Army.jpg Ryan McCarthy July 23, 2019 – present
Acting: July 23, 2019 – September 30, 2019

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References

  1. http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r840_10.pdf Archived June 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine , accessed on January 4, 2012.
  2. "SECARM sets goals, timeline for Rapid Capabilities Office: AUSA exclusive". defensenews.com. October 3, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  3. "US CODE: Title 10,3013. Secretary of the Army" . Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  4. 1 2 Bell, William Gardner (1992). ""Kenneth Claiborne Royall"". Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army: Portraits and Biographical Sketches. United States Army Center of Military History . Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  5. "Secretary of the Army". Archived from the original on September 21, 2007. Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  6. "US CODE: Title 10,3014. Office of the Secretary of the Army" . Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  7. Bell, William Gardner. ""Intro - Secretaries of War & Secretaries of the Army"". Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army: Portraits & Biographical Sketches . Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6
  9. The Daily Sentinel (Ohio/West Virginia), Acting Army Chief Ticketed for Shoplifting, August 29, 1993
  10. U.S. Organization Chart Service, Department of Defense Fact Book, 2006, page 17
  11. Dickstein, Corey (June 21, 2019). "Former Ranger McCarthy will take on duties of Army secretary on Monday". Stars and Stripes . Retrieved June 29, 2019. While Esper is serving as acting defense secretary, he will technically retain the title of secretary of the Army, one of the officials said.