|United States Secretary of the Army|
|United States Department of the Army|
|Reports to||Secretary of Defense|
|Appointer||The President |
with the advice and consent of the Senate
|Term length||No fixed term|
|Precursor||Secretary of War|
|Formation||September 18, 1947|
|First holder||Kenneth Claiborne Royall|
|Succession||2nd in SecDef succession|
|Deputy|| Under Secretary |
(principal civilian deputy)
Chief of Staff
(military advisor and deputy)
|Salary||Executive Schedule, level II|
|Website|| Official website |
The secretary of the Army (SA, SECARMor SECARMY) is a senior civilian official within the Department of Defense of the United States with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and equipment acquisition, communications, and financial management.
The United States Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government directly related to national security and the United States Armed Forces. The DoD is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active-duty service members as of 2016. More employees include over 826,000 National Guard and Reservists from the armed forces, and over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C., the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security".
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.
The secretary of the Army is nominated by the president and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. The secretary is a non-Cabinet level official serving under the secretary of defense.This position was created on September 18, 1947, replacing the secretary of war, when the Department of War was split into the Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force.
The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.
The secretary of defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S. The secretary of defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the president. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a defense minister in many other countries. The secretary of defense is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council.
On September 26, 2019, Ryan McCarthy was confirmed as the Secretary of the Army, and was sworn in to office on September 30, 2019.
Ryan D. McCarthy is the 24th and current United States Secretary of the Army and a former United States Army Ranger and business executive. In June 2017, President Donald Trump nominated him to become the United States Under Secretary of the Army. He was confirmed as United States Under Secretary of the Army by the United States Senate on August 1, 2017, by voice vote. From August 3 to November 20, 2017, he served as acting secretary of the Army. From June 24, 2019 to July 15, 2019, while secretary of the Army Mark Esper was acting secretary of Defense, McCarthy assumed performing duties as secretary of the Army. The President nominated McCarthy to become the Secretary of the Army on June 21, 2019. He was confirmed on September 26, 2019 and was sworn in on September 30, 2019 as Secretary of the Army.
The senior leadership of the Department of the Army consists of two civilians—the secretary of the army and the under secretary of the Army—and two military officers of four-star rank—the chief of staff of the Army and the vice chief of staff of the Army.
The United States Under Secretary of the Army is the second-highest ranking civilian official of the United States Department of the Army, serving directly under the United States Secretary of the Army. The Secretary and Under Secretary, together with two military officers, the Chief of Staff of the United States Army and the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army, constitute the senior leaders of the United States Army.
A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code. Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) admiral, (full) general, or air chief marshal. This designation is also used by some armed forces that are not North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) members.
The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army. As the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, the CSA is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Army. In a separate capacity, the CSA is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and, thereby, a military advisor to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President of the United States. The CSA is typically the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U.S. Army unless the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Army officers.
The secretary of the Army (10 U.S.C. § 3013) is in effect the chief executive officer of the Department of the Army, and the chief of staff of the Army works directly for the secretary of the Army. The secretary presents and justifies Army policies, plans, programs, and budgets to the secretary of defense, other executive branch officials, and to the Congressional Defense Committees. The secretary also communicates Army policies, plans, programs, capabilities, and accomplishments to the public. As necessary, the secretary convenes meetings with the senior leadership of the Army to debate issues, provide direction, and seek advice. The Secretary is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board.
Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code. It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense. Each of the five subtitles deals with a separate aspect or component of the armed services.
The chief executive officer (CEO), or just chief executive (CE), is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some government organizations. The CEO of a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 435 representatives and 100 senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house, sit and vote in congressional committees, and introduce legislation.
The secretary of the Army has several responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, including the authority to convene general courts-martial. Other duties include management of the Civilian Aides to the Secretary of the Army Program.
The Uniform Code of Military Justice is the foundation of military law in the United States. It was established by the United States Congress in accordance with the authority given by the United States Constitution in Article I, Section 8, which provides that "The Congress shall have Power....To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval forces".
The Office of the Secretary of the Army is composed of the under secretary of the Army, the assistant secretaries of the Army, the administrative assistant to the secretary of the Army, the general counsel of the Department of the Army, the inspector general of the Army, the chief of Legislative liaison, and the Army Reserve Forces Policy Committee. Other offices may be established by law or by the secretary of the Army. No more than 1,865 officers of the Army on the active-duty list may be assigned or detailed to permanent duty in the Office of the Secretary of the Army and on the Army staff.
Kenneth Claiborne Royall, the last secretary of war, became the first secretary of the army when the National Defense Act of 1947 took effect. Gordon Gray was the last Army secretary to hold the cabinet status, which was henceforth assigned to the secretary of defense.
Prior military service is not a requirement, but quite a few have served in the United States armed forces. Secretary Stone (1989-1993) is the only holder to serve in the military outside of the United States.
|Photo||Name||Term of Office||President(s) served under|
|Kenneth Claiborne Royall||September 18, 1947 – April 27, 1949||Harry S. Truman|
|Gordon Gray||April 28, 1949 – April 12, 1950|
|Frank Pace||April 12, 1950 – January 20, 1953|
| Earl D. Johnson |
|January 20, 1953 – February 4, 1953||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|Robert T. Stevens||February 4, 1953 – July 21, 1955|
|Wilber M. Brucker||July 21, 1955 – January 19, 1961|
|Elvis Jacob Stahr Jr.||January 24, 1961 – June 30, 1962||John F. Kennedy|
|Cyrus Roberts Vance||July 5, 1962 – January 21, 1964||John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Stephen Ailes||January 28, 1964 – July 1, 1965||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Stanley R. Resor||July 2, 1965 – June 30, 1971||Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon|
|Robert F. Froehlke||July 1, 1971 – May 14, 1973||Richard Nixon|
|Howard H. Callaway||May 15, 1973 – July 3, 1975||Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford|
| Norman R. Augustine |
|July 3, 1975 – August 5, 1975||Gerald Ford|
|Martin R. Hoffmann||August 5, 1975 – January 20, 1977|
|Clifford Alexander Jr.||February 14, 1977 – January 20, 1981||Jimmy Carter|
| Percy A. Pierre |
|January 21, 1981 – January 29, 1981|
|John O. Marsh Jr.||January 30, 1981 – August 14, 1989||Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush|
|Michael P. W. Stone||August 14, 1989 – January 20, 1993||George H. W. Bush|
| John W. Shannon |
|January 20, 1993 – August 26, 1993||Bill Clinton|
| Gordon R. Sullivan |
|August 28, 1993 – November 21, 1993|
|Togo D. West Jr.||November 22, 1993 – May 4, 1997|
| Robert M. Walker |
|December 2, 1997 – July 1, 1998|
|Louis Caldera||July 2, 1998 – January 20, 2001|
| Gregory R. Dahlberg |
|January 20, 2001 – March 4, 2001||George W. Bush|
| Joseph W. Westphal |
|March 5, 2001 – May 31, 2001|
|Thomas E. White||May 31, 2001 – May 9, 2003|
| Les Brownlee |
|May 10, 2003 – November 18, 2004|
|Francis J. Harvey||November 19, 2004 – March 9, 2007|
|Pete Geren||March 9, 2007 – September 21, 2009||George W. Bush, Barack Obama|
|John M. McHugh||September 21, 2009 – November 1, 2015||Barack Obama|
| Eric Fanning |
|November 3, 2015 – January 11, 2016|
| Patrick Murphy |
|January 11, 2016 – May 17, 2016|
|Eric Fanning||May 17, 2016 – January 20, 2017|
| Robert Speer |
|January 20, 2017 – August 2, 2017||Donald Trump|
| Ryan McCarthy |
|August 2, 2017 – November 20, 2017|
|Mark Esper||November 20, 2017 – July 23, 2019|
| Ryan McCarthy |
|June 24, 2019 – July 15, 2019|
|Ryan McCarthy||July 23, 2019 – present|
Acting: July 23, 2019 – September 30, 2019
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The president of the United States is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Secretary of the Navy is a statutory officer and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The United States order of precedence lists the ceremonial order for domestic and foreign government officials at diplomatic, ceremonial, and social events within the United States and abroad. Former presidents, vice presidents, first ladies, second ladies, and secretaries of state and retired Supreme Court justices are also included in the list. The order is established by the president, through the Office of the Chief of Staff, and is maintained by the State Department's Office of the Chief of Protocol. It is only used to indicate ceremonial protocol and has no legal standing; it does not reflect the presidential line of succession or the co-equal status of the branches of government under the Constitution. The Office of the Chief of Protocol posted an updated order of precedence on November 3, 2017.
The deputy secretary of defense is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The Secretary of the Air Force is the head of the Department of the Air Force, a military department within the United States Department of Defense. The Secretary of the Air Force is a civilian appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Secretary reports to the Secretary of Defense and/or the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and is by statute responsible for and has the authority to conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Air Force.
Kenneth Claiborne Royall, Sr. was a United States Army general and the last person to hold the office of Secretary of War. That position was abolished in 1947, and Royall served as the first Secretary of the Army from 1947 to 1949.
The Department of the Army (DA) is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the Federal Government agency within which the United States Army is organized, and it is led by the Secretary of the Army, who has statutory authority under 10 U.S.C. § 3013 to conduct its affairs and to prescribe regulations for its government, subject to the limits of the law, and the directions of the Secretary of Defense and the President.
The Department of the Air Force (DAF) is one of the three Military Departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Air Force was formed on September 18, 1947, per the National Security Act of 1947 and it includes all elements and units of the United States Air Force (USAF).
The Vice Chief of Staff of the Army (VCSA) is the principal deputy to the Chief of Staff of the Army, and is the second-highest-ranking officer on active duty in the Department of the Army.
The Under Secretary of the Air Force is the second-highest ranking civilian official in the Department of the Air Force of the United States of America, serving directly under the Secretary of the Air Force. In the absence of the Secretary, the Under Secretary exercises all the powers and duties of the Secretary and serves as Acting Secretary when the position of Secretary is vacant. The Under Secretary of the Air Force is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent the Senate.
John W. Shannon was United States Under Secretary of the Army from 1989 to 1993.
The Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army (OAA) has a primary mission, as specified in Title 10 of the United States Code and reiterated in General Orders and Regulations, to provide direct support to the Secretary of the Army, the Under Secretary of the Army and other Army presidential appointees. In accordance with Army Regulation (AR) 25–59, OAA's office symbol is SAAA.
Malcolm Ross O'Neill was the United States Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology, having been sworn into office by United States Under Secretary of the Army Joseph W. Westphal on March 10, 2010, and resigned June 3, 2011.
The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has a complex organizational structure. It includes the Army, Navy, the Marine Corps, Air Force, the Unified combatant commands, U.S. elements of multinational commands, as well as non-combat agencies such as the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency. The DoD's annual budget was roughly US$496.1 billion in 2015. This figure is the base amount and does not include the $64.3 billion spent on "War/Non-War Supplementals". Including those items brings the total to $560.6 billion for 2015.
Judd Henry Lyons is a retired Army National Guard general officer who attained the rank of major general. After retiring from the military, he was appointed to the Senior Executive Service on August 7, 2017. He is currently the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense. In this role, he serves as the principal advisor to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs in support of the ASD's role of providing overall supervision of manpower and reserve affairs for the Department of Defense (DoD). He is responsible for both the seamless integration of reserve affairs across DoD and strategic engagement on all Reserve Component matters.
Mark Thomas Esper is the 27th and current United States secretary of defense. He previously served as acting secretary of defense and was the 23rd United States secretary of the Army from 2017 to 2019.
While Esper is serving as acting defense secretary, he will technically retain the title of secretary of the Army, one of the officials said.