|Formed||September 18, 1947|
|Headquarters||The Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.|
|Annual budget||$180B (FY2020)|
|Parent agency||U.S. Department of Defense|
The United States Department of the Army (DA) is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the federal government agency within which the United States Army (USA) is organized, and it is led by the secretary of the Army, who has statutory authority under 10 U.S.C. § 3013 to conduct its affairs and to prescribe regulations for its government, subject to the limits of the law, and the directions of the secretary of defense and the president.
The secretary of the army is a civilian official appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. The highest-ranking military officer in the department is the chief of staff of the Army, who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Other senior officials of the department are the under secretary of the Army (principal deputy to the secretary) and the vice chief of staff of the Army (principal deputy to the chief of staff.)
The Department of War was originally formed in 1789 as an Executive Department of the United States, and was split by the National Security Act of 1947 into the Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947. By amendments to the National Security Act of 1947 in 1949, the department of the Army was transformed to its present-day status.
The Department of the Army is a Military Department within the United States Department of Defense. The department is headed by the secretary of the army, who by statute must be a civilian, appointed by the president with the confirmation by the United States Senate. The secretary of the Army is responsible for, and has the authority to conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Army, subject to the authority, direction and control of the secretary of defense. The Department of the Army is divided between its headquarters at the seat of government and the field organizations of the Army.
By direction of the secretary of defense, the secretary of the Army assigns Army forces, apart from those units performing duties enumerated in 10 U.S.C. § 3013 (i.e. organize, train & equip) or unless otherwise directed, to the operational command of the commanders of the Combatant Commands. Only the secretary of defense (and the president) has the authority to approve transfer of forces to and from Combatant Commands. 10 U.S.C. § 162.
Headquarters, Department of the Army is the corporate office of the department which exercises directive and supervisory functions and consists of two separate staffs; the Office of the Secretary of the Army (10 U.S.C. § 3014), the mainly civilian staff; and the Army Staff (10 U.S.C. § 3031 & 10 U.S.C. § 3032), the mainly military staff. The Office of the Secretary and the Army Staff are organized along similar lines, with civilians and military officers both overseeing similar program areas.
|Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs||Deputy Chief of Staff (G1-Personnel)|
Deputy Chief of Staff (G3/5/7-Operations)
|Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, Energy and Environment||Deputy Chief of Staff for Installations, G-9|
|Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works||Chief of Engineers|
|Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology||Deputy Chief of Staff (G4-Logistics)|
|Assistant Secretary of the Army for Financial Management and Controller||Deputy Chief of Staff (G8-Financial Management)|
|General Counsel of the Army||Deputy Chief of Staff (G2-Intelligence)|
The Office of the Secretary is led by the secretary of the Army, assisted by the under secretary of the Army and the administrative assistant to the secretary of the Army, who is the senior civilian career official of the department. The Office of the Secretary of the Army, also known as the Army Secretariat, is divided into multiple branches with functional responsibilities, the six most important of which are headed by one of the five assistant secretaries of the Army or the general counsel of the Army, each of whom are civilians appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.
The Army Staff is led by the chief of staff of the Army, a four-star general who is the highest-ranking officer in the Army and the Army member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The chief of staff is assisted in managing the Army Staff by the vice chief of staff of the United States Army, a four-star general and second-highest-ranking officer in the Army. The Army Staff is divided into several directorates, each headed by a three-star general.
A key official within the Army Staff is the director of the Army Staff, who is a three-star general. The director is responsible for integrating and synchronizing the work of the Office of the Secretary and the Army Staff so that they meet the goals and priorities of the secretary of the Army. Other key figures within the Army Staff are the sergeant major of the Army, the United States Army judge advocate general, the chief of the Army Reserve, the United States Army provost marshal general, and the United States Army surgeon general. The chief of the National Guard Bureau was previously considered part of the Army Staff, but has been elevated to four-star rank and membership in the Joint Chiefs of Staff; the director of the Army National Guard and the director of the Air National Guard (both three-star positions) report to the chief, National Guard Bureau for strategy and policy, but receive funding and Service-specific guidance from their respective services.[ citation needed ]
Headquarters, United States Department of the Army (HQDA):
|Army Commands||Current commander||Location of headquarters|
|United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)||GEN Michael X. Garrett||Fort Bragg, North Carolina|
|United States Army Futures Command (AFC)||GEN John M. Murray||Austin, Texas|
|United States Army Materiel Command (AMC)||GEN Edward M. Daly||Redstone Arsenal, Alabama|
|United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)||GEN Paul E. Funk II||Fort Eustis, Virginia|
|Army Service Component Commands||Current commander||Location of headquarters|
|United States Army Europe and Africa||GEN Christopher G. Cavoli||Caserma Ederle, Vicenza, Italy|
|United States Army Central (ARCENT)/Third Army||LTG Terry Ferrell [ citation needed ]||Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina|
|United States Army North (ARNORTH)/Fifth Army||LTG Laura J. Richardson||Joint Base San Antonio, Texas|
|United States Army Pacific (USARPAC)||GEN Paul LaCamera||Fort Shafter, Hawaii|
|United States Army South (ARSOUTH)/Sixth Army||MG Daniel R. Walrath [ citation needed ]||Joint Base San Antonio, Texas|
|United States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER)||LTG Stephen G. Fogarty [ citation needed ]||Fort Belvoir, Virginia|
|United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/United States Army Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT)||LTG Daniel L. Karbler||Redstone Arsenal, Alabama|
|United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC)||LTG Francis M. Beaudette||Fort Bragg, North Carolina|
|Operational Force Headquarters||Current commander||Location of headquarters|
|Eighth Army (EUSA)||LTG Michael A. Bills||Camp Humphreys, South Korea|
|Direct reporting units||Current commander||Location of headquarters|
|Arlington National Cemetery and Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery||Katharine Kelley (civilian)||Arlington, Virginia|
|United States Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC)||Craig A. Spisak (civilian)||Fort Belvoir, Virginia|
|United States Army Civilian Human Resources Agency (CHRA)||BG Larry D. Gottardi||Washington, D.C.|
|United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)||LTG Todd T. Semonite||Washington, D.C.|
|United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC)||MG Kevin Vereen [ citation needed ]||Quantico, Virginia|
|United States Army Human Resources Command (HRC)||MG Jason T. Evans||Alexandria, Virginia|
|United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM)||MG Christopher S. Ballard [ citation needed ]||Fort Belvoir, Virginia|
|United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM)||LTG R. Scott Dingle||Joint Base San Antonio, Texas|
|United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW)||MG Michael L. Howard||Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.|
|United States Army Recruiting Command (USAREC)||MG Frank M. Muth||Fort Knox, Kentucky|
|United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC)||MG Joel K. Tyler||Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD|
|United States Army War College (AWC)||MG John S. Kem [ citation needed ]||Carlisle, Pennsylvania|
|United States Military Academy (USMA)||LTG Darryl A. Williams||West Point, New York|
Source: U.S. Army organization
The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. The decoration is issued to members of the eight uniformed services of the United States as well as to military and political figures of foreign governments.
The United States Army (USA) is the land service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight U.S. uniformed services, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the U.S. Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself to be a continuation of the Continental Army, and thus considers its institutional inception to be the origin of that armed force in 1775.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Space Force, and Coast Guard. The president of the United States is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All six armed services are among the eight uniformed services of the United States.
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The Secretary of the Army is a senior civilian official within the United States Department of Defense, with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and equipment acquisition, communications and financial management.
The secretary of the Air Force is the head of the Department of the Air Force, a military department within the United States Department of Defense. The secretary of the Air Force is a civilian appointed by the president, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The secretary reports to the secretary of defense and/or the deputy secretary of defense, and is by statute responsible for and has the authority to conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Air Force.
The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is the highest-ranking and most senior military officer in the United States Armed Forces and is the principal military advisor to the president, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the secretary of defense. While the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff outranks all other commissioned officers, the chairman is prohibited by law from having operational command authority over the armed forces; however, the chairman does assist the president and the secretary of defense in exercising their command functions.
The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VJCS) is, by U.S. law, the second highest-ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces, ranking just below the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The vice chairman outranks all respective heads of each service branch, with the exception of the chairman, but does not have operational command authority over their service branches. The Goldwater–Nichols Act of 1986 created the position of vice chairman to assist the chairman in exercising his or her duties. In the absence of the chairman, the vice chairman presides over the meetings of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and performs all other duties prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 153 and may also perform other duties that the president, the chairman, or the secretary of defense prescribes.
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William E. "Kip" Ward is a former United States Army four-star general who served as Commander, United States Africa Command from October 1, 2007 to March 8, 2011. Prior to that, Ward served as Deputy Commander, United States European Command. After he left Africa Command, Ward reverted to his permanent rank of major general and served as a special assistant to the army's Vice Chief of Staff after the Department of Defense concluded he had misused taxpayer money. Ward then retired with the rank of lieutenant general in November 2012.
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