Fort Bragg

Last updated

Fort Bragg
Cumberland / Hoke counties (main post),
Harnett County (Linden Oaks)
near Fayetteville, North Carolina
Bragg gate.066.jpg
One of the signs at an entrance to the post
TypeMilitary base
Site information
Controlled byUnited States
Site history
Built1918
In use1918–present
Garrison information
Current
commander
Colonel John Wilcox
Garrison XVIII Airborne Corps CSIB.svg XVIII Airborne Corps
For tenant units, See below
CDP
USA North Carolina location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Fort Bragg
Location within the state of North Carolina
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Fort Bragg
Fort Bragg (the United States)
Coordinates: 35°8′21″N78°59′57″W / 35.13917°N 78.99917°W / 35.13917; -78.99917 Coordinates: 35°8′21″N78°59′57″W / 35.13917°N 78.99917°W / 35.13917; -78.99917
CountryUnited States
State North Carolina
County Cumberland
Area
  Total251.0 sq mi (650.2 km2)
  Land249.7 sq mi (646.8 km2)
  Water1.3 sq mi (3.4 km2)
Population
 (2010)
  Total39,457
  Density158.02/sq mi (61.01/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
28307, 28310
Area code 910
FIPS code 37-24260 [1]

Fort Bragg, North Carolina, is a military installation of the United States Army in North Carolina, and is one of the largest military installations in the world by population, with around 54,000 military personnel. [2] The military reservation is located within Cumberland and Hoke counties, [3] and borders the towns of Fayetteville, Spring Lake, and Southern Pines.[ citation needed ] It was also a census-designated place in the 2000 census, during which a residential population of 29,183 was identified. [4] It is named for native North Carolinian Confederate General Braxton Bragg, who had previously served in the United States Army in the Mexican-American War. Fort Bragg is one of ten United States Army installations named for officers who led military units of the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. [5] The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, [6] passed over an attempted veto by President Trump, [7] includes a provision that all 10 Army bases named after prominent Confederate military leaders be renamed. [8] The Naming Commission has proposed renaming the installation "Fort Liberty." [9]

Contents

Fort Bragg covers over 251 square miles (650 km2). It is the home of the Army's XVIII Airborne Corps and is the headquarters [10] of the United States Army Special Operations Command, which oversees the U.S. Army 1st Special Forces Command (Airborne) and 75th Ranger Regiment. It is also home to the U.S. Army Forces Command, U.S. Army Reserve Command, and Womack Army Medical Center. Fort Bragg maintains two airfields: Pope Field, where the United States Air Force stations global airlift and special operations assets as well as the Air Force Combat Control School, and Simmons Army Airfield, where Army aviation units support the needs of airborne and special operations forces on post.

History

The Special Warfare Memorial Statue by Donald De Lue (1968) at Fort Bragg Special Warfare Memorial Statue.jpg
The Special Warfare Memorial Statue by Donald De Lue (1968) at Fort Bragg

World War I

Camp Bragg was established in 1918 as an artillery training ground. The Chief of Field Artillery, General William J. Snow, was seeking an area having suitable terrain, adequate water, rail facilities, and a climate suitable for year-round training, and he decided that the area now known as Fort Bragg met all of the desired criteria. [11] Camp Bragg was named for Braxton Bragg, a former U.S. Army artillery commander and West Point graduate who later fought for the Confederacy during the American Civil War.

The aim was for six artillery brigades to be stationed there and $6,000,000 was spent on the land and cantonments. [12] There was an airfield on the camp used by aircraft and balloons for artillery spotters. The airfield was named Pope Field on April 1, 1919, in honor of First Lieutenant Harley H. Pope, [12] an airman who was killed while flying nearby. The work on the camp was finished on November 1, 1919. [12]

The original plan for six brigades was abandoned after World War I ended [12] and once demobilization had started. The artillerymen, and their equipment and material from Camp McClellan, Alabama, were moved to Fort Bragg and testing began on long-range weapons that were a product of the war. [12] The six artillery brigades were reduced to two cantonments and a garrison was to be built for Army troops as well as a National Guard training center. [12] In early 1921 two field artillery units, the 13th and 17th Field Artillery Brigades, began training at Camp Bragg. The same year, the Long Street Church and six acres of property were acquired for the reservation. [13] The church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. [14]

Due to the post-war cutbacks, the camp was nearly closed for good when the War department issued orders to close the camp on August 7, 1921. General Albert J. Bowley was commander at the camp and after much campaigning, and getting the Secretary of War to visit the camp, the closing order was canceled on September 16, 1921. The Field Artillery Board was transferred to Fort Bragg on February 1, 1922.

Camp Bragg was renamed Fort Bragg, to signify becoming a permanent Army post, on September 30, 1922. From 1923 to 1924 permanent structures were constructed on Fort Bragg, including four barracks. [12]

World War II

By 1940, during World War II, the population of Fort Bragg had reached 5,400; however, in the following year, that number ballooned to 67,000. Various units trained at Fort Bragg during World War II, including the 9th Infantry Division, 2nd Armored Division, 82nd Airborne Division, 100th Infantry Division, and various field artillery groups. The population reached a peak of 159,000 during the war years. [15]

Cold War

An Army Special Forces operator with his customized M4 carbine prepares to breach an entryway while training in close quarters battle tactics at Fort Bragg, mid 1999 SpecialForces with M4.jpg
An Army Special Forces operator with his customized M4 carbine prepares to breach an entryway while training in close quarters battle tactics at Fort Bragg, mid 1999

Following World War II, the 82nd Airborne Division was permanently stationed at Fort Bragg, the only large unit there for some time. In July 1951, the XVIII Airborne Corps was reactivated at Fort Bragg. Fort Bragg became a center for unconventional warfare, with the creation of the Psychological Warfare Center in April 1952, followed by the 10th Special Forces Group. [16]

In 1961, the 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) was activated at Fort Bragg, with the mission of training counter-insurgency forces in Southeast Asia. Also in 1961, the "Iron Mike" statue, a tribute to all Airborne soldiers, past, present, and future was dedicated. In early 1962 the 326 Army Security Agency Company, de-activated after the Korean War, was reactivated at Ft. Bragg under XVIIIth Corps. In August of that year, an operational contingent of that Company was relocated to Homestead AFB Florida, due to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Circa 1963, that contingent was reassigned to the newly created USASA 6th Field Station. [17] More than 200,000 young men underwent basic combat training here during the period 1966–70. At the peak of the Vietnam War in 1968, Fort Bragg's military population rose to 57,840. In June 1972, the 1st Corps Support Command arrived at Fort Bragg. [18]

In the 1980s, there was a series of deployments of tenant units to the Caribbean, first to Grenada in 1983, Honduras in 1988, and to Panama in 1989. The 5th Special Forces Group departed Fort Bragg in the late 1980s. [19]

Middle East wars

Soldiers of the 82nd Airborne Division with their M4s training on Fort Bragg, December 2005 Fort Bragg.jpg
Soldiers of the 82nd Airborne Division with their M4s training on Fort Bragg, December 2005

In 1990, the XVIII Airborne Corps and the 82nd Airborne Division deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. In the mid- and late 1990s, there was increased modernization of the facilities in Fort Bragg. The World War II wooden barracks were largely removed, a new main post exchange was built, and Devers Elementary School was opened, along with several other projects. [20]

As a result of campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, the units on Fort Bragg have seen a sizeable increase to their operations tempo (OPTEMPO), with units conducting two, three, or even four or more deployments to combat zones. As directed by law, and in accordance with the recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission, Fort McPherson, Georgia, closed and U.S. Army Forces Command and U.S. Army Reserve Command relocated to Fort Bragg, North Carolina. A new FORSCOM/U.S. Army Reserve Command Headquarters facility completed construction at Fort Bragg in June 2011. Forces Command hosted June 24, 2011 an Army "Casing of the Colors" ceremony on Fort McPherson and an "uncasing of colors ceremony" on August 1, 2011, at Fort Bragg. On March 1, 2011, Pope Field, the former Pope Air Force Base, was absorbed into Fort Bragg.

Tenant units

List of units (by SSI)
United States Army Forces Command SSI.svg US Army Reserve Command SSI.svg XVIII Airborne Corps CSIB.svg
82nd Airborne Division CSIB.svg US Army Special Forces SSI.png U.S. Army Special Operations Aviation Command SSI (2013-2015).png
United States Army Test and Evaluation Command SSI with ABN Tab.png 16th Military Police Brigade SSI.jpg 52nd EOD Group SSI.svg
525 BfSB.svg 20th Engineer Brigade CSIB.png US Army Security Force Assistance Brigade SSI.png
JFKSWCS SSI.gif US Army Special Operations Command SSI.svg 44th Medical Command SSI.svg
18FiresBdeSSI.jpg 108-ADA-Bde-SSI.png Civil Affairs & Psychological Operations Command shoulder sleeve insignia.png
11th Intelligence Squadron.PNG 14th Air Support Operations Squadron.PNG USAF - 18th Air Support Operations Group.png
24th STS badge.jpg 43 AMOG emblem.png Seal of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC).svg

The major commands at the installation are the United States Army Forces Command, the United States Army Reserve Command, and the United States Army Special Operations Command. Several airborne and special operations units of the United States Army are stationed at Fort Bragg, notably the 82nd Airborne Division, the 3rd Special Forces Group (Airborne), and the Delta Force. The latter is controlled by the Joint Special Operations Command, based at Pope Field within Fort Bragg.

Geography and ecology

Barracks of the 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg Fort Bragg 1st Brigade barracks.jpg
Barracks of the 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg

Fort Bragg is at 35°8'21" north, 78°59'57" west (35.139064, −78.999143). [21]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the post has a total area of 19.0 square miles (49.2 km2), of which 19.0 square miles (49.1 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it is water. The total area is 0.32% water.

Kiest, Simmons, Boundary Line, McFayden, Hurley and Holland lakes are intensively managed to maintain fish populations. Croatan, Quail, Deer Pen, Overhills, Big Muddy, Little Muddy, Texas, MacArthur, Smith, Mott, and Lindsay lakes are managed, but are not normally treated or restocked since their fish populations are respectable and are maintained naturally. [22] A 1.1 MW floating solar plant with a 2 MW battery is being installed on Big Muddy lake at $36 million. [23]

International security website Globalsecurity.org reports that Fort Bragg occupies approximately 160,700 acres (650 km2). [24] a figure which differs considerably from that given above.

Saint Francis' satyr imago Neonympha mitchellii francisci individual.jpg
Saint Francis' satyr imago

Ft. Bragg is the only locality where the endangered Saint Francis' satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii francisci) is known to occur. St. Francis' satyr is found in wetland habitats dominated by graminoids and sedges, such as abandoned beaver dams or along streams with beavers.

Fort Bragg fever, a bacterial zoonotic disease, has been named after it, in reference to an outbreak in 1942.

In 1990, the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker came under the protection of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This caused a tremendous problem for Fort Bragg, where many of these birds lived. Training stopped, ranges were closed, and troops were temporarily moved to other installations for training.

The Army and the conservationists eventually came to an agreement, which put in place training restrictions around the woodpeckers' habitat. White stripes were painted on trees to indicate the location of the habitats, and restrictions limited the scope and duration of training that could take place within 200 feet (61 m) of these locations.

Today, the clusters of woodpeckers has more than doubled in size (200 to 493), and many of the training restrictions have been lifted. [25]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1970 46,995
1980 37,834−19.5%
1990 34,744−8.2%
2000 29,183−16.0%
source: [26]

As of the census [1] of 2000, there were 29,183 people, 4,315 households, and 4,215 families residing on the base. The population density was 1,540.0 inhabitants per square mile (594.6/km2). There were 4,420 housing units at an average density of 233.3 per square mile (90.1/km2). Fort Bragg was not recorded as a census-designated place for the 2010 census.

Racial makeup

In 2000, the racial makeup of the base was 58.1% Caucasian, 25.3% African-American, 1.2% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 8.3% from other races, and 4.4% from two or more races. 15.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Households

In 2000, there were 4,315 households, out of which 85.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 88.9% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 2.3% were non-families. 2.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 0.0% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.72, and the average family size was 3.74.

Ages

The age distribution in 2000 was 25.8% under the age of 18, 40.9% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 1.1% from 45 to 64, and 0.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 217.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 293.5 males. All of these statistics are typical for military bases.[ citation needed ]

Income

The median income for a household on the base at the 2000 census was $30,106, and the median income for a family was $29,836. 10.0% of the population and 9.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 11.4% of those under the age of 18 and 0.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Housing

Corvias-managed housing under IMCOM is attracting national attention because of reports of lead contamination, black mold, and asbestos from base residents. [27]

Education

Dependents of staff are educated by Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools for K-8. [28]

For high school students attend local public schools based on what county they reside in: [28] Cumberland County Schools for Cumberland County residents, [29] and Hoke County Schools for Hoke County residents. [30] The Cumberland County parts of the military reservation are assigned to EE Smith High School. [3]

The Linden Oaks area, within Harnett County, is in Harnett County Schools, and is assigned to Overhills High School. [3]

Notable events

Notable people

Burials

Actress Martha Raye is buried on Fort Bragg in commemoration of her work with the USO during World War II and Vietnam. [49]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. "Military Installation Overview- In-depth Look at Fort Bragg". Department of Defense. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  3. 1 2 3 "Finding A School Local School Districts" (PDF). U.S. Department of Defense . Retrieved July 4, 2022. - Info on high school assignments also stated in this document
  4. "Geographic Identifiers: 2000 Census Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data: Fort Bragg CDP, North Carolina". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  5. Levenson, Michael (June 11, 2020). "These Are the 10 U.S. Army Installations Named for Confederates". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  6. "S. 4049 – National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021". 116th Congress (2019–2020). July 23, 2020.
  7. Edmondson, Catie (January 2021). "Senate Overrides Trump's Veto of Defense Bill, Dealing a Legislative Blow". The New York Times.
  8. Neuman, Scott (July 24, 2020). "Despite Trump's Veto Threat, Senate Approves Provision To Rename Military Bases". NPR .
  9. "Name Recommendations". www.thenamingcommission.gov. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  10. "USASOC Headquarters Fact Sheet." USASOC HQ Fact Sheet. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2017
  11. "Fort Bragg History". Fort Bragg. U.S. Army Fort Bragg. Archived from the original on July 2, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "1919–1939". XVIII Airborne. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
  13. Survey and Planning Unit Staff (October 1973). "Long Street Church" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places - Nomination and Inventory. North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 27, 2020. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
  14. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  15. "History of Fort Bragg, 1940s". bragg.army.mil. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  16. "History of Fort Bragg, 1950s". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  17. "History of Fort Bragg, 1960s". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  18. "History of Fort Bragg, 1970s". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  19. "History of Fort Bragg". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  20. "History of Fort Bragg, 1990s". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  21. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  22. Lake Information Sheet, Fort Bragg Wildlife Branch, archived from the original on June 16, 2018, retrieved June 16, 2018
  23. Lewis, Michelle (October 1, 2020). "EGEB: Ft. Bragg gets the largest floating solar in the southeast". Electrek . Archived from the original on November 10, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  24. "Globalsecurity.org". Archived from the original on September 2, 2009. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
  25. Brooks, Drew. "Fort Bragg and Red-cockaded Woodpecker Co-exist". Military.com. Fayetteville Observer. Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  26. "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1790–2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 1, 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  27. "Military families say housing on bases has lead, mold, other problems". NBC News. Archived from the original on March 10, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  28. 1 2 "Fort Bragg/Cuba Community". Department of Defense Education Activity . Retrieved July 5, 2022.
  29. "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Cumberland County, NC" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau . Retrieved July 4, 2022. - Text list
  30. "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Hoke County, NC" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau . Retrieved July 5, 2022. - Text list - "Fort Bragg Schools" refers to the DoDEA schools.
  31. Associated Press. "WWII Entertainment Rooney 1942". Richmond.com. Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  32. "Green Berets - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". www.jfklibrary.org. Archived from the original on November 1, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  33. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 21, 2015. Retrieved October 21, 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. United Press International (July 1, 1987). "4 Killed in Air Show Plane Crash". L.A. Times. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  35. "A Bitter Pill Worth Swallowing?". Washington Post. October 28, 2002. Retrieved July 3, 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  36. "Fort Bragg Killings Linked to Drug?". ABC News. August 23, 2002. Retrieved July 3, 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  37. "Ft. Bragg killings report released". Recordnet.com. November 7, 2002. Retrieved July 3, 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  38. Benjamin, Mark (August 9, 2002). "Army eyes malaria drug in Bragg killings". United Press International. Retrieved July 3, 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  39. Nicholas, Peter (December 14, 2011). "At Ft. Bragg, Obama welcomes troops home from Iraq". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  40. Brooks, Drew (January 26, 2013). "Lesbian Wife Named Fort Bragg's Spouse of the Year". Military.com. Fayetteville Observer. Archived from the original on January 22, 2016. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
  41. "Official: Battalion commander dead in Fort Bragg shooting". MSNBC. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
  42. Santora, Marc (July 1, 2012). "Gunman in Fort Bragg Shooting Dies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 27, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  43. Crary, David; Miesecker, Michael (January 20, 2013). "DOMA a roadblock for same-sex military couples". Army Times. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  44. Brooks, Drew (March 8, 2016). "Braves, Marlins to play at Fort Bragg this summer in new ballpark". The Fayetteville Observer . Fayetteville Publishing Co. Archived from the original on March 16, 2020. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
  45. Carter, Andrew (July 3, 2016). "Fort Bragg celebrates history in first Major League Baseball game in North Carolina". The News & Observer . Fort Bragg: The McClatchy Company. Archived from the original on July 5, 2016. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  46. Mock, Joe (July 4, 2016). "Marlins top Braves in unique Fort Bragg Game". USA Today . Fort Bragg: Gannett Company. Archived from the original on July 4, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  47. "Lewd tweets on Fort Bragg account were from administrator, not a hack as Army first said". NBC News . Fort Bragg: NBC News. October 23, 2020. Archived from the original on December 2, 2020. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
  48. Harp, Seth (April 18, 2021). "The Fort Bragg Murders". Rolling Stone . Wenner Media Co. Archived from the original on September 2, 2021. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  49. "Martha Raye Buried at Fort Bragg". Gadsden Times. Associated Press. October 23, 1994. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
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<span class="mw-page-title-main">82nd Sustainment Brigade</span> Military unit

The 82nd Airborne Division Sustainment Brigade is a sustainment brigade of the United States Army based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. It provides logistical support to and is part of 82nd Airborne Division.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">18th Field Artillery Brigade</span> Military unit

The 18th Field Artillery Brigade is the XVIII Airborne Corps field artillery brigade, based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Structure of the United States Army</span> Overview of the structure of the United States Army

The structure of the United States Army is complex, and can be interpreted in several different ways: active/reserve, operational/administrative, and branches/functional areas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">173rd Airborne Brigade</span> Formation of the United States Army

The 173rd Airborne Brigade is an airborne infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) of the United States Army based in Vicenza, Italy. It is the United States European Command's conventional airborne strategic response force for Europe.