Wilmington, North Carolina

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Wilmington, North Carolina
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Clockwise, from top left: USS North Carolina, the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, Downtown Wilmington on the Cape Fear River, and Hoggard Hall on the campus of UNC Wilmington
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Nickname(s): 
The Port City
New Hanover County North Carolina incorporated and unincorporated areas Wilmington highlighted.svg
Location within New Hanover County
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Wilmington
Location within North Carolina
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Wilmington
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 34°13′24″N77°54′44″W / 34.22333°N 77.91222°W / 34.22333; -77.91222 Coordinates: 34°13′24″N77°54′44″W / 34.22333°N 77.91222°W / 34.22333; -77.91222
CountryUnited States
State North Carolina
County New Hanover
IncorporatedFebruary 20, 1739/40
Named for Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington
Government
   Mayor Bill Saffo (D)
Area
[1]
   City 52.97 sq mi (137.19 km2)
  Land51.41 sq mi (133.14 km2)
  Water1.56 sq mi (4.05 km2)
Elevation
[2]
36 ft (11 m)
Population
 (2010)
   City 106,476
  Estimate 
(2019) [3]
123,744
  Density2,407.19/sq mi (929.42/km2)
   Urban
254,884 (US: List of United States urban areas)
   Metro
282,573 (US: 167th)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
28401-28412
Area code(s) 910
FIPS code 37-74440
GNIS feature ID1023269 [2]
Sister cities Dandong, Liaoning, China
Doncaster, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom
Bridgetown, Barbados
San Pedro Town, Belize
Website http://www.wilmingtonnc.gov/

Wilmington is a port city and the county seat of New Hanover County in coastal southeastern North Carolina, United States.

Contents

With a population of 123,744 in 2019, it is the eighth most populous city in the state. Wilmington is the principal city of the Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that includes New Hanover and Pender counties in southeastern North Carolina, [4] which has a population of 263,429 as of the 2012 Census Estimate. The city was founded in the 1730s, and after going through a couple of different names (New Carthage, New London, Newton), its name became Wilmington in 1740. [5] It was named after Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington. [5] Its historic downtown has a 1.75-mile (2.82 km) Riverwalk, [6] developed as a tourist attraction in the late 20th century. In 2014, Wilmington's riverfront was ranked as the "Best American Riverfront" by readers of USA Today . [7] The National Trust for Historic Preservation selected Wilmington as one of its 2008 Dozen Distinctive Destinations. [8] City residents live between the river and the ocean, with four nearby beach communities just outside Wilmington: Fort Fisher, Wrightsville Beach, Carolina Beach and Kure Beach, all within half-hour drives from downtown Wilmington.

Towards the end of the 19th century, Wilmington was a majority-black, racially integrated prosperous city, and the largest city in North Carolina. In the Wilmington massacre of 1898, Democrat white supremacists [9] launched a coup that overthrew the legitimately elected local Fusionist government. They expelled opposition Republican black and white [9] leaders from the city, destroyed the property and businesses of black citizens built up since the Civil War, including the only black newspaper in the city, and killed an estimated 60 to more than 300 people. [10] This coincided with broader efforts of disenfranchisement at the state level. Whereas North Carolina had 125,000 registered black voters in 1896, it had 6,000 by 1902. [11] By 1910, Charlotte overtook Wilmington as the state's largest city.

In 2003 the city was designated by the US Congress as a "Coast Guard City". [12] Until 2020, it was the home port for the USCGC Diligence, a United States Coast Guard medium endurance cutter. [13] [14] The World War II battleship USS North Carolina is held as a war memorial; moored across from the downtown port area, the ship is open to public tours. Other attractions include the Cape Fear Museum of History and Science, and the Wilmington Hammerheads United Soccer Leagues soccer team. The University of North Carolina Wilmington (UNCW) provides a wide variety of programs for undergraduates, graduate students, and adult learners, in addition to cultural and sports events open to the community. On September 2, 2020, President Trump officially declared Wilmington as the first World War II heritage city in the country.

Wilmington is the home of EUE/Screen Gems Studios, the largest domestic television and movie production facility outside California. "Dream Stage 10," the facility's newest sound stage, is the third largest in the United States. It houses the largest special-effects water tank in North America. After the studio's opening in 1984, Wilmington became a major center of American film and television production. Numerous movies in a range of genres and several television series have been produced here, including Iron Man 3 , The Conjuring , The Crow , We're the Millers , Fox's Sleepy Hollow , One Tree Hill , Dawson's Creek , and NBC's Revolution .

History

Colonial beginnings

Mitchell-Anderson House (built 1738) Mitchell-Anderson House.jpg
Mitchell-Anderson House (built 1738)

The area along the river had been inhabited by various successive cultures of indigenous peoples for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, historic Native Americans were members of tribes belonging to the Eastern Siouan family.

The ethnic European and African history of Wilmington spans more than two and a half centuries. In the early 16th century, Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano commissioned by the king of France with a French crew was reportedly the first European to see this area, including the city's present site. The first permanent colonial settlement in the area was established in the 1720s by European settlers. In September 1732, a community was founded on land owned by John Watson on the Cape Fear River, at the confluence of its northwest and northeast branches. [15] The settlement, founded by the first royal governor, George Burrington, was called "New Carthage," and then "New Liverpool;" it gradually took on the name "New Town" or "Newton". [16] Governor Gabriel Johnston soon after established his government there for the North Carolina colony. In 1739 or 1740, the town was incorporated with a new name, Wilmington, in honor of Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington. [17]

Some early settlers of Wilmington came from the Albemarle and Pamlico regions, as well as from the colonies of Virginia and South Carolina, but most new settlers migrated from the Northern colonies, the West Indies, and Northern Europe. [18] Many of the early settlers were indentured servants from Northern Europe. As the indentured servants gained their freedom and fewer could be persuaded to travel to North America because of improving conditions back home, the settlers imported an increasing number of Slavery in the colonial history of the United States to satisfy the labor demand. [16] By 1767, African slaves accounted for more than 62% of the population of the Lower Cape Fear region. [19] Many worked in the port as laborers, and some in ship-related trades.

Naval stores and lumber fueled the region's economy, both before and after the American Revolution. During the Revolutionary War, the British maintained a garrison at Fort Johnston near Wilmington.

Revolutionary era

The Bellamy Mansion draws many tourists annually to downtown. Bellamy Mansion in Wilmington, NC IMG 4280.JPG
The Bellamy Mansion draws many tourists annually to downtown.
U.S. Courthouse, the backdrop of Andy Griffith's Matlock television series U.S. Courthouse, Wilmington, NC IMG 4357.JPG
U.S. Courthouse, the backdrop of Andy Griffith's Matlock television series

Due to Wilmington's commercial importance as a major port, it had a critical role in opposition to the British in the years leading up to the Revolution. The city had outspoken political leaders who influenced and led the resistance movement in North Carolina. The foremost of these was Wilmington resident Cornelius Harnett, who served in the General Assembly at the time, where he rallied opposition to the Sugar Act in 1764. When the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act the following year, designed to raise revenue for the Crown with a kind of tax on shipping, Wilmington was the site of an elaborate demonstration against it.

On October 19, 1765, several hundred townspeople gathered in protest of the new law, burned an effigy of one town resident who favored the act, and toasted to "Liberty, Property, and No Stamp Duty." On October 31, another crowd gathered in a symbolic funeral of "Liberty". But before the effigy was buried, Liberty was found to have a pulse, and celebration ensued. [20] [21]

William Houston of Duplin County was appointed stamp receiver for Cape Fear. When Houston visited Wilmington on business, still unaware of his appointment, he recounted,

"The Inhabitants immediately assembled about me & demanded a Categorical Answer whether I intended to put the Act relating [to] the Stamps in force. The Town Bell was rung[,] Drums [were] beating, Colours [were] flying and [a] great concourse of People [were] gathered together." For the sake of his own life, and "to quiet the Minds of the inraged [ sic ] and furious Mobb...," Houston resigned his position at the courthouse. [20] [22]

Governor William Tryon made attempts to mitigate the opposition, to no avail. On November 18, 1765, he pleaded his case directly to prominent residents of the area. They said the law restricted their rights. When the stamps arrived on November 28 on the H.M. Sloop Diligence, Tryon ordered them to be kept on board. Shipping on the Cape Fear River was stopped, as were the functions of the courts. [20]

Tryon, after having received his official commission as governor (a position he had assumed only after the death of Arthur Dobbs), was brought to Wilmington by Captain Constantine Phipps on a barge from the Diligence, and "was received cordially by the gentlemen of the borough." He was greeted with the firing of seventeen pieces of artillery, and the New Hanover County Regiment of the North Carolina militia, who had lined the streets. This "warm welcome" was spoiled, however, after a dispute arose between Captain Phipps and captains of ships in the harbor regarding the display of their colors. The townspeople became infuriated with Phipps and threats were made against both sides. After Tryon harangued them for their actions, the townspeople gathered around the barrels of punch and ox he had brought as refreshments. The barrels were broken open, letting the punch spill into the streets; they threw the head of the ox into the pillory, and gave its body to the enslaved population. Because of the unrest, Tryon moved his seat of government to New Bern instead of Wilmington. [16] [23]

On February 18, 1766, two merchant ships arrived without stamped papers at Brunswick Town. Each ship provided signed statements from the collectors at their respective ports of origin that there were no stamps available, but Captain Jacob Lobb of the British cruiser Viper seized the vessels. In response, numerous residents from southern counties met in Wilmington. The group organized as the Sons of Liberty and pledged to block implementation of the Stamp Act. The following day, as many as a thousand men, including the mayor and aldermen of Wilmington, were led by Cornelius Harnett to Brunswick to confront Tryon. The governor was unyielding but a mob retrieved the seized ships. They forced royal customs officers and public officials in the region to swear never to issue stamped paper. The Westminster Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in March 1766.

Antebellum period

U. S. Post Office in downtown Wilmington U.S. Post Office, Wilmington, NC IMG 4277.JPG
U. S. Post Office in downtown Wilmington

In the 1830s, citizens of Wilmington became eager to take advantage of railroad transportation. At this time, the shipping tonnage registered at Wilmington was 9,035. [24] Plans were developed to build a railroad line from the capital, Raleigh, to Wilmington. When Raleigh citizens declined to subscribe in sufficient number to stock to raise money for the project, organizers changed the terminus to Weldon. When the railroad line was completed in 1840, it was the longest single line of railroad track in the world. The railroad also controlled a fleet of steamboats that ran between Wilmington and Charleston; these were used both for passenger travel and transportation of freight. Regular boat lines served Fayetteville, and packet lines traveled to northern ports. The city was a main stopover point, contributing greatly to its commerce. [16]

By mid-century, the churchyard of St. James Episcopal Church and other town cemeteries had become filled with graves. On November 16, 1853, a group of citizens, organized as "The Proprietors of the Wilmington Cemetery," was formed to develop a new cemetery. Sixty-five acres of land around Burnt Mill Creek was chosen as the site for what would be called Oakdale Cemetery. It was the first rural cemetery in North Carolina. The cemetery's first interment, on February 6, 1855, was six-year-old Annie deRosset. [25] Many remains from St. James churchyard were relocated to the new cemetery.

The Wilmington Gas Light Company was established in 1854. Soon after, street lights were powered by gas made from lightwood and rosin, replacing the old street oil lamps. On December 27, 1855, the first cornerstone was laid and construction began on a new City Hall. A grant from the Thalian Association funded the attached opera house, named Thalian Hall. In 1857 the city opened its first public school, named the "Union Free School", on 6th Street between Nun and Church streets, serving white students. [26]

Wilmington had a black majority population before the Civil War. [27] While most were slaves, the city had a significant community of free people of color, who developed businesses and trades. For a period up to Nat Turner's Rebellion, they had been allowed to vote, carry arms and serve in the militia. Fears after the rebellion resulted in the state legislature passing laws to restrict the rights of free blacks.

Civil War

Cannon firing at a reenactment of the Battle of Forks Road near the Cameron Art Museum in February 2009 Canon fire at the Battle of Forks Road.jpg
Cannon firing at a reenactment of the Battle of Forks Road near the Cameron Art Museum in February 2009
Wilmington National Cemetery has markers dating to the American Revolution and the American Civil War. Another glimpse of Wilmington National Cemetery IMG 4396.JPG
Wilmington National Cemetery has markers dating to the American Revolution and the American Civil War.

During the Civil War, the port was the major base for Confederate and privately owned blockade runners, which delivered badly needed supplies from England. The Union mounted a blockade to reduce the goods received by the South. The city was captured by Union forces in the Battle of Wilmington in February 1865, approximately one month after the fall of Fort Fisher had closed the port. As nearly all the military action took place some distance from the city, numerous antebellum houses and other buildings survived the war years.

Reconstruction era and 1898 insurrection

Wilmington in 1898 Wilmington 1898.jpg
Wilmington in 1898

During the Reconstruction era, former free blacks and newly emancipated freedmen built a community in the city. About 55% of its residents were black people. [28] [29] At the time, Wilmington was the largest city and the economic capital of the state.

Three of the city's aldermen were black. Black people were also in positions of justice of the peace, deputy clerk of court, street superintendent, coroners, policemen, mail clerks, and mail carriers. [30]

At the time, black people accounted for over 30% of Wilmington's skilled craftsmen, such as mechanics, carpenters, jewelers, watchmakers, painters, plasterers, plumbers, stevedores, blacksmiths, masons, and wheelwrights. In addition, blacks owned 10 of the city's 11 restaurants and were 90% of the city's 22 barbers. There were more black bootmakers/shoemakers than white ones, and half of the city's tailors were black. Lastly, two brothers, Alexander and Frank Manly, owned the Wilmington Daily Record , one of the few black newspapers in the state, which was reported to be the only black daily newspaper in the country. [31]

In the 1890s, a coalition of Republicans and Populists had gained state and federal offices. The Democrats were determined to reassert their control. There was increasing violence around elections in this period, as armed white paramilitary insurgents, known as Red Shirts, worked to suppress black and Republican voting. White Democrats regained control of the state legislature and sought to impose white supremacy, but some blacks continued to be elected to local offices. [32]

The Wilmington Insurrection of 1898 (formerly and inaccurately called a race riot) occurred as a result of the racially charged political conflict that had occurred in the decades after the Civil War and efforts by white Democrats to reestablish white supremacy and overturn black voting. In 1898, a cadre of white Democrats, professionals and businessmen, planned to overthrow the city government if their candidates were not elected. Two days after the election, in which a white Republican was elected mayor and both white and black aldermen were elected, more than 1500 white men (led by Democrat Alfred M. Waddell, an unsuccessful gubernatorial candidate in 1896) attacked and burned the only black daily newspaper in the state and ran off the new officers. They overthrew the legitimately elected municipal government. Waddell and his men forced the elected Republican city officials to resign at gunpoint and replaced them with men selected by leading white Democrats. Waddell was elected mayor by the newly seated board of aldermen that day. Prominent African Americans and white Republicans were banished from the city in the following days. [27] This is the only such coup d'état in United States history. [27] [33]

Whites attacked and killed an estimated 10–100 blacks. No whites died in the violence. As a result of the attacks, more than 2100 blacks permanently left the city, leaving a hole among its professional and middle class. The demographic change was so large that the city became majority white, rather than the majority black it was before the white Democrats' coup. [27]

Following these events, the North Carolina legislature passed a new constitution that raised barriers to voter registration, imposing requirements for poll taxes and literacy tests that effectively disfranchised most black voters, following the example of the state of Mississippi. Blacks were essentially excluded from the political system until after the enactment of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965. [27]

20th century

In 1910, Charlotte passed Wilmington to become North Carolina's largest city. [34]

1918 panorama of downtown Wilmington Wilmington 1918.jpg
1918 panorama of downtown Wilmington
1918 panorama of Wilmington's waterfront Waterfront - Wilmington, North Carolina.jpg
1918 panorama of Wilmington's waterfront

World War II

During World War II, Wilmington was the home of the North Carolina Shipbuilding Company. The shipyard was created as part of the U.S. government's Emergency Shipbuilding Program. Workers built 243 ships in Wilmington during the five years the company operated.

Three prisoner-of-war (POW) camps operated in the city from February 1944 through April 1946. At their peak, the camps held 550 German prisoners. The first camp was located on the corner of Shipyard Boulevard and Carolina Beach Road; it was moved downtown to Ann Street, between 8th and 10th avenues, when it outgrew the original location. A smaller contingent of prisoners was assigned to a third site, working in the officers' mess and doing grounds keeping at Bluethenthal Army Air Base, which is now Wilmington International Airport.

National Register of Historic Places

The Audubon Trolley Station, Brookwood Historic District, Carolina Heights Historic District, Carolina Place Historic District, City Hall/Thalian Hall, Delgrado School, Federal Building and Courthouse, Fort Fisher, Gabriel's Landing, William Hooper School (Former), Market Street Mansion District, Masonboro Sound Historic District, Moores Creek National Battlefield, Sunset Park Historic District, USS NORTH CAROLINA (BB-55) National Historic Landmark, James Walker Nursing School Quarters, Westbrook-Ardmore Historic District, Wilmington Historic District, and Wilmington National Cemetery are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [35]

Geography

"Welcome to Wilmington" sign Welcome To Wilmington.JPG
"Welcome to Wilmington" sign

Wilmington is located at 34°13′24″N77°54′44″W / 34.22333°N 77.91222°W / 34.22333; -77.91222 . [36] It is the eastern terminus of Interstate 40, an east-west freeway that ends 2,554 miles away at Barstow, California, where it joins I-15, the Gateway to Southern California. This road passes through many major cities and state capitals along the way.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.5 square miles (107 km2). 41.0 square miles (106 km2) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2) of it (1.16%) is water. Wrightsville Beach is a common destination in the Wilmington area. Carolina and Kure beaches also add to the city's beach attractions.[ citation needed ]

Climate

Wilmington has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with the following characteristics:

Cypress Trees in Greenfield Lake Cypress Trees in Greenfield Lake.jpg
Cypress Trees in Greenfield Lake
Climate data for Wilmington Int'l, North Carolina (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1870–present) [lower-alpha 1]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)82
(28)
85
(29)
94
(34)
95
(35)
101
(38)
104
(40)
103
(39)
103
(39)
100
(38)
98
(37)
87
(31)
82
(28)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C)75
(24)
77
(25)
82
(28)
87
(31)
92
(33)
96
(36)
97
(36)
96
(36)
92
(33)
87
(31)
81
(27)
75
(24)
98
(37)
Average high °F (°C)57.2
(14.0)
60.3
(15.7)
66.5
(19.2)
74.6
(23.7)
81.1
(27.3)
87.0
(30.6)
90.0
(32.2)
88.3
(31.3)
83.9
(28.8)
76.1
(24.5)
67.4
(19.7)
60.3
(15.7)
74.4
(23.6)
Daily mean °F (°C)46.8
(8.2)
49.3
(9.6)
55.3
(12.9)
63.6
(17.6)
71.1
(21.7)
78.2
(25.7)
81.5
(27.5)
80.0
(26.7)
75.3
(24.1)
65.9
(18.8)
56.1
(13.4)
49.7
(9.8)
64.4
(18.0)
Average low °F (°C)36.3
(2.4)
38.4
(3.6)
44.1
(6.7)
52.6
(11.4)
61.1
(16.2)
69.3
(20.7)
73.0
(22.8)
71.7
(22.1)
66.7
(19.3)
55.6
(13.1)
44.8
(7.1)
39.1
(3.9)
54.4
(12.4)
Mean minimum °F (°C)19
(−7)
23
(−5)
28
(−2)
36
(2)
47
(8)
58
(14)
65
(18)
64
(18)
55
(13)
40
(4)
29
(−2)
24
(−4)
18
(−8)
Record low °F (°C)5
(−15)
5
(−15)
9
(−13)
28
(−2)
35
(2)
48
(9)
54
(12)
55
(13)
42
(6)
27
(−3)
16
(−9)
0
(−18)
0
(−18)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.81
(97)
3.47
(88)
3.97
(101)
3.07
(78)
4.54
(115)
5.67
(144)
6.86
(174)
8.16
(207)
8.69
(221)
4.66
(118)
3.56
(90)
3.69
(94)
60.15
(1,528)
Average snowfall inches (cm)0.7
(1.8)
0.2
(0.51)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.9
(2.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)9.99.59.67.79.611.213.213.910.78.08.59.9121.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)0.40.20.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.10.7
Average relative humidity (%)70.768.469.166.873.776.378.380.779.975.973.271.573.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 181.5182.1238.0276.3285.3280.1280.7254.3230.0229.3197.4181.12,816.1
Percent possible sunshine 58596471666564616265635963
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990) [37] [38] [39]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1800 1,689
1820 2,633
1830 3,79144.0%
1840 5,33540.7%
1850 7,26436.2%
1860 9,55231.5%
1870 13,44640.8%
1880 17,35029.0%
1890 20,05615.6%
1900 20,9764.6%
1910 25,74822.7%
1920 33,37229.6%
1930 32,270−3.3%
1940 33,4073.5%
1950 45,04334.8%
1960 44,013−2.3%
1970 46,1694.9%
1980 44,000−4.7%
1990 55,53026.2%
2000 75,83836.6%
2010 106,47640.4%
2020 115,4518.4%
U.S. Decennial Census [48]
2018 Estimate [49]

According to 2013 census estimates, [50] there were 112,067 people and 47,003 households in the city. The population density was 2,067.8 people per square mile (714.2/km2)and there were 53,400 housing units. The racial composition of the city was: 73.5% White, 19.9% Black or African American, 6.1% Hispanic or Latino American, 1.2% Asian American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander.

There were 34,359 households, out of which 20.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.5% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 49.5% were non-families. 36.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.77.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 18.4% under the age of 18, 17.2% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,099, and the median income for a family was $41,891. Males had a median income of $30,803 versus $23,423 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,503. About 13.3% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over.

Religion

Across from the Bellamy Mansion is the First Baptist Church, established in 1808. First Baptist Church, Wilmington, NC IMG 4313.JPG
Across from the Bellamy Mansion is the First Baptist Church, established in 1808.
Grace United Methodist Church, established in 1797 Grace United Methodist Church, Wilmington, NC IMG 4372.JPG
Grace United Methodist Church, established in 1797

Less than half of Wilmington's population is religiously affiliated (47.30%), with the majority of practitioners being Christian. The two largest Christian denominations in Wilmington are Protestant: Baptists (14.66%) and Methodists (8.29%), followed by Roman Catholics (7.42%). There are also a significant number of Presbyterians (3.19%), Episcopalians (2.30%), Pentecostals (1.45%), and Lutherans (1.32%). Other Christian denominations make up 7.02%, and the Latter-Day Saints have 0.90%. Much smaller is the proportion of residents who follow Islam (0.46%), and Judaism (0.25%). A small percentage of people practice Eastern religions (0.04%). [51]

Wilmington has significant historical religious buildings, such as the Basilica Shrine of St. Mary and the Temple of Israel.

Transportation

Airport

The Wilmington International Airport (ILM) serves the area with commercial air service provided by American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and United Airlines. American Airlines carries a large share of the airport's traffic, and therefore flies the largest of the aircraft in and out of the airport. The airport serves over 930,000 travelers per year. [52] [53] [54] The airport is also home to two fixed-base operations (FBOs) that currently house over 100 private aircraft. The airport maintains a separate International Terminal providing a full service Federal Inspection Station to clear international flights. This includes U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Immigration. The airport is 4 miles from downtown and is served by Wave Transit buses.

Interstate highways

Barstow, California, distance sign, as seen from I-40 in Wilmington WilmingtonBarstow.JPG
Barstow, California, distance sign, as seen from I-40 in Wilmington

U.S. Routes

The Cape Fear Memorial Bridge (foreground) carries US 17 Business, US 76 and US 421 across the Cape Fear River WilmingtonAerialViewCoastGuard.jpg
The Cape Fear Memorial Bridge (foreground) carries US 17 Business, US 76 and US 421 across the Cape Fear River

North Carolina state highways

Alternative transportation options

Public transit in the area is provided by the Cape Fear Public Transportation Authority, [55] which operates fixed bus routes, shuttles, and a free downtown trolley under the brand name Wave Transit. A daily intercity bus service to Raleigh is provided by Greyhound Lines. Wilmington is also served by Amtrak Thruway bus connections to Wilson, North Carolina where connections can be made with Amtrak's Carolinian and Palmetto. The city's Union Station last had passenger train service in 1968 with the Seaboard Coast Line's predecessor version of the Palmetto. The Seaboard Air Line's station last had service in 1958, with a daily train to Charlotte via Hamlet. [56] [57]

The NC-DOT Cape Fear Run bicycle route connects Apex to Wilmington and closely parallels the RUSA 600 km brevet route. [58]

The City of Wilmington offers transient docking facilities [59] in the center of Downtown Wilmington along the Cape Fear River approximately 12.5 miles (20 km) from the Intracoastal Waterway. The river depth in the run up from the ICW is in excess of 40 feet (12 m). Taxicab service is available from several vendors, however, as the price of fuel rises, yet the City's Taxi Commission keeps meter rates artificially low, there is a real likelihood that no drivers will continue to work, as their income, before taxes, now averages 30% of what it was in 1998.[ citation needed ]

The Gary Shell Cross-City Trail is primarily a multi-use trail that provides bicycle and pedestrian access to numerous recreational, cultural and educational destinations in Wilmington. The Gary Shell Cross-City Trail provides bicycle and pedestrian connection from Wade Park, Halyburton Park and Empie Park to the Heide-Trask Drawbridge at the Intracoastal Waterway. [60] It also connects to the River to Sea Bikeway and the under-construction Central College Trail and Greenville Loop Trail.

Economy

The State Port of Wilmington Port of Wilmington Aerial 3B19.jpg
The State Port of Wilmington
Wilmington City Hall, with movie crews filming in July 2012 Wilmington, NC City Hall IMG 4364.JPG
Wilmington City Hall, with movie crews filming in July 2012
The Graystone Inn, a bed and breakfast with colonial architecture, is located in downtown Wilmington Graystone Inn of Wilmington, NC IMG 4321.JPG
The Graystone Inn, a bed and breakfast with colonial architecture, is located in downtown Wilmington

Wilmington's industrial base includes electrical, medical, electronic and telecommunications equipment; clothing and apparel; food processing; paper products; nuclear fuel; and pharmaceuticals. Wilmington is part of North Carolina's Research coast, adjacent to the Research Triangle Park in Durham, NC.

Also important to Wilmington's economy is tourism due to its close proximity to the ocean and vibrant nightlife.

Located on the Cape Fear River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean, Wilmington is a sizable seaport, including private marine terminals and the North Carolina State Ports Authority's Port of Wilmington.

Wilmington is home to the Greater Wilmington Chamber of Commerce, the oldest Chamber in North Carolina, organized in 1853. Companies with their headquarters in Wilmington include Live Oak Bank and HomeInsurance.com.

Top employers

According to the City's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: [61]

#EmployerEmployees
1New Hanover Health Network5,991
2New Hanover County Schools3,645
3 General Electric 2,195
4 University of North Carolina Wilmington 1,844
5 New Hanover County 1,563
6 Pharmaceutical Product Development 1,464
7 Verizon Wireless 1,216
8 Cape Fear Community College 1,176
9 Corning 1,000
10City of Wilmington995

Government

Mayor

List of mayors of Wilmington, North Carolina

Education

Universities and colleges

Iconic arches on the campus of University of North Carolina at Wilmington (UNCW) University of North Carolina Wilmington Arches.jpg
Iconic arches on the campus of University of North Carolina at Wilmington (UNCW)

Schools

Public schools in Wilmington are operated by the New Hanover County School System.

High schools

Middle schools

Elementary schools

  • Walter L. Parsley Elementary School
  • Alderman
  • Anderson
  • Bellamy
  • Blair
  • Bradley Creek
  • Castle Hayne
  • Codington
  • College Park
  • Eaton
  • Forest Hills
  • Freeman School of Engineering
  • Gregory School of Science, Mathematics, and Technology
  • Holly Tree
  • Lake Forest Academy
  • Mary C. Williams
  • Murrayville
  • New Horizons Elementary School (private)
  • Ogden
  • Pine Valley Elementary School
  • Snipes Academy of Arts and Design
  • Sunset Park
  • Winter Park
  • Wrightsboro
  • Wrightsville Beach
  • Friends School of Wilmington
  • St. Mark Catholic School (Wilmington, North Carolina)

Academies and alternate schools

Culture

Performing arts

The city supports a very active calendar with its showcase theater, Thalian Hall, hosting about 250 events annually. The complex has been in continuous operation since it opened in 1858 and houses three performance venues, the Main Stage, the Grand Ballroom, and the Studio Theater. [115]

The Hannah Block Historic USO/Community Arts Center, [116] 120 S. Second Street in historic downtown Wilmington, is a multiuse facility owned by the City of Wilmington and managed by the Thalian Association, [117] the Official Community Theater of North Carolina. [118] Here, five studios are available to nonprofit organizations for theatrical performances, rehearsals, musicals, recitals and art classes. For more than half a century, the Hannah Block Historic USO Building has facilitated the coming together of generations, providing children with programs that challenge them creatively, and enhance the quality of life for residents throughout the region.

The Hannah Block Second Street Stage is home to the Thalian Association Children's Theater. [119] It is one of the main attractions at the Hannah Block Community Arts Center. The theater seats 200 and is used as a performance venue by community theater groups and other entertainment productions.

The University of North Carolina at Wilmington College of Arts and Science departments of Theatre, Music and Art share a state-of-the-art, $34 million Cultural Arts Building, which opened in December 2006. The production area consists of a music recital hall, art gallery, and two theaters. Sponsored events include 4 theater productions a year. [120]

The Brooklyn Arts Center at St. Andrews is a 125-year-old building on the corner of North 4th and Campbell St in downtown Wilmington. The Brooklyn Arts Center at Saint Andrews (BAC) is on the National Register of Historic Places. The BAC is used for weddings, concerts, fundraisers, art shows, vintage flea markets, and other community-driven events. [121]

Wilmington is home to the Wilmington Conservatory of Fine Arts, a studio for foundlings. The Wilmington Conservatory of Fine Arts is the only studio in the region to offer Progressing Ballet Technique™ [122] instruction from two certified instructors. The Conservatory is also host to Turning Pointe Dance Company, a faith-based dance company, which performs artistic pieces such as "Pinocchio" for the Wilmington Community. [123]

Film

Wilmington is home to EUE/Screen Gems Studios. Its prominent place in the cinema throughout the '80s and the '90s earned the city the moniker "Hollywood East". Popular television series like Dawson's Creek , One Tree Hill , Sleepy Hollow , SIX , [124] Good Behavior , Eastbound and Down and Under The Dome [125] were filmed at the studio and on location throughout the city. Movies shot in Wilmington include Maximum Overdrive (1986), Crimes of the Heart (1986), Year of the Dragon (1985), Blue Velvet (1986), King Kong Lives (1986), Hiding Out (1987), Raw Deal (1986), Track 29 (1988), Weeds (1987), Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990), The Crow (1994), Silver Bullet (1985), Firestarter (1984), [126] Iron Man 3 , [127] A Walk to Remember , We're the Millers , The Longest Ride and The Choice . [128] Actor Brandon Lee was killed in an accidental shooting during the filming of The Crow. [129]

Since 1995, Wilmington hosts an annual, nationally recognized, independent film festival called "Cucalorus." [130] It is the keystone event of The Cucalorus Film Foundation, a non-profit organization. The Foundation also sponsors weekly screenings, several short documentary projects, and the annual Kids Festival, with hands on film-making workshops.

The Cape Fear Independent Film Network also hosts a film festival annually, and the Wilmington Jewish Film Festival also takes place yearly. [131] For several years Wilmington was also the location of fan conventions for One Tree Hill, reuniting the cast and drawing tourists to the city. [132]

In 2014, Governor Pat McCrory decided not to renew the film incentives, which ended up taking a massive toll on not just Wilmington's but North Carolina's entire film industry. [133] As a result, most productions and film businesses moved to Atlanta, Georgia. As of 2017, there have been attempts to bring the industry back to North Carolina via the North Carolina Film and Entertainment Grant. This grant designates $31 million per fiscal year (Jul 1 – Jun 30) in film incentives. [134]

Literature

Birthplace of Johnson Jones Hooper (1815–1862), Author of the Simon Suggs Series.

Birthplace of Robert Ruark (1915–1965)

Music

Chamber Music Wilmington was founded in 1995 and presents its four-concert "Simply Classical" series every season. The concerts are performed by world-class chamber musicians and are held at UNCW's Beckwith Recital Hall.

The Wilmington Symphony Orchestra was established in 1971 and offers throughout the year a series of five classical performances, and a Free Family Concert. [135] Wilmington is also home to numerous music festivals.

One of the largest DIY festivals, the Wilmington Exchange Festival, occurs over a period of 5 days around Memorial Day each year. It is currently in its 13th year. [136]

Celebrating its 37th year, February 2 thru 4th, 2017, the North Carolina Jazz Festival is a three-day traditional jazz festival that features world-renowned jazz musicians. [137]

The Cape Fear Blues Society is a driving force behind blues music in Wilmington. The organization manages, staffs and sponsors weekly Cape Fear Blues Jams and the annual Cape Fear Blues Challenge talent competition (winners travel to Memphis TN for the International Blues Challenge). Its largest endeavor is the Cape Fear Blues Festival, an annual celebration that showcases local, regional and national touring blues artists performing at a variety of events and venues, including the Cape Fear Blues Cruise, Blues Workshops, an All-Day Blues Jam, and numerous live club shows. Membership in the CFBS is open to listeners and musicians alike. [138]

Museums and historic areas

The USS North Carolina Battleship Memorial, seen from downtown Wilmington across the Cape Fear River USS North Carolina-27527.jpg
The USS North Carolina Battleship Memorial, seen from downtown Wilmington across the Cape Fear River
The Railroad Museum is located behind the Hilton Hotel. Railroad Museum in Wilmington, NC IMG 4452.JPG
The Railroad Museum is located behind the Hilton Hotel.
The battleship USS North Carolina from the Wilmington Riverwalk Clear Skies for Battleship.jpg
The battleship USS North Carolina from the Wilmington Riverwalk

The Second and Orange Street USO Club was erected by the Army Corps of Engineers at a cost of $80,000. Along with an identical structure on Nixon Street for African-American servicemen, it opened in December 1941, the same month that the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. From 1941 to 1945, the USO hosted 35,000 uniformed visitors a week. Recently renovated with sensitivity to its historic character, the Hannah Block Historic USO (HBHUSO) lobby serves as a museum where World War II memorabilia and other artifacts are displayed. The building itself was rededicated in Ms. Block's name in 2006 and restored to its 1943 wartime character in 2008. The building is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The World War II Wilmington Home Front Heritage Coalition, [144] an all volunteer 501(c)(3) preservation organization, is the de facto preservationist of the building's history and maintains the home front museum.

Festivals

Wilmington is host to many annual festivals, including, most notably, the Azalea Festival. The Azalea Festival, sponsored by the Cape Fear Garden Club, features a garden tour, historic home tour, garden party, musical performances, a parade, and a fireworks show. It takes places every year in April.

Media

Newspapers

The Star-News is Wilmington's daily newspaper; read widely throughout the Lower Cape Fear region and now owned by Gannett, following its merger with the Star's previous owner, GateHouse Media. [145] A daily online newspaper, Port City Daily (portcitydaily.com), is owned by Local Voice Media. Two historically black newspapers are distributed and published weekly: The Wilmington Journal and The Challenger Newspapers.Encore Magazine is a weekly arts and entertainment publication.

Broadcast radio

AM

  • 630 AM WMFD – Sports ("ESPN Radio, AM 630")
  • 980 AM WAAV - News/Talk
  • 1180 AM WLTT - Spanish-language music and talk/Christian radio
  • 1290 AM WJCV - Southern Gospel ("Inspirational 1290 AM")
  • 1340 AM WLSG – Regional Mexican ("La Raza 94.1")
  • 1410 AM WVCB - Traditional Christian
  • 1490 AM WWIL – Urban Gospel ("Gospel Joy, 1490")

FM

  • 88.9 FM WKVC – Contemporary Christian ("K-LOVE")
  • 89.7 FM WDVV – Worship & Praise Music ("The Dove, 89.7")
  • 90.5 FM WWIL-FM – Christian Music ("Life 90.5")
  • 91.3 FM WHQR – Public Radio
  • 93.1 FM WBPL-LP – Wilmington Catholic Radio
  • 94.1 FM W231CL Regional Mexican ("La Raza 94.1") (WLSG translator)
  • 95.5 FM W238AV – Contemporary Christian ("K-LOVE")
  • 95.9 FM W240AS – Soft AC ("95.9 The Breeze") (WKXB translator)
  • 97.3 FM WMNX – Hip Hop/R & B ("Coast 97.3")
  • 103.7 FM WILT – Adult Contemporary ("Sunny 103.7")
  • 99.9 FM WKXB – Rhythmic Oldies ("Jammin' 99.9")
  • 100.5 FM W263BA – Contemporary Christian ("K-LOVE")
  • 101.3 FM WWQQ-FM- Country ("Double Q, 101")
  • 102.7 FM WGNI – Hot AC ("102.7 GNI")
  • 104.5 FM WYHW – Christian Talk ("104.5")
  • 107.1 FM WLTT _ Urban Adult Contemporary ("Power 107.1")

Television

The Wilmington television market is ranked 130 in the United States, and is the smallest DMA in North Carolina. The broadcast stations are as follows:

Cable news station News 14 Carolina also maintains its coastal bureau in Wilmington.

On September 8, 2008, at 12 noon, WWAY, WECT, WSFX, WILM-LP and W51CW all turned off their analog signals, making Wilmington the first market in the nation to go digital-only as part of a test by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to iron out transition and reception concerns before the nationwide shutoff. Wilmington was chosen as the test market because the area's digital channel positions will remain unchanged after the transition. [146] As the area's official conduit of emergency information, WUNJ did not participate in the early analog switchoff, and kept their analog signal on until the national digital switchover date of June 12, 2009. [147] W47CK did not participate due to its low-power status; FCC rules currently exempt low-powered stations from the 2009 analog shutdown. [148] WILM-LP and W51CW chose to participate, even though they are exempt as LPTV stations.[ citation needed ]

Despite Tropical Storm Hanna making landfall southwest of Wilmington two days before (September 6), the switchover continued as scheduled. The ceremony was marked by governmental and television representatives flipping a large switch (marked with the slogan "First in Flight, First in Digital") from analog to digital. [149]

Sports

ClubLeagueVenueFoundedTitles
Wilmington Sharks CPL, Baseball Buck Hardee Field at Legion Stadium 19972
Wilmington Hammerheads USL, Soccer Legion Stadium 19961
Wilmington Sea Dawgs TRBL, BasketballWilmington YMCA20060

The Wilmington Sharks are a Coastal Plain League (CPL) baseball team in Wilmington that was founded in 1997 and was among the charter organizations when the CPL was formed that same year. The roster is made up of top collegiate baseball players fine-tuning their skills using wood bats to prepare for professional baseball. Their stadium is located at Buck Hardee Field at Legion Stadium.

The Wilmington Sea Dawgs are a Tobacco Road Basketball League (TRBL) team that began its inaugural season with the American Basketball Association (ABA) in November 2006 and have also played in the Premier Basketball League, and the Continental Basketball League.

The Wilmington Hammerheads are a professional soccer team based in Wilmington. They were founded in 1996 and played in the United Soccer Leagues Second Division. Their stadium was the Legion Stadium. After the 2009 season, the USL discontinued their relationship with the franchise owner Chuck Sullivan. The Hammerheads franchise returned in 2011.

The University of North Carolina Wilmington sponsors 19 intercollegiate sports and has held Division 1 membership in the NCAA since 1977. UNCW competes in the Colonial Athletic Association and has been a member since 1984.

The University of North Carolina Wilmington is also home to the Seamen Ultimate Frisbee team. The team won the National Championship in 1993 and most recently qualified for the USA Ultimate College Nationals tournament in 2014

The Cape Fear Rugby Football Club is an amateur rugby club playing in USA Rugby South Division II. They were founded in 1974 and hosts the annual Cape Fear Sevens Tournament held over July 4 weekend; hosting teams from all over the world. They own their own rugby pitch located at 21st and Chestnut St. [150]

Off and on, from 1900 to 2001, Wilmington has been home to a professional minor league baseball team. The Wilmington Pirates, a Cincinnati Reds farm team, were one of the top clubs in the Tobacco State League from 1946–50. [151] Most recently the Wilmington Waves, a Class A affiliate of the Los Angeles Dodgers, played in the South Atlantic League. Former All Star catcher Jason Varitek played for Wilmington's Port City Roosters in 1995 and 1996. In 1914 the Philadelphia Phillies held spring training in Wilmington. [152]

The beach near Wilmington, NC is home to the annual O’Neil/Sweetwater Pro-Am and Music Festival, the second largest surfing contest on the East Coast. [153]

Shopping complexes

Points of interest

Notable people

Art and literature

Government and politics

Media and entertainment

Military

Sportspeople

Other notables

Sister cities

Wilmington is a sister city with the following cities:

See also

Notes

  1. Official snowfall records for Wilmington were kept at the Weather Bureau in downtown from December 1870 to September 1951, and at Wilmington Int'l since October 1951. Precipitation, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature records date to 1 January 1871, 1 March 1873, and 1 April 1874 respectively. [37] For more information, see ThreadEx.

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Wilmington, North Carolina, United States.

Lethia Sherman Hankins was an educator, civic leader, and politician who was active in Wilmington, North Carolina.

References

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  2. 1 2 U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Wilmington, North Carolina
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  4. 1 2 Lawrence., Lee (1990). The Lower Cape Fear in colonial days. Library of Congress Photoduplication Service. pp. 119–125. OCLC   865969052.
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  16. B.C. Brooks (January 7, 2014). "B.C. Brooks: A Writer's Hiding Place: Historical Execution of Gov. George Burrington of North Carolina".
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  18. Marvin Michael Kay and Lorin Lee Cary. Slavery in North Carolina, 1748–1775, Chapel Hill: Univ of North Carolina Press, 1995.
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  20. E. Lawrence Lee. The Lower Cape Fear in Colonial Days. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ of North Carolina Press, 1965. p. 245.
  21. Donna J. Spindel. "Law and Disorder: The North Carolina Stamp Act Crisis"North Carolina Historical Review, 56: 1981. p. 8.
  22. Paul David Nelson. William Tryon and the Course of Empire. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ of North Carolina Press, 1990. pp. 42–43.
  23. The American annual register. (1827-35). New York : G. & C. Carvill, 8v., p. 593.
  24. Janet L. Seapker "History of Oakdale Cemetery" Archived December 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , Oakdale Cemetery. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  25. Andrew J. Howell, The Book of Wilmington. Wilmington, NC: Wilmington Printing Company, 1930.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 "Chapter 5" Archived March 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine , 1898 Wilmington Race Riot Commission Report, North Carolina Dept. of Cultural Resources
  27. Angela Mack (December 16, 2005). "Over a century later, facts of 1898 race riots released". Star-News. Wilmington, NC.
  28. "The Commercial & Financial Chronicle". William B. Dana Company. 1899.
  29. "NORTH CAROLINA'S NEGROES: Offices Which They Hold in Several Counties of the State". New York Times. November 6, 1898.
  30. Prather Sr., Leon H. (1998). "We have taken a city". In Cecelsi, David; Tyson, Timothy (eds.). Democracy Betrayed: The Wilmington Race Riot of 1898 and Its Legacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 15–41. ISBN   0807824518.
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    • Snowiest month: 15.3 in (38.9 cm) in December 1989, making the winter of 1989–90 the snowiest

    Cityscape

    Wilmington theater and banking area Wilmington theater and banking area.JPG
    Wilmington theater and banking area
    Downtown north Downtown Wilmington to the north.JPG
    Downtown north
    PPD building in Northern downtown Wilmington Ppdtowerwilm.JPG
    PPD building in Northern downtown Wilmington
    Wilmington boasts a large historic district encompassing nearly 300 blocks. Abandoned warehouses on downtown's northern end have been recently demolished making room for multimillion dollar projects, such as the World Headquarters of Pharmaceutical Product Development (PPD) and a state-of-the-art convention center. Downtown/Old Wilmington
    Downtown Monuments and Historic Buildings
    The George Davis Monument
    The Confederate Memorial
    The Bellamy Mansion
    Cotton Exchange of Wilmington
    The Temple of Israel
    The Murchison Building

    Crime

    Wilmington
    Crime rates* (2017)
    Violent crimes
    Homicide 20
    Rape 23
    Robbery 261
    Aggravated assault 326
    Total violent crime 618
    Property crimes
    Burglary 1,694
    Larceny-theft 3,843
    Motor vehicle theft 373
    Arson 9
    Total property crime 5,910
    Notes

    *Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.

    2012 population: 109,370

    Source: 2012 FBI UCR Data
    Between 2006 and 2008, crime rates, as reported through the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, decreased in 6 of the 8 reported categories.
    YearMurderRapeRobberyAssaultBurglaryLarcenyMVTArson
    20067.465.4431.5398.81,787.04,078.2682.523.2
    200710.460.3358.9424.41,703.83,761.2667.816.6
    200812.249.8324.2404.51,489.03,511.5535.615.2
    Wilmington has an increasing problem with gang violence<ref> "Gangs Archives – WWAY TV3". WWAY TV3.
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Further reading

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Wilmington, North Carolina at Wikimedia Commons

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Wilmington travel guide from Wikivoyage