Hurricane Florence

Last updated

Hurricane Florence
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Florence 2018-09-11 1750Z.jpg
Hurricane Florence at peak intensity south of Bermuda on September 11
FormedAugust 31, 2018
DissipatedSeptember 18, 2018
( Extratropical after September 17)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:150 mph (240 km/h)
Lowest pressure937 mbar (hPa); 27.67 inHg
Fatalities24 direct, 30 indirect
Damage$24.23 billion (2018 USD)
Areas affected West Africa, Cape Verde, Bermuda, East Coast of the United States (especially The Carolinas), Atlantic Canada
Part of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Florence was a powerful and long-lived Cape Verde hurricane that caused catastrophic damage in the Carolinas in September 2018, primarily as a result of freshwater flooding. Florence dropped a maximum total of 35.93 inches (913 mm) of rain in Elizabethtown, North Carolina, becoming the wettest tropical cyclone recorded in the Carolinas, and also the eighth-wettest overall in the contiguous United States. [1] [2] The sixth named storm, third hurricane, and the first major hurricane of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season, Florence originated from a strong tropical wave that emerged off the west coast of Africa on August 30, 2018. Steady organization resulted in the formation of a tropical depression on the next day near Cape Verde. Progressing along a steady west-northwest trajectory, the system acquired tropical storm strength on September 1, and fluctuated in strength for several days over open ocean. An unexpected bout of rapid intensification ensued on September 4–5, culminating with Florence becoming a Category 4 major hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale (SSHWS), with estimated maximum sustained winds of 130 mph (215 km/h).

Cape Verde hurricane

A Cape Verde hurricane, or Cabo Verde hurricane is an Atlantic hurricane that originates at low-latitude in the deep tropics from a tropical wave that has passed over or near the Cape Verde islands after exiting the coast of West Africa. The average hurricane season has about two Cape Verde hurricanes, which are often the largest and most intense storms of the season due to having plenty of warm open ocean over which to develop before encountering land or other factors prompting weakening. A good portion of Cape Verde storms are large, and some, such as Hurricane Ivan and Hurricane Irma, have set various records. Most of the longest-lived tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin are Cape Verde hurricanes. While many move harmlessly out to sea, some move across the Caribbean sea and into the Gulf of Mexico, becoming damaging storms for Caribbean nations, Central America, Mexico, Bermuda, the United States, and occasionally even Canada. Research projects since the 1970s have been launched to understand the formation of these storms.

The Carolinas Region

The Carolinas are the U.S. states of North Carolina and South Carolina, considered collectively. They are bordered by Virginia to the north, Tennessee to the west, and Georgia to the southwest. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east. Combining North Carolina's population of 10,042,802 and South Carolina's of 4,896,146, the Carolinas have a population of 14,938,948 as of 2015. If the Carolinas were a single state of the United States, it would be the fifth-most populous state, behind California, Texas, Florida, and New York. The Carolinas were known as the Province of Carolina during America's early colonial period, from 1663 to 1710. Prior to that, the land was considered part of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, from 1609 to 1663. The province, named Carolina to honor King Charles I of England, was divided into two colonies in 1729, although the actual date is the subject of debate.

Elizabethtown, North Carolina Town in North Carolina, United States

Elizabethtown is a town in Bladen County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 3,583 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Bladen County.


Strong wind shear then tore the storm apart, and Florence degraded to a tropical storm by September 7. Shifting steering currents led to a westward turn into a more suitable environment; the system regained hurricane strength on September 9 and major hurricane status by the following day. At 16:00  UTC on September 10, Florence again became a Category 4 hurricane. Florence continued to strengthen into the next day, reaching a new peak on September 11, with 1-minute winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 937 mbar (27.7 inHg). [2] An unexpected eyewall replacement cycle and decreasing oceanic heat content caused the storm's winds to gradually taper over the next couple of days, though the storm's wind field continued to grow. By the evening of September 13, Florence had been downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane, though the storm began to stall as it neared the Carolina coastline. Early on September 14, Florence made landfall in the United States just south of Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, and weakened further as it slowly moved inland. Florence degenerated to a post-tropical cyclone over West Virginia on September 17, and two days later, the remnants of Florence were absorbed into another frontal storm.

Wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Coordinated Universal Time Primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time

Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude, and is not adjusted for daylight saving time. In some countries where English is spoken, the term Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is often used as a synonym for UTC and predates UTC by nearly 300 years.

Eyewall replacement cycle

Eyewall replacement cycles, also called concentric eyewall cycles, naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones, generally with winds greater than 185 km/h (115 mph), or major hurricanes. When tropical cyclones reach this intensity, and the eyewall contracts or is already sufficiently small, some of the outer rainbands may strengthen and organize into a ring of thunderstorms—an outer eyewall—that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and angular momentum. Since the strongest winds are in a cyclone's eyewall, the tropical cyclone usually weakens during this phase, as the inner wall is "choked" by the outer wall. Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely, and the storm may re-intensify.

Early in the storm's history, the system brought squall conditions to the Cape Verde islands, resulting in some landslides and flooding; but overall effects were negligible. With the threat of a major impact in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States becoming evident by September 7, the governors of North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, and Maryland, and the mayor of Washington, D.C. declared a state of emergency. On September 10 and 11, the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia all issued mandatory evacuation orders for some of their coastal communities, predicting that emergency personnel would be unable to reach people there once the storm arrived.

Squall sudden, sharp increase in the sustained winds over a short time interval

A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed lasting minutes, contrary to a wind gust lasting seconds. They are usually associated with active weather, such as rain showers, thunderstorms, or heavy snow. Squalls refer to the increase to the sustained winds over that time interval, as there may be higher gusts during a squall event. They usually occur in a region of strong sinking air or cooling in the mid-atmosphere. These force strong localized upward motions at the leading edge of the region of cooling, which then enhances local downward motions just in its wake.

Southeastern United States Region

The Southeastern United States is broadly, the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States. It comprises at least a core of states on the lower Atlantic seaboard and eastern Gulf Coast. Expansively, it includes everything south of the Mason-Dixon line, the Ohio River and the 36°30' parallel, and as far west as Arkansas and Louisiana. There is no official U.S. government definition of the region, though various agencies and departments use different definitions.

North Carolina State of the United States of America

North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U.S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties. The capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City.

Despite making landfall as a weakened Category 1 hurricane, Florence still had enough wind speed to uproot trees and cause widespread power outages throughout the Carolinas. A ridge of high pressure over eastern North America stalled Florence's forward motion for several days while making landfall. This led to Florence moving forward at only 2–3 miles per hour (3.2–4.8 km/h); the storm continually dumped heavy rain along coastal areas from September 13, when the outer rain bands first began to be felt, to September 15, when the storm was still stalled out only a few miles west of Wilmington. Coupled with a large storm surge, this caused widespread flooding along a long stretch of the North Carolina coast, from New Bern to Wilmington. As the storm moved inland, from September 15 to 17, heavy rain caused widespread inland flooding, inundating cities such as Fayetteville, Smithfield, Lumberton, Durham, and Chapel Hill, as major rivers such as the Neuse River, Eno River, Cape Fear River, and Lumber River all spilled over their banks. Most major roads and highways in the area experienced some flooding, with large stretches of I-40, I-95, and US Route 70 remaining impassable for days after the storm had passed. The city of Wilmington was cut off entirely from the rest of the mainland by floodwaters. The storm also spawned tornadoes in several places along its path. Many places received record-breaking rainfall, with more than 30 inches (760 mm) measured in some locations. At least 54 deaths were attributed to the storm. [3] [4] [5] [6] Property damage and economic losses in the United States reached $24.23 billion (2018  USD), [2] with $24 billion in damages in the Carolinas alone; [7] estimated insured losses ranged between $4.8–5 billion. [8] [9] One preliminary estimate for North Carolina was nearly $17 billion (2018 USD), more than the damage from Hurricane Matthew and Hurricane Floyd in that state combined. [9]

High-pressure area region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment

A high-pressure area, high or anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment.

A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems, the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges. It is a measure of the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement related to tides.

New Bern, North Carolina City in North Carolina, United States

New Bern is a city in Craven County, North Carolina, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 29,524, which had risen to an estimated 30,242 as of 2013. It is the county seat of Craven County and the principal city of the New Bern Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Florence 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On August 28, 2018, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began monitoring a tropical wave an elongated trough of low air pressure over Western Africa for possible tropical cyclogenesis within the subsequent five days, as it progressed westward. [10] Development into a tropical cyclone became increasingly likely on the following day, [11] and a more defined low coalesced along the coast of Senegal on August 30. [12] Favorable environmental conditions, including ample moisture and low wind shear, [13] enabled further organization and development of broad shower and thunderstorm activity. Lacking a well-defined center but posing an immediate threat to Cape Verde, the NHC began issuing advisories on the system as Potential Tropical Cyclone Six later that day. Easterly trade winds propelled the disturbance along a west to west-northwest trajectory. [14] Through much of the day and into August 31, convection remained confined to the southwest of the disturbance within a monsoon trough and precluded its classification as a tropical cyclone. [15] Toward the end of August 31, the system's convective organization became sufficient for the NHC to mark the formation of Tropical Depression Six, as the system passed south of Santiago in Cape Verde. Surface pressures on the island fell to 1005  mbar (hPa; 29.68  inHg) at 18:00 UTC. [16]

National Hurricane Center Division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

Trough (meteorology) elongated region of low atmospheric pressure

A trough is an elongated (extended) region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. Troughs may be at the surface, or aloft, or both under various conditions. Most troughs bring clouds, showers, and a wind shift, particularly following the passage of the trough. This results from convergence or "squeezing" which forces lifting of moist air behind the trough line.

By September 1, the primary steering factor shifted to a strong subtropical ridge anchored well to the north. Moderate wind shear temporarily stunted development and displaced convection to the eastern side of the depression. [17] Pronounced banding features surrounded the circulation and the depression intensified to a tropical storm; the NHC accordingly assigned the system the name Florence. [18] Steady development marked the system's intensification. Satellite intensity estimates indicated Florence achieved maximum sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) by 09:00 UTC on September 2. [19] Thereafter, shear and entrainment of dry air displaced convection from the surface low, leaving it exposed. [20] Considerable uncertainty in the forecast for Florence arose, as weather models began to depict various different solutions. [21] Fluctuations in organization and intensity continued through September 3. [22] [23]


A rainband is a cloud and precipitation structure associated with an area of rainfall which is significantly elongated. Rainbands can be stratiform or convective, and are generated by differences in temperature. When noted on weather radar imagery, this precipitation elongation is referred to as banded structure. Rainbands within tropical cyclones are curved in orientation. Tropical cyclone rainbands contain showers and thunderstorms that, together with the eyewall and the eye, constitute a hurricane or tropical storm. The extent of rainbands around a tropical cyclone can help determine the cyclone's intensity.

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

The maximum sustained wind associated with a tropical cyclone is a common indicator of the intensity of the storm. Within a mature tropical cyclone, it is found within the eyewall at a distance defined as the radius of maximum wind, or RMW. Unlike gusts, the value of these winds are determined via their sampling and averaging the sampled results over a period of time. Wind measuring has been standardized globally to reflect the winds at 10 metres (33 ft) above the Earth's surface, and the maximum sustained wind represents the highest average wind over either a one-minute (US) or ten-minute time span, anywhere within the tropical cyclone. Surface winds are highly variable due to friction between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface, as well as near hills and mountains over land.

Hurricane Florence at its initial peak intensity on September 5 Florence 2018-09-05 1830Z.jpg
Hurricane Florence at its initial peak intensity on September 5

Development of a small central dense overcast and a mid-level eye feature signified that Florence achieved hurricane strength early on September 4, roughly 1,240 miles (2,000 km) west-northwest of the Cape Verde islands. [24] [25] Unexpectedly the system rapidly organized within a small area of low wind shear in an otherwise adverse upper-level environment. Florence's small size enabled it to take advantage of this localized area. [26] The hurricane's core structure, eye, and outer banding improved markedly, catching forecasters off-guard and intensifying beyond model outputs. [27] In stark contrast to model guidance, Florence continued to intensify and attained major hurricane status at 12:35 UTC on September 5. [28] [29] Sustained winds rose to 130 mph (215 km/h)—this ranked it as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale—and its pressure fell to 953 mbar (hPa; 28.14 inHg). Situated at 22°42′N46°36′W / 22.7°N 46.6°W / 22.7; -46.6 (Hurricane Florence Category 4) , [30] Florence became the northernmost Category 4 hurricane east of 50°W ever to be recorded. [31]

Time-lapse video of the NOAA Hurricane Hunters flying through the eye of Hurricane Florence on September 11, 2018

The hurricane's unforeseen intensification caused it to track farther north, out of the localized low shear. [32] Persistent shear finally took its toll on Florence on September 6 through September 7, causing convection to become asymmetrical and tilting the storm's core southwest to northeast. [33] [34] Rapid degradation of Florence's structure occurred by the early hours of September 7. The storm's low-level circulation became exposed as its convection became displaced to the northeast, and the previously well-defined eye dissipated. Scatterometer data revealed the system weakened to tropical storm intensity by 03:00 UTC. Meteorologist Robbie Berg described the intensity forecasts for Florence as a "self-defeating prophecy" owing to the "nuances of the environmental shear". [32] [35] A building mid-level ridge halted Florence's northward movement, leading to a westward turn. [32] [35] Weather models became increasingly consistent on the storm's future track, leading to greater confidence in a major impact to the Southeastern United States. [36] This trajectory proved climatologically unusual, with United States hurricane landfalls primarily originating farther south and west than Florence. [37]

Hurricane Florence on September 13, 2018, as seen from the International Space Station

Environmental conditions became increasingly conducive to reorganization on September 8 as NOAA Hurricane Hunters began reconnaissance of the cyclone. [38] Convective banding blossomed around the storm and a formative eye appeared on satellite imagery. [39] The storm's central dense overcast became more defined, and a complete eyewall developed within its core. Florence reattained hurricane-status by 15:00 UTC on September 9, with the Hurricane Hunters observing 76 mph (122 km/h) sustained winds at the surface. [40] Fueled by sea surface temperatures of 84 to 85 °F (29 to 29.5 °C), Florence rapidly intensified overnight. Convective bursts with frequent lightning surrounded the eyewall, [41] giving rise to a well-defined 12 mi (19 km) wide eye. Expanding outflow ventilated the cyclone, enabling continued growth. [42] The system rapidly re-achieved Category 4 intensity by 16:00 UTC on September 10, with reconnaissance aircraft recording surface winds near 130 mph (215 km/h) and a central pressure of 946 mbar (hPa; 27.93 inHg). [43] [44] Hurricane Florence continued strengthening into the next day, achieving its peak intensity at 18:00 UTC on September 11, with 1-minute sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 937 mbar (hPa; 27.67 inHg). [2] The extent of hurricane-force winds doubled in size and well-defined mesovortices rotated along the inner eyewall. [45] Slight weakening ensued thereafter as an eyewall replacement cycle started; convection surrounding the eyewall became ragged and the eye itself filled. [46] [47] This process completed on the following day, with the newly formed eye spanning 35 mi (55 km) across. Extensive outflow became established over the cyclone, extending northwest and east, providing ample ventilation and deformation which enabled Florence to continue expanding. [48] The future track of the hurricane became increasingly complex as it approached the Carolinas. A strengthening trough moving inland over the Pacific Northwest amplified ridging over the Northeastern United States and western Atlantic Ocean, steering Florence to the west-northwest. A collapse of steering currents was anticipated around the time of landfall on September 14, which would result in the hurricane meandering near the coast or just inland for a prolonged period of time. [49]

Fluctuations in the organization of Florence continued through the remainder of September 11 into September 12. [50] Eyewall replacement cycles and upwelling of cold water along the storm's path [51] caused the inner structure to degrade, and the system degraded to Category 3 status by 18:00 UTC. [52] Continued weakening occurred and Florence fell below major hurricane intensity later that night. The weakening pace slowed as the satellite presentation improved somewhat on September 13, with an eye attempting to emerge again. The hurricane's motion slowed significantly and it began to turn northwest towards the Carolina border. At 11:15 UTC (7:15 a.m. EDT) on September 14, Florence made landfall just south of Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina as a Category 1 hurricane, with sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) and a central pressure of 958 mbar (28.3 inHg). [53] Although the hurricane began a weakening trend after making landfall, the forward speed decreased, causing Florence to move very slowly west to southwestward as it produced torrential rainfall over the Carolinas. Late on September 14, Florence weakened to a tropical storm over extreme southeastern North Carolina. [54] Florence continued weakening while dropping heavy rain, and weakened into a tropical depression by 09:00 UTC on September 16, while located over South Carolina. By this point, Florence had also begun to gradually accelerate westward. [55] At that time, the NHC issued its final advisory on Florence, transferring responsibility to the Weather Prediction Center (WPC). [56] On September 17, Florence slowly turned to the northeast, while continuing to weaken. Late on the same day, Florence weakened into a remnant low, while situated over West Virginia. [57] On September 18, the remnants of Florence emerged off the New England coast, [58] before being absorbed into a frontal system over the North Atlantic on September 19. [59] This system later led to the formation of Hurricane Leslie. [60]


Florence viewed from the International Space Station on September 10 Hurricane Florence Viewed from the Space Station.jpg
Florence viewed from the International Space Station on September 10

Cape Verde and Bermuda

Upon the designation of Potential Tropical Cyclone Six on August 30, the government of Cape Verde issued tropical storm warnings for the islands of Brava, Fogo, and Santiago. [61] Domestic airlines cancelled 20 flights on August 31 and September 1; maritime travel was also suspended for this period. [62] Mariners were advised to remain cautious of large swells around the islands, potentially reaching 9.8 to 16.4 ft (3 to 5 m). [63] Under the threat of damaging waves, the Autoridade Nacional de Proteção Civil evacuated 125 people, primarily elderly, from Furna and Rincão. [64] Eleven military personnel were deployed to Rincão to assist in evacuations and preparations. [65] Tropical storm warnings were discontinued on September 1, as the system progressed westward and no longer posed a threat to the archipelago. [66]

In anticipation of adverse conditions, Norwegian Cruise Lines and Oceania Cruises adjusted itineraries for Norwegian Escape , Norwegian Dawn , and Sirena to avoid crossing the hurricane's path and not dock in Bermuda. [67]

United States

President Donald Trump holding a briefing in the Oval Office in advance of Hurricane Florence

As forecast models indicated an increasing threat to the Southeastern United States, North Carolina Governor Roy Cooper declared a state of emergency on September 7. Transportation rules for farmers were waived to enable faster harvesting. [68] President Donald Trump declared an emergency in North Carolina, granting the state access to federal funds. [69] An overnight curfew was established for Lumberton for the duration of the hurricane. [70] The cost of hurricane preparation in Virginia were at US$10.8 million. [71]

South Carolina Governor Henry McMaster followed suit on the next day. [72] The South Carolina Emergency Management Division (SCEMD) and Harvest Hope Food Bank began mobilizing resources for potential recovery efforts. [73] The SCEMD raised operation conditions to level 3 on September 9, and began preparations for the "possibility of a large-scale disaster", with forecasts showing Florence striking the state as a major hurricane. [74] Local officials established overnight curfews for the cities of Aynor, Conway, Dillon, Myrtle Beach, and Surfside Beach to limit the number of people on the roads and enable effective emergency responses. The entirety of Horry and Marion counties also fell under curfews. [70] [75] [76]

On September 8, Virginia Governor Ralph Northam also declared a state of emergency. [77] On September 10, Maryland Governor Larry Hogan declared a state of emergency for the entire state, with the potential of "historic, catastrophic and life-threatening flooding in Maryland". [78] On September 11, Washington, D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser declared a state of emergency for the entire District of Columbia due to the "imminent threats on the people of D.C., including threats to health, safety and welfare" caused by Florence. [79] [80] On September 12, Georgia Governor Nathan Deal issued a state of emergency for the entire state. [81]

Evacuation and closures

"They haven't seen anything like what's coming at us in 25, 30 years, maybe ever. It's tremendously big and tremendously wet."

President Donald Trump, September 11, 2018, White House press briefing

Mandatory evacuation orders for residents and tourists on Hatteras Island in Dare County began on September 10, with orders expanding to the rest of the county the following day. [82] Evacuations along the rest of the Outer Banks and in Brunswick County went in effect on September 11. [83] On September 10, Governor Henry McMaster ordered evacuations for the entire coastline of South Carolina, [84] constituting roughly 1 million people. [85] On September 10, Virginia Governor Ralph Northam ordered mandatory evacuations for low-lying coastal areas in the Hampton Roads and Eastern Shore regions effective September 11, constituting 245,000 people. [86] The US Navy has moved 30 ships stationed off the coast of Virginia farther out to sea, to protect the ships and the coastline. [87]

'Red Cross Shelter Serves Florence Evacuees' - News report published by Voice of America on September 14, 2018

In North Carolina, mandatory evacuations were issued on September 11 for Brunswick County, Carteret County, Craven County, Onslow County, Pamlico County, Tyrrell County, North Topsail Beach, Emerald Isle, Ocracoke Island, Atlantic Beach, Indian Beach, Kure Beach, Pine Knoll Shores, and Wrightsville Beach. A mandatory evacuation for visitors and tourists was issued on September 11 for Holden Beach, Oak Island, and Currituck. Voluntary evacuations were issued for Bertie County, Beaufort County, and Surf City. [88] A voluntary evacuation was also issued for New Hanover County on September 10, including Wilmington, NC. [89]

The University of North Carolina at Wilmington issued a mandatory evacuation effective on September 10. [90] All students were evacuated by noon on September 11. The university collaborated with the University of North Carolina at Asheville to house students who had no options for safe shelter. [91] College football games scheduled at North Carolina State University, [92] East Carolina University, Wake Forest University, Appalachian State University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of South Carolina were cancelled as a result of the storm. [93] [94] [95] Several universities in North Carolina had announced closings in preparation for the hurricane. [96] [97] [98]

In South Carolina, in 26 eastern counties, public schools were closed until further notice beginning on September 10. State offices in these counties were also ordered closed, while county-level officials could decide when to close their offices. [99]

Atlanta Motor Speedway, Bristol Motor Speedway, Charlotte Motor Speedway and Talladega Superspeedway opened their campgrounds to evacuees of Hurricane Florence free of charge. [100] [101] [102] In West Virginia, Governor Jim Justice ordered for construction along northbound Interstate 77 (West Virginia Turnpike) between the Virginia border in Mercer County and Charleston to be suspended in order to improve traffic flow for evacuees. In addition, West Virginia state parks offered reduced rates for rooms, cabins, and campsites until September 18 in order to provide assistance to evacuees. [103]


Cape Verde and Bermuda

Disruptive rainfall and strong winds affected Brava, Fogo, and Santiago in Cape Verde, causing some landslides and localized flooding. Impacts from the storm were otherwise minimal, with no material damage reported. [62]

Large swells and rip currents from the storm reached Bermuda on September 7. [104]

United States

North Carolina

Radar image of Hurricane Florence a few hours after landfall on September 14 Florence radar 20180914 1526 UTC.jpg
Radar image of Hurricane Florence a few hours after landfall on September 14

In Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, 27 people required lifeguard rescue between September 8 and 9. [105] On September 13, New Bern, North Carolina, was inundated with storm surge around 6 feet (1.8 m). Water levels rose in the west side of the Pamlico Sound.Water levels on the Neuse River at Oriental, North Carolina peaked at 9.6 feet above normal. [106] Employees at ABC affiliate WCTI-TV (which serves the surrounding market that includes Greenville and Jacksonville) were forced to evacuate its New Bern studio facility that evening due to the rising waters; WCTI station staff were asked to relocate to the studios of sister station WPDE in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina to continue coverage of the storm, with WCTI switching to a simulcast of WPDE's live coverage of the storm until its staff relocated to the WPDE facility. [107] [108] [109] Reports indicated that around 150 people were in need of rescue in New Bern because of the heavy flooding. [110]

Florence's flooding in North Carolina and Virginia was compounded by earlier flooding during the summer that left the ground heavily saturated. [111]

Florence made landfall in Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina on September 14, and by mid-morning rescuers had already evacuated more than 200 people from floodwaters, with about 150 more awaiting rescue. The storm had reportedly cut power to more than 500,000 customers in North and South Carolina by the time of landfall and caused the roof of a hotel in Jacksonville, North Carolina to collapse that morning. [112] On September 14, about 100 civilians, city workers, and National Guard worked to fill sandbags and protect Lumberton, North Carolina from an identified weak spot that caused massive flooding during Hurricane Matthew in 2016. [113]

Heavy rains continued to affect the Carolinas after landfall. A weather station in Swansboro, North Carolina, recorded 33.90 inches (861 mm) of rain, establishing a new record for a tropical cyclone in that state. [114] [115] By September 17, Florence had dropped a maximum total of 35.93 inches (913 mm) of rain in Elizabethtown, North Carolina, becoming the wettest tropical cyclone recorded in the state. [1]

5-day map accumulation with Florence over the Carolinas Hurricane Florence rainfall.png
5-day map accumulation with Florence over the Carolinas

Statewide, approximately 2,200 primary and secondary roads closed due to flooding, [116] including large sections of Interstates 40 and 95. [117] [118]

Strong winds in New Hanover County toppled numerous trees and power lines, while more than 90% of the county was left without electricity. The storm dropped up to 27.2 in (690 mm) of rain near Kings Grant. [119] By the morning of September 16, Wilmington had recorded more rain from Florence than any other single weather event in the city's history. Additionally, Florence contributed to the wettest year in Wilmington history, with annual rainfall totals eclipsing the previous record set in 1877. [120] The city of Wilmington became entirely isolated, as all roads to the city flooded and were deemed impassable, [121] though one unidentified road was opened briefly on September 17. [122] The majority of residents remained without electricity, as of September 16. The city's airport and port were also closed. [121] [123] Although cell phone service remained operational, excess demand strained networks. More than 450 people required rescue across Wilmington. Woody White, New Hanover County chairman of the board of commissioners, issued a statement advising all travelers to avoid the Wilmington area. [121] There was a report of looting and burglary at a Wilmington area Family Dollar, with the theft of non-essential items such as sports apparel and athletic shoes during the height of the storm. [124] [125] The city-wide curfew issued in advance of the storm was extended because of these incidents. [121]

Early on September 17, a tornado was confirmed in Elm City, North Carolina. [126]

Also on September 17, the Pee Dee River crested at Ansonville at 35.4 ft (10.8 m), 2 ft (0.61 m) above the 1945 record. [127]

The Cape Fear River crested at 61.4 ft (18.7 m)—about 35 ft (11 m) above flood stage—near Fayetteville early on September 19. The magnitude of flooding greatly exceeded the levels observed due to Hurricane Matthew in 2016. The nearby Little River inundated large areas across Cumberland and Harnett counties. Overtopped bridges isolated communities and hampered relief efforts. [128]

Damage statewide reached an estimated US$17 billion, more than the combined damage of Hurricane Floyd and Hurricane Matthew in the state, according to Governor Roy Cooper. [9] Estimated insurance losses ranged between $2.8–5 billion. [8]

South Carolina

Heavy rainfall also occurred in South Carolina, with 23.63 in (600 mm) of precipitation observed near Loris, setting a new state record for rainfall from a tropical cyclone. [129] More than 100 people were rescued from their homes and cars in Loris. The Waccamaw River in Conway crested at 22.1 ft (6.7 m) on September 26, exceeding the Hurricane Matthew record of 19.1 ft (5.8 m). At a neighborhood along South Carolina Highway 905, about 5 ft (1.5 m) of water entered some homes. Farther south along the Waccamaw River, homes in a neighborhood in Socastee were flooded with as much as 8 ft (2.4 m) of water. In western Horry County, the community of Dongola was left isolated for 10 days. The overflowing river flooded almost 1,000 homes and businesses. The storm also spawned two tornadoes in Horry County, both rated EF0. The first twister touched down just north-northeast of Myrtle Beach, causing minor damage to pine trees near Route 17 before lifting after moving only about half a mile. The other tornado touched down near Longs and also damaged pine trees and a roof. [119]

Flooding was also reported in Marion County, especially in Brittons Neck and Gresham. A number of people evacuated and were still not able to access their homes by October 1. In Nichols, flooding damaged about 150  homes which had been rebuilt after Hurricane Matthew. Strong winds downed trees and power lines, while at least one home in Nichols suffered roof damage. Approximately 400 homes in Dillon County were flooded. A total of 21  homes in Darlington County received severe flood damage, while another home was destroyed. [119]

In Chesterfield County, the Pee Dee River crested at 46.51 ft (14.18 m) at Cheraw. Three nearby dams failed, causing significant flooding in Cheraw and the town of Chesterfield. Many roads became impassable or were washed out. A total of 226 homes were damaged and other 2 were destroyed. [130] A Superfund site was also damaged, causing PCB to enter homes, a toxic substance which required cleanup efforts by the Environmental Protection Agency. [131] In Lancaster County, flash flooding left a number of roads impassable and washed out several other streets. A park was flooded after the Gills Creek overflowed. Winds downed about 20 trees in the Lancaster area, one of which fell onto a home and others falling onto a road. Power lines were downed across Route 521, obstructing all four lanes. [130] Damage statewide were at least $1.2 billion. [132]


A warehouse in Chesterfield County, Virginia, destroyed by a tornado Olddominionflorence.jpg
A warehouse in Chesterfield County, Virginia, destroyed by a tornado

The storm spawned 10 tornadoes in Virginia, including 2 in Chesterfield County, 1 in Hanover County, 1 in Mecklenberg County, 1 in Powhatan County, and 5 in Richmond. Most of these tornadoes caused little damage other than downed trees, tree limbs, or electrical poles. However, the twister in Chesterfield County, rated EF2, damaged several buildings between Winterpock and Bon Air and destroyed a warehouse, causing one death and at least one injury. The tornado in Mecklenburg County, rated EF0, touched down between Boydton and Skipwith. Extensive tree damaged was reported, with several homes and outbuildings damaged by falling trees. [133] Virginia suffered a total of $200 million in damages. [2]

The state of Georgia experienced lesser amounts of damage, mostly from fallen trees and downed powerlines. Damage in Georgia totaled $30 million. [2]

Large swells ahead of the hurricane reached Assateague State Park, Maryland, by September 9, prompting the Maryland Department of Natural Resources to close beach access indefinitely. [134]


Deaths by U.S. state [2]
Florida 202
North Carolina 152540
South Carolina 459
Virginia 303

Rip currents and rough seas in New Smyrna Beach, Florida, caused 13 rescues; one victim died at a hospital and two others had impact injuries. [4] One man drowned on September 11, at Florida's Playalinda Beach, while trying to rescue a 10-year-old boy caught in a rip current. [5] One child drowned in Green Swamp near Sumter, South Carolina after water released from the Second Mill Pond flowed into the river. [135]

Two people in North Carolina died while trying to evacuate: one in Columbus County and Wayne County. [136] [137] In Wilmington, a mother and her baby were killed when a tree landed on their house. In Hampstead, a woman died of a heart attack; downed trees on roads kept first responders from reaching her. A person was killed in Lenoir County while plugging in a generator in the wet conditions. [138] A house fire in Fayetteville killed a husband and wife. Freshwater flooding killed at least eleven people: one in Anson County, eight Duplin County, and two in Scotland County. [116] [137] [139] One man was killed in Kinston by strong winds while checking on his hunting dogs. [140] A three-month-old baby died in Gaston County when a tree crushed a mobile home. [136] In Union County, a woman drove around a barrier into a flooded road and her vehicle was swept away. Rescuers saved the mother, but her one-year-old baby drowned. [141] An 18-wheeler aquaplaned off Interstate 85 near Kings Mountain and crashed into a tree; the vehicle tore in half, killing the driver. [142] Two other accidents each killed one person: an old man died of oxygen loss related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during a power outage, and a person collapsed and died in Sampson County while helping an evacuee. [137] One person drowned in the swelling Cape Fear River near Cedar Creek after refusing evacuation orders. [143] On September 20, a man in Brunswick County died after being crushed by a tree he was clearing. [144] In late September, two people were killed in North Carolina while repairing damage from Hurricane Florence to their homes, bringing the death toll in the state to 39. [3]

Three deaths originally attributed to the hurricane were later considered unrelated. One woman died of unknown causes in a shelter, and two people found dead on Harkers Island were deemed victims of a murder-suicide. [136] [145]

Two people died of carbon monoxide poisoning in Loris, South Carolina. A vehicle with three occupants lost control on a flooded road in Georgetown County; one passenger died, while the driver and other passenger escaped. A woman died when her vehicle crashed into a downed tree near Union. [139] A vehicle lost control along Interstate 20 near Columbia and crashed into a bridge support, killing the driver. Another fatal accident occurred near Columbia when a woman drove into a flooded road and crashed into a tree. [146] On September 18, a van was transporting two mental health patients from Horry County to Darlington; the vehicle was swept away by swift-moving water along U.S. Route 76—the swollen Little Pee Dee River was 0.5 mi (0.80 km) from this location. [147] The two deputies in the van managed to escape and survived; [148] however, the two women in the back were shackled, and the deputies were unable to free them before the van was overcome with water. [149] The deputies were put on administrative leave. [150]

On September 17, ten tornadoes (EF0 through EF2) [133] [151] touched down in Virginia, resulting in one death in Chesterfield County, Virginia. [152] [153] Another person died when his vehicle was swept away along a flooded road in Louisa. [154]

One 69-year-old man in Robeson County, North Carolina whose house was damaged apparently committed suicide. [6] [155]

Agriculture and environmental effects

Flooded farmland in Duplin County, North Carolina in the wake of Florence 20180924-OSEC-LSC-1160 (43110332950).jpg
Flooded farmland in Duplin County, North Carolina in the wake of Florence

The large-scale flooding affected swaths of North Carolina's agricultural industry and proved particularly damaging to livestock. Through September 18, the North Carolina Department of Agriculture stated 3.4 million chickens and turkeys and 5,500 hogs died in flooded farms. Dozens of farms remained isolated with animals unable to be fed. Piles of manure stored at these farms were swept into swollen rivers, [156] [157] about a dozen pits holding animal waste were damaged by the flooding and debris. [158]

On September 16, approximately 5 million gallons of partially treated wastewater spilled into the Cape Fear River after a treatment plant lost power. [156] An estimated 2,000 yd3 (1,530 m3) of coal ash from the closed Sutton Power Station near Wilmington was also swept into the river. Torrential rains from the storm itself, estimated at 30 inches (760 mm), also caused a swamp to spill into the cooling pond. [159] On September 19, the H.F. Lee Energy Complex in Goldsboro flooded to the point where their three ponds were completely underwater and began releasing coal ash into the Neuse River. [160]

Domestic and zoo animals

During and after the storm made landfall, local rescuers and nationwide donors and organizations worked to aid the many pets that had been left by their owners, or alongside their owners. [161] [162] Others drove to South and North Carolina in order to evacuate animals and bring them outside of the hurricanes impact zone while shelters in other states accepted animals from the states. [163] Many rescuers were looking for local residents in need of assistance or evacuation aid, and discovered some animals in flooding cages, some attempting to seek shelter, and some stranded on porches. [164]

Zoo animals such as those from the Virginia Zoo were sheltered within indoor and sheltered portions of their enclosures. [165] Other zoos such as the North Carolina Zoo were lightly impacted by the storm and opened on September 18, and offered free admission for evacuees from September 18 to 21. [166]



On September 19, after the rain had stopped, a majority of evacuees were urged by officials to stay away from their homes as the rivers continued to rise; the potential threat of floods remained high, roads remained closed, and thousands lacked power to their homes. [167] Many individuals whose homes were ruined due to the hurricane, have been offered aid through Red Cross shelters, rental assistance from FEMA, or utilizing undamaged rental properties until their homes are livable. FEMA has utilized Transitional Sheltering Assistance Programs to pay for hotel stays for individuals while they look for more permanent solutions, the programs had 342 households and a total of 1,044 people as of October 3. [168]

Power restoration

In the aftermath of the storm, over 40,000 workers from across the U.S. and Canada went to the Carolinas to help restore power, according to the Edison Electric Institute. [169]


The continued flooding closed many major roads for days after the incident. On September 15, NCDOT asked drivers to avoid driving in North Carolina altogether, instructing them to take a detour at Richmond, Virginia using Interstate 64 west to Interstate 81 south into Tennessee to Interstate 40 west to Interstate 75 south into Georgia to Interstate 16 east back to Interstate 95. [170] Parts of I-95 and I-40 in North Carolina reopened ten days later September 23, while hundreds of other roads remained closed. [171] Thousands of dead fish had to be cleaned off of Interstate 40 in Pender County, North Carolina, with other marine life such as a 20-foot-long whale being reported washed onto beaches and residential areas, having to be removed and buried. [172]

Relief efforts

President Donald Trump visited North and South Carolina on September 19, and spoke to emergency workers in an airplane hangar at the Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point. [173] South Carolina Governor McMaster applied for $1.2 billion in federal funding for recovery. This included $165 million under the National Flood Insurance Program and $125 million for agriculture. [116] On September 23, the United States Congress began deliberation of a $1.7 billion aid package for the Carolinas. [174]


The deaths of two women who were being transported to a mental health facility led to an opening of an investigation, which is being conducted by the State Law Enforcement Division and Highway Patrol. The deputies involved were placed on administrative leave. [150] Family members of the deceased met with South Carolina elected officials to discuss the incident and the changes that they wish to see put in place to prevent other deaths. [175]


On March 20, 2019, at the 41st session of the RA IV hurricane committee, the World Meteorological Organization retired the name Florence from its rotating name lists, due to the severe damage and loss of life it caused along its track, particularly in the Carolinas, and its name will never again be used for another Atlantic hurricane. It will be replaced with Francine for the 2024 season. [176]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Floyd Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1999

Hurricane Floyd was a very powerful Cape Verde hurricane which struck the east coast of the United States. It was the sixth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd triggered the fourth largest evacuation in US history when 2.6 million coastal residents of five states were ordered from their homes as it approached. The hurricane formed off the coast of Africa and lasted from September 7 to September 19, peaking in strength as a very strong Category 4 hurricane—just 2 mph short of the highest possible rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. It was among the largest Atlantic hurricanes of its strength ever recorded.

1964 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1964 Atlantic hurricane season featured the highest number of U.S.-landfalling hurricanes since 1933. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was slightly above average, with twelve total storms and six hurricanes. All of the hurricanes strengthened into major hurricanes, an event that had not occurred since 1930. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed on June 2, almost two weeks before the official start of the season. Striking Florida on June 6, the storm brought localized flooding to portions of Cuba and the Southeastern United States, leaving about $1 million in damage. The next storm, also unnamed, developed near the end of July; it did not impact land.

1920 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1920 Atlantic hurricane season featured tropical storms and hurricanes only in the month of September. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a hurricane, developed on September 7 while the last, a tropical depression, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 27. Of note, four of the six cyclones co-existed with another tropical cyclone during the season.

Hurricane Diana (1984) Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1984

Hurricane Diana was the fourth tropical storm, the first hurricane, the first major hurricane, and the strongest storm of the 1984 Atlantic hurricane season. Diana was the first major hurricane to hit the U.S. East Coast in nearly 20 years. Watches and warnings were issued for the storm along the East coast between eastern Florida and Virginia. It caused moderate damage in North Carolina while it looped offshore and after it made landfall as a Category 2 hurricane. Forming on September 8, Diana moved northward and wandered across North Carolina for a couple of days during mid-September, dropping heavy rainfall. Once it left the state and accelerated east-northeast, Diana quickly evolved into an extratropical cyclone. Damages to the United States totaled $65.5 million. Three indirect fatalities were caused by the cyclone.

Hurricane Gaston (2004) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2004

Hurricane Gaston was a minimal hurricane that made landfall in South Carolina on August 29, 2004. It then crossed North Carolina and Virginia before exiting to the northeast and dissipating. The storm killed nine people – eight of them directly – and caused $130 million (2004 USD) in damage. Gaston produced torrential downpours that inundated Richmond, Virginia. Although originally designated a tropical storm, Gaston was reclassified as a hurricane when post-storm analysis revealed it had maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h).

The 1940 South Carolina hurricane was a Category 2 hurricane that struck the Georgia and South Carolina coast between August 11 and 12, 1940. After forming north of the Leeward Islands, the storm moved west-northwest, moving east of the Bahamas before resuming a west-northwest track towards the Southeastern United States. Hurricane warnings were in effect for the United States coastline near and north of where the center made landfall. A 13-foot storm tide was measured along the South Carolina coast, while over 15 inches (380 mm) of rain fell across northern North Carolina. Significant flooding and landslides struck Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia during the system's slow trek as a weakening tropical storm, and then as an extratropical cyclone, through the Southeast. The landslides which struck North Carolina were considered a once in a century event. Damages relating to the storm totaled $13 million and 50 people perished.

Hurricane Helene (1958) Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1958

Hurricane Helene was the most intense tropical cyclone of the 1958 Atlantic hurricane season. The eighth tropical storm and fourth hurricane of the year, Helene was formed from a tropical wave east of the Lesser Antilles on September 21, 1958. Moving steadily westward, the storm slowly intensified, attaining hurricane strength on September 24. As conditions became increasingly favorable for tropical cyclone development, Helene began to rapidly intensify. Nearing the United States East Coast, the hurricane quickly attained Category 4 intensity on September 26, before it subsequently reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 930 mbar. The intense hurricane came within 10 mi (15 km) of Cape Fear, North Carolina before recurving out to sea. Accelerating northward, Helene gradually weakened, and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone as it passed over Newfoundland on September 29. Helene's extratropical remnants traversed eastwards across the Atlantic Ocean before dissipating near Great Britain on October 4.

Tropical Storm Alberto (2006) first tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Alberto was the first tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming on June 10 in the northwestern Caribbean, the storm moved generally to the north, reaching a maximum intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) before weakening and moving ashore in the Big Bend area of Florida on June 13. Alberto then moved through eastern Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia as a tropical depression before becoming extratropical on June 14.

Tropical Storm Danielle (1992) Atlantic tropical storm in 1992

Tropical Storm Danielle was a strong tropical storm that made landfall on Virginia in the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season. The fourth storm of the season, Danielle was one of two tropical cyclones in the year to make landfall in the United States, the other being Hurricane Andrew. It formed out of a stationary trough of low pressure on September 18 near the coast of North Carolina. The system quickly reached tropical storm status, and Danielle looped to the west due to a change in steering currents. Tropical Storm Danielle reached a peak of 65 mph (105 km/h) winds before weakening and hitting the Delmarva Peninsula. The storm quickly dissipated over land.

Hurricane Kyle (2002) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2002

Hurricane Kyle was the fifth-longest-lived Atlantic tropical or subtropical cyclone on record. The eleventh named storm and third hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, Kyle developed as a subtropical cyclone on September 20 to the east-southeast of Bermuda. Looping westward, it transitioned into a tropical cyclone and became a hurricane on September 25. For the next two weeks, Kyle tracked generally westward, oscillating in strength several times because of fluctuations in environmental conditions. On October 11, the cyclone turned northeastward and made landfalls near Charleston, South Carolina, and Long Beach, North Carolina, at tropical storm status. After lasting as a cyclone for 22 days, Kyle dissipated on October 12 as it was absorbed by an approaching cold front.

Hurricane Ernesto (2006) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2006

Hurricane Ernesto was the costliest tropical cyclone of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. The sixth tropical storm and first hurricane of the season, Ernesto developed from a tropical wave on August 24 in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Ernesto first affected the northern Caribbean, reaching minimal hurricane status near Haiti before weakening and moving across eastern Cuba as a tropical storm. Despite initial predictions for it to track through the eastern Gulf of Mexico as a major hurricane, Ernesto moved across eastern Florida as a weak tropical storm. After turning to the northeast, it re-intensified and made landfall on August 31 on the North Carolina coast just below hurricane status. Late the next day, Ernesto became extratropical after entering southern Virginia. The remnants spread moisture across the northeastern United States before dissipating over eastern Canada on September 4.

Effects of Hurricane Isabel in Delaware

The effects of Hurricane Isabel in Delaware resulted in one of only thirteen presidential disaster declarations for the state of Delaware. Hurricane Isabel formed from a tropical wave on September 6, 2003 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It moved northwestward, and within an environment of light wind shear and warm waters it steadily strengthened to reach peak winds of 165 mph (265 km/h) on September 11. After fluctuating in intensity for four days, Isabel gradually weakened and made landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) on September 18. It quickly weakened over land and became extratropical over Pennsylvania the next day. The storm's center remained to the south and west of Delaware, and was about 175 miles (280 km) from Delaware at its closest approach. At that time, Isabel was a strong tropical storm located in central Virginia.

Tropical Storm Gabrielle (2007) Atlantic tropical storm in 2007

Tropical Storm Gabrielle was a short-lived tropical cyclone that passed over North Carolina before tracking out to sea. The seventh named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Gabrielle developed as a subtropical cyclone on September 8 about 385 miles (625 km) southeast of Cape Lookout, North Carolina. Unfavorable wind shear impacted the storm for much of its duration, although a temporary decrease in the shear allowed the cyclone to become a tropical storm. On September 9, Gabrielle made landfall at Cape Lookout National Seashore in the Outer Banks of North Carolina with winds of 60 mph (90 km/h). Turning to the northeast, the storm quickly weakened and dissipated on September 11.

Tropical Storm Becky (1970) Atlantic tropical storm in 1970

Tropical Storm Becky was the second tropical cyclone and named storm of the 1970 Atlantic hurricane season. Becky formed from a tropical depression that was designated on July 19. The next day it organized over the Yucatán Channel and became Tropical Storm Becky. Initially thought to have attained minimal hurricane status, Becky reached peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), but the storm began to deteriorate shortly thereafter. The storm made landfall on the Florida Panhandle on July 22, and rapidly weakened over land. Overall, damage was related to heavy rainfall that caused flooding in Tallahassee, Florida; 104 families suffered flood-related losses. About $500,000 in damage was attributed to the storm. Further north, the heavy rainfall swelled rivers. Becky may have been partially responsible for spawning tornadoes that destroyed or damaged several houses.

Hurricane Able (1952) Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 1952

Hurricane Able was the only hurricane to make landfall in the United States in the 1952 season. Forming on August 18 off the west coast of Africa, Able moved generally west- to west-northwestward for much of its duration. It was first observed by the Hurricane Hunters on August 25 to the north of the Lesser Antilles. Two days later, Able attained hurricane status, and on August 30 it turned sharply to the north-northwest in response to a cold front. The hurricane reached peak winds of 105 mph (170 km/h) just prior to moving ashore near St. Helena Island Beaufort, South Carolina on August 31. Although it quickly weakened below hurricane force, Able maintained tropical storm force for almost two days over land, eventually dissipating over Maine on September 2.

Tropical Storm Beryl (2012) Atlantic tropical storm in 2012

Tropical Storm Beryl was the strongest off-season Atlantic tropical cyclone on record to make landfall in the United States. The second tropical cyclone of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, Beryl developed on May 26 from a low-pressure system offshore North Carolina. Initially subtropical, the storm slowly acquired tropical characteristics as it tracked across warmer sea surface temperatures and within an environment of decreasing vertical wind shear. Late on May 27, Beryl transitioned into a tropical cyclone less than 120 miles (190 km) from North Florida. Early the following day, the storm moved ashore near Jacksonville Beach, Florida, with peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). It quickly weakened to a tropical depression, dropping heavy rainfall while moving slowly across the southeastern United States. A cold front turned Beryl to the northeast, and the storm became extratropical on May 30.

Tropical Storm Ana (2015) Atlantic tropical storm in 2015

Tropical Storm Ana was the earliest recorded tropical cyclone to make landfall in the United States in any given year. A relatively rare pre-season system, Ana was the first tropical storm of the 2015 Atlantic hurricane season. It developed as a subtropical cyclone from a non-tropical low north of the Bahamas, and intensified to attain peak winds of 60 mph (97 km/h) before transitioning into a fully tropical cyclone early on May 9. Sustained in part by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, Ana made landfall along the northeast coast of South Carolina early the next morning, becoming the earliest U.S. landfalling system on record. Overall, damage from the storm was minor. Heavy rainfall and gusty winds affected parts of the Carolinas, and some vulnerable beaches endured coastal flooding and several feet of erosion. Gusty winds damaged trees and powerlines, causing sporadic power outages, and a weak tornado was reported in association with Ana. In North Carolina, two deaths—one direct and one indirect—were attributed to the storm.

Tropical Storm Julia (2016)

Tropical Storm Julia was a weak tropical cyclone that caused minor damage across the Eastern United States in September 2016. The tenth named storm of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season, Julia developed from a tropical wave near the coast of east-central Florida on September 13. Initially a tropical depression, the system soon made landfall near Jensen Beach. Despite moving inland, the cyclone intensified into a tropical storm, shortly before strengthening further to reach maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h). Julia then drifted north-northwestward and then northeastward, moving offshore the Southeastern United States on September 14. A cyclonic loop occurred as strong westerly air developed in the region, with the shear causing fluctuations in intensity. By September 19, Julia degenerated into a remnant low, which later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone and moved inland over North Carolina before dissipating on September 21.

Tropical Storm Alberto (2018) The first named tropical weather system of the 2018 hurricane season

Tropical Storm Alberto was a costly and deadly pre-season tropical cyclone. The first storm of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season, Alberto developed on May 25 near the Yucatán Peninsula as a subtropical cyclone. As it entered the Gulf of Mexico, Alberto intensified and transitioned into a tropical cyclone. Early on May 28, Alberto reached its peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 990 mbar. Afterward, however, dry air caused Alberto to weaken before it made landfall near Laguna Beach, Florida, with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). Alberto maintained a compact area of thunderstorms as it progressed through the central United States, entering southern Michigan as a tropical depression on May 31. That day, Alberto weakened further and dissipated over Ontario. Alberto took a near-identical path as Tropical Storm Arlene in 2005.


  1. 1 2 Connor Pregizer (September 20, 2018). "Major preliminary rainfall totals for Hurricane Florence". KTVQ Billings News. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stacy R. Stewart; Robbie Berg (May 3, 2018). Hurricane Florence (PDF) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center . Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  3. 1 2 Gabriella Borter (October 2, 2018). "Hurricane Florence death toll rises to 51". Reuters. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  4. 1 2 Kelly Healey (September 10, 2018). "Man drowns while swimming in New Smyrna Beach amid rip current warning, officials say". WFTV. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  5. 1 2 Kevin Williams and Melonie Holt (September 12, 2018). "Hurricane Florence updates: Gas stations run dry in parts of South Carolina". WFTV. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  6. 1 2 "More than a month after Hurricane Florence devastated NC, the deaths continue". News & Observer. November 1, 2018.
  7. "Assessing the U.S. Climate in 2018". National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). February 6, 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  8. 1 2 Suzanne Barlyn (September 25, 2018). "Hurricane Florence insured losses to range from $2.8 billion to $5 billion: RMS". Reuters. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  9. 1 2 3 "'Historic' Hurricane Florence caused more damage than Matthew and Floyd combined, governor says". News & Observer. November 1, 2018.
  10. Robbie Berg (August 28, 2018). Tropical Weather Outlook (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  11. Lixion Avila (August 29, 2018). Tropical Weather Outlook (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  12. Lixion Avila (August 30, 2018). Tropical Weather Outlook (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  13. Lixion Avila (August 30, 2018). Potential Tropical Cyclone Six Discussion Number 2 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  14. Lixion Avila (August 30, 2018). Potential Tropical Cyclone Six Discussion Number 1 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  15. Robbie Berg (August 31, 2018). Potential Tropical Cyclone Six Discussion Number 4 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  16. Lixion Avila (August 31, 2018). Tropical Depression Six Discussion Number 6 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  17. Jack Beven (September 1, 2018). Tropical Depression Six Discussion Number 7 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  18. Robbie Berg (September 1, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Discussion Number 8 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  19. David Zelinsky (September 2, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Discussion Number 12 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  20. Stacy Stewart (September 2, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Discussion Number 13 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  21. Michael Brennan (September 2, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Discussion Number 14 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  22. David Zelinsky (September 3, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Discussion Number 16 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  23. Michael Brennan (September 3, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Discussion Number 17 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  24. Robbie Berg (September 4, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 21 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  25. Robbie Berg (September 4, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 21 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  26. Robbie Berg and Jamie Rhome (September 5, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 25 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  27. Dave Roberts (September 5, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 24 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  28. Robbie Berg and Jamie Rhome (September 5, 2018). Hurricane Florence Tropical Cyclone Update (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  29. Robbie Berg and Jamie Rhome (September 5, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 26 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  30. Robbie Berg and Jamie Rhome (September 5, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 26 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  31. Sam Lillo [@splillo] (September 5, 2018). "Intensity at 18z has been increased to 115kt -- #Florence is officially a category 4 hurricane. At 22.4N / 46.2W, this also makes #Florence the furthest north category 4 hurricane east of 50W ever recorded in the Atlantic" (Tweet). Retrieved September 9, 2018 via Twitter.
  32. 1 2 3 Robbie Berg (September 6, 2018). Tropical storm Florence Advisory Number 29 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  33. Eric Blake (September 6, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 27 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  34. David Zelinsky (September 6, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 28 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  35. 1 2 Eric Blake (September 7, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Advisory Number 31 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  36. Robbie Berg (September 7, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Advisory Number 33 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  37. Michael Lowry [@MichaelRLowry] (September 7, 2018). "For historical perspective, most landfalling U.S. hurricanes have tracked much farther south and west of #Florence's current position" (Tweet). Retrieved September 9, 2018 via Twitter.
  38. Robbie Berg (September 8, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Advisory Number 38 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  39. Lixion Avila (September 9, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Advisory Number 39 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  40. Eric Blake (September 9, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 41 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  41. Stacy Stewart (September 10, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 43 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  42. Eric Blake (September 10, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 44 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  43. Eric Blake (September 10, 2018). Hurricane Florence Tropical Cyclone Update (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  44. Eric Blake (September 10, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 46 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  45. Eric Blake (September 10, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 46 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  46. Jack Beven (September 11, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 47 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  47. Daniel Brown (September 11, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 48 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  48. Stacy Stewart (September 11, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 49 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  49. Stacy Stewart (September 11, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 50 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  50. Richard Pasch (September 11, 2018). Hurricane Florence Discussion Number 51 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  51. Stacy R. Stewart and Robbie Berg (May 3, 2019). NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER TROPICAL CYCLONE REPORT HURRICANE FLORENCE (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  52. Stacy Stewart (September 11, 2018). Hurricane Florence Intermediate Advisory Number 53A (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  53. Stacy Stewart (September 14, 2018) [08:00 EDT, 12:00 UTC]. Hurricane Florence Intermediate Advisory Number 60A (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
  54. Stacy R. Stewart (September 14, 2018). "Tropical Storm Florence Advisory Number 62". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
  55. Richard Pasch (September 16, 2018). "Tropical Depression Florence Advisory Number 63". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  56. Richard Pasch (September 16, 2018). "Tropical Depression Florence Discussion Number 68". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  57. David Roth (September 17, 2018). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Florence Advisory Number 74". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  58. "WPC Surface Analysis for 09/18/2018 at 21 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. September 18, 2018. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  59. "WPC Surface Analysis for 09/19/2018 at 12 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. September 19, 2018. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  60. Michael J. Brennan (September 22, 2018). NHC Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook Archive (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  61. Lixion Avila (August 30, 2018). Potential Tropical Cyclone Six Advisory Number 1 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  62. 1 2 "Passagem de depressão tropical em Cabo Verde leva ao cancelamento de 20 voos domésticos". Observador (in Portuguese). Agência Lusa. September 2, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  63. "Depressão tropical afasta-se de Cabo Verde". Expresso das Ilhas (in Portuguese). September 1, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  64. "Depressão Tropical em Cabo Verde: Famílias de Rincão e Furna Acima transferidas após alerta da protecção civil". A Semana (in Portuguese). September 1, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  65. "Depressão Tropical chega com vento e chuva a Cabo Verde: País continua em estado de alerta e com Rincão como zona de risco". A Semana (in Portuguese). August 31, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  66. Lixion Avila (September 1, 2018). Tropical Storm Florence Intermediate Advisory 8A (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  67. Adam Leposa (September 7, 2018). "Cruise Lines Cancel Bermuda Calls Due to Florence". Travel Agent Central. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  68. "The Latest: Storm prompts North Carolina State of Emergency". Daily Progress. Associated Press. September 7, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  69. Jason Hanna; Kaylee Hartung; Steve Almasy. "Hurricane Florence strengthens as 1 million people are told to flee US East Coast". CNN. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  70. 1 2 Kirby Hood (September 12, 2018). "Curfews in effect for several counties ahead of Hurricane Florence". WPDE. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  71. Michael Martz (October 15, 2018). "FEMA OKs disaster declaration for Va". The Daily Progress. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  72. Daniel J. Gross (September 8, 2018). "Hurricane Florence: SC declares state of emergency, 'preparing for the worst'". The Greenville News. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  73. Alondra De La Rosa and Angela Rogers (September 7, 2018). "Local agencies preparing for Florence and potential emergency". ABC Colombia. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  74. Teddy Kulmala (September 9, 2018). "SC preps for 'possibility of a large-scale disaster' as Florence grows into hurricane". The State. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  75. Jessica Minch (September 12, 2018). "City of Conway to enact curfew during Hurricane Florence". WBTW. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  76. Jessica Minch (September 12, 2018). "City of Myrtle Beach extends curfew to Thursday night ahead of Hurricane Florence". WBTW. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  77. Martin Weil (September 8, 2018). "State of emergency declared in Virginia in advance of Hurricane". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  78. "Maryland Declares State Of Emergency Ahead Of Hurricane Florence". CBS Baltimore. September 10, 2018.
  79. "Mayor Bowser Declares State of Emergency Ahead of Hurricane Florence". Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  80. Ariellle Buckman (September 11, 2018). "Mayor Bowser declares state of emergency in DC ahead of Hurricane Florence". Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  81. "Gov. Deal issues State of Emergency for Georgia ahead of Hurricane Florence". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. September 12, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  82. "Mandatory evacuation ordered for Dare County ahead of Florence impacts". WKTR. September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  83. "Hurricane Florence Preparations Underway: Outer Banks Evacuations Officially Underway". The Weather Channel. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  84. Sean Breslin (September 10, 2018). "South Carolina Prepares for Hurricane Florence: Gov. McMaster Orders Entire Coastline to Evacuate". The Weather Channel . Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  85. Ciara Nugent (September 10, 2018). "1 Million People Ordered to Evacuate South Carolina Coast as Hurricane Florence Gathers Strength". Time. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  86. "Virginia Governor Orders Mandatory Evacuation for Some of Virginia, Including Parts of the Eastern Shore". Salisbury, MD: WBOC-TV. September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  87. "US 'monster' hurricane set to strengthen". BBC News. September 11, 2018. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  88. "Mandatory evacuations issued ahead of Hurricane Florence". WTVD-TV. September 11, 2018. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  89. "Evacuations Recommended, County Shelter to Open". New Hanover County. September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  90. "UNC-Wilmington issues mandatory evacuation order beginning Monday". WSOC-TV. September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  91. "UNCW issues mandatory evacuation for students". WWAY News. September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 11, 2018./
  92. "NC State vs. West Virginia Football Game Will Not Be Played This Weekend". NC State Athletics. North Carolina State University. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  93. Adelson, Andrea (September 11, 2018). "UNC-UCF, WVU-NC State, ECU-Va. Tech games called off". ESPN. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  94. "App State-Southern Miss Football Game Will Not Be Played Saturday". September 12, 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  95. Kendall, Josh; Breiner, Ben (September 12, 2018). "South Carolina-Marshall football game canceled". The State. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  96. Newsom, John. "As Florence approaches, most Greensboro — and N.C. — colleges will close". Greensboro News & Record.
  97. "Closings this week at UNC-Greensboro, High Point University". Fox 8. September 11, 2018.
  98. "UNC, NC State, ECU games called off for the weekend; classes canceled". ABC 11. September 10, 2018.
  99. Emily Bohatch (September 10, 2018). "McMaster orders schools across SC to close Tuesday as Florence approaches". The State. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  100. "Charlotte Motor Speedway, Atlanta Motor Speedway open campgrounds to Florence evacuees". Norfolk, VA: WVEC-TV. September 11, 2018. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  101. Staff (September 11, 2018). "Bristol Motor Speedway opens campground for Hurricane Florence evacuees". Knoxville, TN: WBIR-TV. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  102. Gardner, Steve (September 12, 2018). "Talladega Superspeedway offers shelter for Hurricane Florence evacuees". USA Today. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
  103. Jenkins, Jeff (September 12, 2018). "Justice suspends Turnpike work, lowers state park prices as part of Florence response". The Dominion Post. Morgantown, WV. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  104. Robbie Berg (September 7, 2018). Hurricane Florence Advisory Number 34 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  105. "Over 2 dozen rip current rescues at Wrightsville Beach this weekend as Hurricane Florence approaches The University of North Carolina Wilmington received over $140 million in damage and have been forced to close The University Apartments, a residential hall on campus". WNCN. September 9, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  107. Drew MacFarlane (September 13, 2018). "North Carolina Meteorologists Forced Off-Air During Broadcast By Florence Flooding". The Weather Channel . Entertainment Studios/The Weather Company . Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  108. Jason O. Boyd (September 14, 2018). "Statement from WCTI General Manager Matt Bowman". WCTI-TV.
  109. Stephanie Tsoflias Siegel (September 14, 2018). "Hurricane Florence Forces WCTI Meteorologists to Evacuate During Broadcast". TVSpy . Beringer Capital.
  110. Jason O. Boyd (September 14, 2018). "Around 150 people in need of rescue in N. Carolina City". WCTI-TV.
  111. Belles, Jonathan. "America's 'One-in-1,000-Year' Rainfall Events in 2018 | The Weather Channel". The Weather Channel. Retrieved September 28, 2018. Chesapeake Flooding Before Florence: Sept. 10 In the days before Florence made landfall in North Carolina, heavy rain drenched communities along southern Chesapeake Bay. More than 10 inches fell on Sept. 10 in both Kilmarnock and Jamesville, Virginia, in far eastern portions of the state.
  112. Faith Karimi; Tina Burnside; Jason Hanna. "Hurricane Florence makes landfall in North Carolina, with plenty of destruction and suffering ahead". CNN. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  113. CNN, Amir Vera, Cassie Spodak and Jeremy Harlan,. "Over 100 volunteers unite to prevent flooding in North Carolina community". CNN. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  114. NWS Eastern Region [@NWSEastern] (September 16, 2018). "Updated preliminary rainfall totals across North and South Carolina from Hurricane Florence received as of 2 p.m. EDT, on Sunday, September 16. Heavy rain continued to fall across central and western portions of North Carolina and Virginia" (Tweet). Retrieved September 17, 2018 via Twitter.
  115. NWS WPC [@NWSWPC] (September 16, 2018). "NWSWilmingtonNC confirmed a recent ob at Marion 3 E, SC was reasonable. This sets a tropical cyclone rainfall record for SC (preliminarily). Attached are the new graphic and one from the wettest known system in SC history - an extratropical cyclone from Oct 2015 NW of Joaquin" (Tweet). Retrieved September 17, 2018 via Twitter.
  116. 1 2 3 Amy Held (September 20, 2018). "Florence Blamed For 4 More Deaths As 'Unheard Of Amounts Of Water' Keep Flowing". NPR. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  117. "River or road? Amazing images show I-40 completely flooded". CBS17. Reuters. September 18, 2018. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  118. "NC road closures and reopenings: I-40, I-95 affected by Florence". WTVD. September 19, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  119. 1 2 3 Armstrong (October 3, 2018). Post Tropical Cyclone Report...Tropical Storm Florence (Report). National Weather Service Wilmington, North Carolina. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  120. National Weather Service Wilmington, North Carolina Weather Forecast Office (September 16, 2018). "NOUS42 KILM 161405". National Weather Service Raw Text Product. Wilmington, North Carolina: Iowa State University. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  121. 1 2 3 4 Patricia Sullivan and Katie Zezima (September 16, 2018). "Florence has made Wilmington, N.C., an island cut off from the rest of the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  122. "Emergency crews throw supply lifeline to isolated Wilmington". Townhall . Associated Press. September 17, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  123. "Storm Florence: Heavy flooding cuts off Wilmington". BBC. September 17, 2018. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  124. Staff (September 16, 2018). "Looting at Family Dollar store in Wilmington". Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  125. Staff (September 15, 2018). "Looters raid Wilmington Family Dollar". Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  126. Gallagher, Ron (September 17, 2018). "Tornado confirmed near Elm City; some damage reported". News & Observer. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  127. "River levels". The Sun News. September 30, 2018. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  128. Cullen Browder and Gilbert Baez (September 19, 2018). "The Cape Fear River crested overnight in Fayetteville at 61.4 feet". WRAL. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  129. Amanda Reinhart (September 19, 2018). "Storm Summary Number 21 for Heavy Rain and Wind Associated with Florence". Weather Prediction Center. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  130. 1 2 Armstrong (September 30, 2018). Post Tropical Cyclone Report...Tropical Storm Florence (Report). National Weather Service Columbia, South Carolina. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  131. Sammy Fretwell (September 28, 2018). "EPA descends on Cheraw, begins toxic cleanup". The State. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  132. Tim Smith (September 20, 2018). "Hurricane Florence, another 1,000-year event, caused at least $1.2 billion in damage in SC". The Greenville News. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  133. 1 2 "September 17, 2018 Tornadoes". National Weather Service (Wakefield station AKQ. Retrieved September 25, 2018. "As a result, nine additional tornadoes (EF-0 to EF-2) touched down in the Richmond metro between 1:30 and 4:30 PM.")
  134. Mary Carole McCauley and Scott Dance (September 9, 2018). "Florence regains hurricane force, forecast to hit Southeast coast as a major storm". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  135. Adrienne Sarvis (September 12, 2018). "9-year-old boy drowns at Pocalla Swamp". The Sumter Item. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  136. 1 2 3 Bradford Betz (September 16, 2018). "Florence death toll at 17 after 3-month-old dies in North Carolina mobile home". Citizen Times. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  137. 1 2 3 Mark Price and Noah Feit (September 17, 2018). "Florence death toll rises to 32, including 3 young children, Carolinas officials say". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  138. Mark Price. "Five dead from Hurricane Florence, including mother and baby, say officials". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
  139. 1 2 "Florence death toll at 14, including 2 from carbon monoxide". WTOP. Associated Press. September 16, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  140. "Hurricane Florence updates: 23 dead, including 17 dead in North Carolina". WLS-TV. September 17, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  141. "1-year-old child becomes 19th victim of Florence, officials say". WYFF. Associated Press. September 16, 2018. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  142. "2nd tornado touches down in Virginia". WHSV. Associated Press. September 17, 2018. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  143. "Man drowns in trailer near Cape Fear River despite mandatory evacuation warning". WTVD. September 19, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  144. "NC deaths from Florence up to 32 after tree falls on man". CBS17. Associated Press. September 20, 2018. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  145. Stancill, Jane; Bonner, Lynn; Grubb, Tammy (September 15, 2018). "7 dead in NC as Florence, an 'uninvited brute,' brings heavy flooding and power outages". News & Observer . Retrieved September 15, 2018.
  146. Noah Feit; Brian Murphy; Mark Price; Matthew Martinez (September 16, 2018). "17 deaths in the Carolinas linked to Florence flooding, fallen trees and power outages". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  147. Eliott C. McLaughlin and Amanda Watts (September 20, 2018). "2 women drown in back of police van swept away by Florence flooding". CNN. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  148. Tim Smith (September 18, 2018). "Florence flood kills 2 mental health patients when Horry sheriff van is overcome: report". Greenville News. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  149. Chris Francescani (September 19, 2018). "Sheriff's deputies transporting 2 mental health patients who drowned in flood waters put on leave, authorities say". ABC News. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  150. 1 2 "Family outraged after women die in flooded van driven by South Carolina deputies" . Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  151. Duncan, Jim. "Tornado count from Monday increases to ten". WWBT NBC12 news. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  152. Vernon Freeman Jr. and Jake Burns (September 17, 2018). "1 dead after tornado destroys Chesterfield building near Hull Street". WTVR. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  153. Mark Price and Noah Feit (September 17, 2018). "Florence death toll rises to 32, including 3 young children, Carolinas officials say". Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  154. "Louisa man killed in flash flood; Chesterfield tornado victim died while helping co-workers escape". The Daily Progress. September 18, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  155. "The death toll from Hurricane Florence has risen again, four months after the storm". newsandobserver. January 28, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  156. 1 2 Michael Biesecker (September 19, 2018). "Florence flooding kills 3.4 million poultry, 5,500 hogs, NC officials say". WTVD. Associated Press. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  157. Matthew Diebel (September 20, 2018). "A disgusting side effect of Florence: Escaped pig poop. Lots of it". USA Today. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  158. "Florence update: 'nightmare that won't end,' evacuees can't return yet". Newsweek. September 18, 2018. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  159. Michael Biesecker (September 16, 2018). "Rains from Florence cause collapse at NC coal ash landfill". The Oakland Press. Associated Press. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  160. Will Duran (September 20, 2018). "Duke Energy confirms new coal ash spill in North Carolina". heraldsun. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  161. "Video Shows Animals Stranded by Florence Getting Rescued". Time. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  162. Taylor, Alan. "Photos: Pet Rescues in the Wake of Hurricane Florence". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  163. "East Tennessee animal centers give shelter to dogs, cats displaced by Hurricane Florence". Knoxville News Sentinel. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  164. "The animal rescuers of Florence: Dogs saved from submerged crate, pets shuttled away in bus". NBC News. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  165. News, A. B. C. (September 11, 2018). "Lions, tigers and shelter pets will ride out Hurricane Florence in place". ABC News. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  166. WRAL. "N.C. Zoo reopens Tuesday, offers free admission to Florence evacuees ::". Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  167. CNN, Jay Croft, Faith Karimi, and Steve Almasy,. "Rivers keep rising in Carolinas as Trump tours Florence 'nightmare' aftermath". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  168. "Evacuated and evicted, many of Hurricane Florence's victims have nowhere to go". newsobserver. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  169. "Flood Fighters and Recovery Crews Roll in The Carolinas" . Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  170. Wire, CNN. "Avoid I-95: Drivers told to 'go around' North Carolina". WTVR CBS6 news (Richmond, VA). Retrieved September 25, 2018. The issues prompted North Carolina to tell drivers coming down Interstate 95 from Virginia to go around—the entire state. NCDOT asked drivers to detour using Interstate 64 West in Virginia to Interstate 81 south, to Interstate 75 south in Tennessee to Interstate 16 east in Georgia back to Interstate 95. 'This is an extremely long detour, but it is the detour that offers the lowest risk of flooding at this time,' NCDOT officials warned.
  171. Tabackman, Lia (September 24, 2018). "I-95 reopens in North Carolina 10 days after Hurricane Florence". WTVR CBS6 Richmond. Retrieved September 25, 2018. 10 days after Hurricane Florence touched down, Interstate 95 through North Carolina is now reopened to all traffic. ...Hundreds of roads across our state remain closed and flooded and damaged roads remain a danger in many areas.
  172. "Countless dead fish on I-40 create 'horrible' stench as Florence floods recede". The Charlotte Observer . Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  173. CNN, Kevin Liptak,. "Trump visits Hurricane Florence-ravaged Carolinas". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  174. "Congress Considering a Nearly $1.7 Billion Relief Package for Hurricane Florence Efforts". Time. Associated Press. September 23, 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  175. "Family of sheriff's van drowning victim calls for criminal charges against deputies". myrtlebeachonline. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  176. "Florence and Michael retired by the World Meteorological Organization | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". Retrieved March 20, 2019.