Hurricane Dennis

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Hurricane Dennis
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Dennis 2004-07-10 1215Z.png
Hurricane Dennis at peak intensity approaching the Florida Panhandle on July 10
FormedJuly 4, 2005
DissipatedJuly 18, 2005
( Remnant low after July 13)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:150 mph (240 km/h)
Lowest pressure930 mbar (hPa); 27.46 inHg
Fatalities76 direct, 12 indirect
Damage$3.98 billion (2005 USD)
Areas affected
Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major hurricane in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico during the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Dennis was the fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season. Forming in July, the hurricane became the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever to form before August at the time, a title it held for only six days before being surpassed by Hurricane Emily.

Caribbean region to the center-east of America composed of many islands and of coastal regions of continental countries surrounding the Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Gulf of Mexico An Atlantic Ocean basin extending into southern North America

The Gulf of Mexico is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. The U.S. states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida border the Gulf on the north, which are often referred to as the "Third Coast", in comparison with the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

2005 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and catastrophic. Its storms caused an estimated total of 3,960 deaths and approximately $180.7 billion in damage, making it the second costliest season on record, surpassed only by the 2017 season.

Contents

Dennis made landfall in Cuba twice as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale and made landfall on the United States' Florida Panhandle as a Category 3 storm, coming less than a year after the devastating Hurricane Ivan. Dennis killed 88 people in total and was responsible for $2.5 billion (2005  USD) in damages to the United States, not counting additional damage in the Caribbean.

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

Florida Panhandle northwest region of florida

The Florida Panhandle, an informal, unofficial term for the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Florida, is a strip of land roughly 200 miles (320 km) long and 50 to 100 miles wide, lying between Alabama on the north and the west, Georgia on the north, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Its eastern boundary is arbitrarily defined. The terms West Florida and Northwest Florida are today generally synonymous with the Panhandle, although historically West Florida was the name of a British colony (1763–1783), later a Spanish colony (1783–1821), both of which included modern-day Florida west of the Apalachicola River as well as portions of what are now Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Dennis 2005 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

The tropical wave that became Dennis was identified by the National Hurricane Center on June 26, 2005, well inland over Africa. [1] [2] [3] It later emerged over the Atlantic Ocean on June 29 and moved quickly to the west. [1] Dry conditions over the Sahara initially inhibited development, [4] [5] though the wave found more favorable conditions and intensified into a tropical depression on July 4 while nearing the Windward Islands. [1] The depression soon crossed the island country of Grenada before entering the Caribbean Sea, where increasingly favorable environmental factors, such as low wind shear and high sea surface temperatures, fueled intensification. [6] [7] [8] Turning west-northwest, the system achieved tropical storm status on July 5 and hurricane status the following day. [1] Formation of a well-defined eye and central dense overcast signaled Dennis's intensification into a major hurricane on July 7. [1] [9] The hurricane subsequently traversed the Jamaica Channel, bringing deadly floods to both Jamaica and Haiti. [1]

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

National Hurricane Center division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Windward Islands Islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies

The Windward Islands, also known as the Islands of Barlovento, are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies. They lie south of the Leeward Islands, approximately between latitudes 10° and 16° N and longitudes 60° and 62° W. As a group they start from Dominica and reach southward to the north of Trinidad and Tobago and west of Barbados.

The powerful storm soon struck Granma Province, Cuba, as a Category 4 hurricane early on July 8; violent winds battered the province and caused extensive damage. Briefly weakening due to interaction with land, Dennis quickly regained its strength. Paralleling the southwestern coast of Cuba, Dennis attained its peak winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) later that day before making a second landfall in the country, this time in Matanzas Province. [1] Interaction with the mountains of Cuba caused significant weakening; [10] however, once Dennis emerged over the Gulf of Mexico on July 9, it quickly reorganized in favorable conditions. The hurricane reached Category 4 strength for the third time on July 10 as it approached Florida, attaining its lowest barometric pressure of 930  mbar (hPa; 27.46  inHg). [1] This ranked Dennis as the strongest hurricane in the Atlantic basin to form before August; however, this record was broken just six days later by Hurricane Emily, which surpassed Dennis and attained Category 5 status. [11] [12] Weakening ensued as the hurricane approached the Florida Panhandle, the storm ultimately making landfall over Santa Rosa Island on July 10 as a Category 3. Weakening continued as the cyclone moved further inland, and the storm quickly lost tropical cyclone status. Dennis' remnant circulation remained, however, traversing the Mississippi River Valley and Ohio River Valley before finally dissipating over Ontario on July 18. [1]

Granma Province Province of Cuba

Granma is one of the provinces of Cuba. Its capital is Bayamo. Other towns include Manzanillo and Pilón.

Matanzas Province Province of Cuba

Matanzas is one of the provinces of Cuba. Major towns in the province include Cárdenas, Colón, Jovellanos and the capital of the same name, Matanzas. The resort town of Varadero is also located in this province.

Bar (unit) non-SI unit of pressure

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI). It is defined as exactly equal to 100,000 Pa, which is slightly less than the current average atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level.

Preparations

Caribbean

In Haiti, officials evacuated residents along the coastline, but noted that many were not obliging. [13] In Cuba more than 600,000 residents were moved from their homes to government shelters or other locations in anticipation of Dennis. [14] All schools were closed, and most flights in the country were suspended or cancelled. [15]

Haiti country in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

The Cayman Islands chapter of the Red Cross opened shelters on July 7 and placed 120 volunteers on standby. Schools and government offices closed for the duration of Dennis's passage. [16]

Cayman Islands British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean

The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea. The 264-square-kilometre (102-square-mile) territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman, which are located to the south of Cuba and northeast of Honduras, between Jamaica and the Yucatán Peninsula. As of spring 2018, the total population of the Cayman Islands is estimated to be 64,420 making it the second-most populated British overseas territory after Bermuda. The capital city is George Town, situated on Grand Cayman, by far the most populous of the three islands.

United States

In the United States, the governors of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana all declared states of emergency in their states. At 6 am CDT (2300 UTC) on July 9, 2005, all southbound lanes on Interstate 65 from Mobile to Montgomery, Alabama, were closed. Traffic was redirected, making all four lanes northbound to allow evacuations. [17] In Alabama residents in all parts of Mobile County, and those south of I-10 in Baldwin County, were ordered to evacuate. [18] Similar orders were issued in Mississippi for parts of Jackson, Hancock, and Harrison counties; and for coastal areas in the Florida Panhandle stretching from Escambia County to Bay County. [18] Likewise, military installations such as NAS Pensacola, Whiting Field, Eglin AFB, Hurlburt Field and Tyndall AFB were all evacuated days before the storm. Additionally, Red Cross officials opened 87 shelters across the state which were able to hold about 14,000 evacuees. [17]

In Florida, about 50,000 tourists in the Keys were forced to evacuate by July 8. [19] The MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa evacuated its aircraft to McConnell Air Force Base near Wichita, Kansas. [20] 700,000 people in the Florida panhandle were evacuated in the days prior to Dennis, 100,000 of them in Escambia County alone. [21] As a result of the large evacuations, more than 200 truckloads provided about 1.8 million gallons of gasoline. [22] The Red Cross also moved 60 mobile canteens capable of serving 30,000 hot meals each a day to the staging points of Hattiesburg and Jackson. National guardsmen were mobilized, and four emergency medical teams, each capable of setting up a small field hospital, were on standby. Also, at Eglin Air Force Base, about 20,000 military personnel were evacuated, and at Hurlburt Field, home to Air Force's 16th Special Operations Wing, a mandatory evacuation was ordered for all 15,000 airmen and their families. [23]

Impact

Effects of Hurricane Dennis by country
CountryDeathsDamage (USD)Ref.
Haiti56 [24] [25]
Jamaica1> [1] [26] [27] [28]
Cuba16 [1]
United States15 [29]
Total88
Because of differing sources, totals may not match.

Caribbean

Heavy rain from the outer bands of Dennis produced widespread flooding and landslides in Haiti. The resulting torrents killed at least 56 people, injured 36 others, and left 24 more missing. [24] At least nine of the fatalities occurred when a bridge collapsed in Grand-Goâve. [30] [31] Extensive property damage was incurred with 929 homes destroyed and another 3,058 damaged, leaving 1,500 families homeless. [24] Damage totaled US$50 million. [25]

Dennis brought torrential rain to Jamaica, with accumulations peaking at 24.54 in (623 mm) in Mavis Bank—a 1-in-50 year event. Widespread flash flooding ensued, damaging or destroying numerous homes and businesses. The overflow of multiple rivers prompted evacuations in several towns and left many stranded. Saint Thomas and Portland Parishes were hardest-hit. Overall, one person died there and damage exceeded J$2.128 billion (US$34.5 million). [1] [26] [27]

From there the storm moved to Cuba, leaving 16 people dead and $1.4 billion in damages as it roared through the island, flattening houses and downing trees and power lines. Heavy rainfall fell across the country, with amounts reaching up to 1092 mm/42.99 inches, making Dennis the wettest storm for the island since Hurricane Flora of 1963. [32] According to reports from the Cuban government, 120,000 homes were damaged, 15,000 of which were destroyed. The citrus and vegetable industries were also devastated as Cuba's primary agricultural regions were the hardest hit. Nonetheless, Fidel Castro publicly refused US aid after the storm in protest of the ongoing US trade embargo against Cuba, stating that, "If they offered $1 billion we would say no." [33] Relayed reports from Cuban meteorologists stated that a gust up to 149 mph (239 km/h) was detected at Cienfuegos, 85% of the power lines were down, and extensive damage to the communications infrastructure had occurred. Dennis was more destructive than the previous year's Hurricane Charley and was widely regarded as the worst hurricane to strike Cuba since Hurricane Flora in the 1963 season.

United States

A beachfront home in Navarre Beach, Florida largely destroyed by Hurricane Dennis. Beach front home damaged by hurricane dennis 2005.jpg
A beachfront home in Navarre Beach, Florida largely destroyed by Hurricane Dennis.

In the United States, damage was not as high as originally expected, mainly because Dennis was more compact and moved more quickly than initially forecast. Dennis made landfall approximately 30 miles (48 km) to the east of where Hurricane Ivan had made landfall 10 months before, but did not cause as much damage as Ivan, due to its compact size, quicker path, and because the area was not fully rebuilt from the prior year. Dennis moved about 7 mph (11 km/h) faster than Ivan at landfall, and had hurricane-force winds that only extended 40 miles (65 km) from its center, compared to Ivan's 105-mile radius (170 km). [14] [34] During the height of the storm, Dennis produced storm surges as high as 9 ft (3 m) in the Apalachee Bay region, and as high as 7 ft (2 m) on the Florida Panhandle, [35] and left 680,000 customers without electricity in four southern states.

In southern Florida, damage was mostly limited to moderate wind gusts; in Miami-Dade County, gusty winds knocked out several traffic lights along U.S. 1, the only route to and from the Florida Keys. [36] A man died in Ft. Lauderdale when he stepped on a downed electrical wire and was electrocuted. [37] Damage was mostly minor and limited to outer rainbands and tornadoes in Central Florida. In the Tampa Bay area, several tornadoes were reported to have touched down causing minor damage such as downed trees and power lines. [38] The most severe damage occurred on the Florida Panhandle. At Navarre Beach, sustained winds of 98 miles per hour (158 km/h) were reported with a peak gust of 121 miles per hour (195 km/h), while a tower at the Pensacola Airport reported sustained winds of 82 miles per hour (132 km/h) and a peak gust of 96 miles per hour (154 km/h). [1] Milton received 7.08 inches (180 mm) of rain, the highest reported rainfall total in Florida caused by Dennis. [39] No significant damage was reported to most structures; however, insurers initially estimated that Dennis caused $3–$5 billion in insured damage, [40] or approximately $6–$10 billion total (insured damage estimates are generally held to be approximately one-half of total damages). However, the NHC reported total damage in the United States as only $2.5 billion with $1.115 billion of insured damage. [1] [29]

In Alabama, sustained winds reached minimal hurricane force in the interior of the state. [41] In total, 280,000 people in Alabama experienced power outages during the storm. [42] No deaths occurred, although Dennis caused three injuries [43] and total damage amounted to $127 million (2005 USD), [43] mostly due to structural damage. There was also severe damage to cotton crops. [44] In Mississippi, damage was not as severe as previously anticipated. [45] As Dennis impacted the state, a storm tide of 2 ft (0.61 m)4 ft (1.2 m) above normal was reported. [1] Rainfall from the hurricane averaged between 1–5 inches (25–125 mm), [46] [47] and minimum barometric pressure of 994.2 mb was reported near Pascagoula. [1] Wind gusts peaked at 59 mph (95 km/h) causing several hundred trees to uproot or snap, damaging a total of 21 homes and businesses. [47]

Flooding caused by Dennis on Sweetwater Creek in Lithia Springs, Georgia SweetwaterCreekFlood2005.jpg
Flooding caused by Dennis on Sweetwater Creek in Lithia Springs, Georgia

Dennis caused at least 10 tornadoes in the U.S., although only one of them reached F1 status on the Fujita scale. [1] The storm dropped over 10 inches (250 mm) of rain in some areas of Alabama and Georgia (see the rainfall graphic). Parts of Georgia, which had received heavy rain just days earlier from Hurricane Cindy, suffered heavy flooding, and flash-floods were reported on the outskirts of the Atlanta metropolitan area.[ not in citation given ] [48]

In the United States, 15 storm-related deaths (14 in Florida) were reported, including one in Walton County, [49] three in Broward County, [1] [50] three in Charlotte County, one each in Nassau and Escambia Counties [50] and one in Decatur, Georgia. [51] In the Gulf of Mexico, the storm caused Thunder Horse PDQ , a BP oil rig about 150 miles (240 km) southeast of New Orleans, Louisiana, to severely list. [52]

Retirement

Because of the great amount of damage and deaths in the Caribbean and United States, the name Dennis was retired in the spring of 2006, and will never again be used for an Atlantic hurricane. It was replaced by Don, which was first used during the 2011 hurricane season. Dennis was one of five names to be retired in 2005—alongside Katrina, Rita, Stan, and Wilma; this is the greatest such number since the implementation of retirement in 1955. [53] [54]

See also

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Effects of Hurricane Dennis in Alabama

The Effects of Hurricane Dennis in Alabama, USA included $127 million (2005 USD) in damage and three injuries. Dennis made landfall on the Florida Panhandle as a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale on July 10, 2005, before tracking over Alabama as a minimal hurricane. In preparation for the storm, about 500,000 people were given evacuation orders, and the Red Cross opened 87 shelters. As a result, all southbound lanes of Interstate 65 from Mobile to Montgomery were closed.

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Hurricane Florence (1953) Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1953

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Effects of Hurricane Katrina in Florida

The effects of Hurricane Katrina in Florida were in both in the southern portion of the state and in the panhandle. After developing on August 23, Katrina made landfall near the border of Broward and Miami-Dade counties with 80 mph (130 km/h) winds on August 25. While it was crossing the state, the hurricane's convection was asymmetrical, primarily located to the south and east of the center. As a result, high rainfall totals occurred in the Miami area, peaking at 16.43 in (417 mm) in Perrine. The rains caused flooding, and the combination of rains and winds downed trees and power lines, leaving 1.45 million people without power. Damage in South Florida was estimated at $523 million (2005 USD), mostly as a result of crop damage. Further south, the hurricane spawned a tornado in the Florida Keys. In the island chain, Katrina dropped heavy rainfall and gusty winds.

Tropical Storm Becky (1970) Atlantic tropical storm in 1970

Tropical Storm Becky was the second tropical cyclone and named storm of the 1970 Atlantic hurricane season. Becky formed from a tropical depression that was designated on July 19. The next day it organized over the Yucatán Channel and became Tropical Storm Becky. Initially thought to have attained minimal hurricane status, Becky reached peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), but the storm began to deteriorate shortly thereafter. The storm made landfall on the Florida Panhandle on July 22, and rapidly weakened over land. Overall, damage was related to heavy rainfall that caused flooding in Tallahassee, Florida; 104 families suffered flood-related losses. About $500,000 in damage was attributed to the storm. Further north, the heavy rainfall swelled rivers. Becky may have been partially responsible for spawning tornadoes that destroyed or damaged several houses.

Tropical Storm Alice (1953) Atlantic tropical storm in 1953

Tropical Storm Alice was the first tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Ocean to receive a female name. It was a rare off-season tropical cyclone that hit Central America, Cuba, and Florida in late May to early June 1953. Alice formed on May 25 in the western Caribbean, and executed a large loop over Central America. It passed over western Cuba, causing heavy rainfall and possibly several casualties from drowning. It then executed another loop in the Gulf of Mexico, reached a peak intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h), and weakened before hitting the Florida panhandle on June 6. Although heavy rainfall occurred in Florida, there was little damage.

Meteorological history of Hurricane Dennis

The meteorological history of Hurricane Dennis spanned twenty-two days, beginning with its inception as a tropical wave over Africa on June 26, 2005, and terminating with its dissipation on July 18 over the Great Lakes of North America. The incipient wave that became Dennis emerged over the Atlantic Ocean on June 29 and moved briskly to the west. Dry air initially inhibited development, though once this abated the wave was able to consolidate into a tropical depression on July 4. The depression soon crossed Grenada before entering the Caribbean Sea whereupon increasingly favorable environmental factors, such as low wind shear and high sea surface temperatures, fueled intensification. Turning west-northwest, the system achieved tropical storm status on July 5 and hurricane status the following day.

Hurricane Michael Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2018

Hurricane Michael was the third-most intense Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in the United States in terms of pressure, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane and Hurricane Camille of 1969, as well as the strongest storm in terms of maximum sustained wind speed to strike the contiguous United States since Andrew in 1992. In addition, it was the strongest storm on record in the Florida Panhandle, and was the fourth-strongest landfalling hurricane in the contiguous United States, in terms of wind speed.

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