Tropical cyclone naming

Last updated

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph), names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

Contents

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins, as well as the Australian region, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Pacific hurricane mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Typhoon type of tropical cyclone when is located i northwest Pacific. Classified by JMA typhoons wind scale and JTWC typhoons wind scale

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western. The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or the northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a tropical cyclone occurs in the South Pacific or the Indian Ocean.

History

Tropical cyclone naming institutions
BasinInstitutionArea of responsibility
Northern Hemisphere
North Atlantic
Eastern Pacific
United States National Hurricane Center Equator northward, African Coast – 140°W [1]
Central Pacific United States Central Pacific Hurricane Center Equator northward, 140°W - 180° [1]
Western Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
PAGASA (Unofficial)
Equator – 60°N, 180 – 100°E
5°N – 21°N, 115°E – 135°E
[2]
[3]
North Indian Ocean India Meteorological Department Equator northward, 100°E – 45°E [4]
Southern Hemisphere
South-West
Indian Ocean
Mauritius Meteorological Services
Météo Madagascar
Equator – 40°S, 55°E – 90°E
Equator – 40°S, African Coast – 55°E
[5]
Australian region Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics
Papua New Guinea National Weather Service
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Equator – 10°S, 90°E – 141°E
Equator – 10°S, 141°E – 160°E
10°S – 36°S, 90°E – 160°E
[6]
Southern Pacific Fiji Meteorological Service
Meteorological Service of New Zealand
Equator – 25°S, 160°E – 120°W
25°S – 40°S, 160°E – 120°W
[6]
South Atlantic Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center (Unofficial)Equator – 35°S, Brazilian Coast – 20°W [7]

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were often named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. [8] The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. [8] This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. [8] Formal naming schemes have subsequently been introduced for the North Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean. [8]

At present, tropical cyclones are officially named by one of eleven warning centers and retain their names throughout their lifetimes to facilitate the effective communication of forecasts and storm-related hazards to the general public. [9] This is especially important when multiple storms are occurring simultaneously in the same ocean basin. [9] Names are generally assigned in order from predetermined lists, once they produce one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph). [1] [4] [5] However, standards vary from basin to basin, with some systems named in the Western Pacific when they develop into tropical depressions or enter PAGASA's area of responsibility. [3] Within the Southern Hemisphere, systems must be characterized by a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the center before they are named. [5] [6]

Southern Hemisphere part of Earth that lies south of the equator

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania. Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land.

Gale strong wind

A gale is a strong wind, typically used as a descriptor in nautical contexts. The U.S. National Weather Service defines a gale as 34–47 knots of sustained surface winds. Forecasters typically issue gale warnings when winds of this strength are expected. In the United States, a gale warning is specifically a maritime warning; the land-based equivalent in National Weather Service warning products is a wind advisory.

Any member of the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane, typhoon and tropical cyclone committees can request that the name of a tropical cyclone be retired or withdrawn from the various tropical cyclone naming lists. [1] [2] [6] A name is retired or withdrawn if a consensus or majority of members agree that the system has acquired a special notoriety, such as causing a large number of deaths and amounts of damage, impact, or for other special reasons. [1] A replacement name is then submitted to the committee concerned and voted upon, but these names can be rejected and replaced with another name for various reasons: [1] [2] these reasons include the spelling and pronunciation of the name, the similarity to the name of a recent tropical cyclone or on another list of names, and the length of the name for modern communication channels such as social media. [1] [10] PAGASA also retires the names of significant tropical cyclones when they have caused at least

World Meteorological Organization Specialised agency of the United Nations

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 192 Member States and Territories. Its current Secretary-General is Petteri Taalas and the President of the World Meteorological Congress, its supreme body, is David Grimes. The Organization is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Philippine peso currency of the Philippines

The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso, is the official currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos or sentimos in Filipino. As a former colony of the United States, the country used English on its currency, with the word "peso" appearing on notes and coinage until 1967. Since the adoption of the usage of the Filipino language on banknotes and coins, the term "piso" is now used.

North Atlantic Ocean

Hurricane Michael making landfall at peak intensity, October 2018 Michael 2018-10-10 1715Z cropped.jpg
Hurricane Michael making landfall at peak intensity, October 2018

Within the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical or subtropical cyclones are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami) when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [1] There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the first letters A—W used, skipping Q and U, and alternating between male and female names. [1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee meeting. [1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet. [1]

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

National Hurricane Center Division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many different local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Eucleidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today. These twenty-four letters are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, and Ω ω.

List of Atlantic tropical cyclone names
2019
NamesAndreaBarryChantalDorianErinFernandGabrielleHumbertoImeldaJerryKaren
LorenzoMelissaNestorOlgaPabloRebekahSebastienTanyaVanWendy
2020
NamesArthurBerthaCristobalDollyEdouardFayGonzaloHannaIsaiasJosephineKyle
LauraMarcoNanaOmarPauletteReneSallyTeddyVickyWilfred
2021
NamesAnaBillClaudetteDannyElsaFredGraceHenriIdaJulianKate
LarryMindyNicholasOdettePeterRoseSamTeresaVictorWanda
2022
NamesAlexBonnieColinDanielleEarlFionaGastonHermineIanJuliaKarl
LisaMartinNicoleOwenPaulaRichardSharyTobiasVirginieWalter
2023
NamesArleneBretCindyDonEmilyFranklinGertHaroldIdaliaJoseKatia
LeeMargotNigelOpheliaPhilippeRinaSeanTammyVinceWhitney
2024
NamesAlbertoBerylChrisDebbyErnestoFrancineGordonHeleneIsaacJoyceKirk
LeslieMiltonNadineOscarPattyRafaelSaraTonyValerieWilliam
References: [1]

Eastern Pacific Ocean

Hurricane Lane near peak intensity in August 2018 Lane 2018-08-21 2350Z.jpg
Hurricane Lane near peak intensity in August 2018

Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean, there are two warning centers that assign names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [1] Tropical cyclones that intensify into tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami), while tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC/RSMC Honolulu). [1] Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee. [1]

The current naming scheme began with the 1978 season, one year before the Atlantic basin (and which anomalously used the list that will be used next in 2018, rather than the one for 2020). As with the Atlantic basin, it uses alternating women's and men's names, and also includes some Spanish and a few French names. Before then, only women's names were used. Because Eastern Pacific hurricanes mainly threaten western Mexico and Central America, the lists contain more Spanish names than the Atlantic lists.

North Pacific east of 140°W

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between the coastline of the Americas and 140°W, it will be named by the NHC. There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the letters A—Z used, skipping Q and U, with each name alternating between a male or a female name. [1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee. [1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named using the letters of the Greek alphabet. [1]

List of Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone names
2019
NamesAlvinBarbaraCosmeDalilaErickFlossieGilHenrietteIvoJulietteKikoLorena
MarioNardaOctavePriscillaRaymondSoniaTicoVelmaWallisXinaYorkZelda
2020
NamesAmandaBorisCristinaDouglasElidaFaustoGenevieveHernanIselleJulioKarinaLowell
MarieNorbertOdalysPoloRachelSimonTrudyVanceWinnieXavierYolandaZeke
2021
NamesAndresBlancaCarlosDoloresEnriqueFeliciaGuillermoHildaIgnacioJimenaKevinLinda
MartyNoraOlafPamelaRickSandraTerryVivianWaldoXinaYorkZelda
2022
NamesAgathaBlasCeliaDarbyEstelleFrankGeorgetteHowardIvetteJavierKayLester
MadelineNewtonOrlenePaineRoslynSeymourTinaVirgilWinifredXavierYolandaZeke
2023
NamesAdrianBeatrizCalvinDoraEugeneFernandaGregHilaryIrwinJovaKennethLidia
MaxNormaOtisPilarRamonSelmaToddVeronicaWileyXinaYorkZelda
2024
NamesAlettaBudCarlottaDanielEmiliaFabioGilmaHectorIleanaJohnKristyLane
MiriamNormanOliviaPaulRosaSergioTaraVicenteWillaXavierYolandaZeke
References: [1]

Central North Pacific Ocean (140°W to 180°)

Hurricane Walaka in October 2018, at peak intensity south of Johnston Atoll Walaka 2018-10-02 0054Z.jpg
Hurricane Walaka in October 2018, at peak intensity south of Johnston Atoll

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between 140°W and 180°, it is named by the CPHC. [1] Four lists of Hawaiian names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane committee, rotating without regard to year, with the first name for a new year being the next name in sequence that was not used the previous year. [1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next Hurricane Committee meeting. [1]

List of Central Pacific tropical cyclone names
ListNames
1AkoniEmaHoneIonaKeliLalaMokeNoloOlanaPenaUlanaWale
2AkaEkekaHeneIolanaKeoniLinoMeleNonaOliwaPamaUpanaWene
3AlikaEleHukoIopaKikaLanaMakaNekiOmekaPewaUnalaWali
4AnaElaHalolaIuneKiloLokeMaliaNialaOhoPaliUlikaWalaka
References: [1]

Western Pacific Ocean (180° – 100°E)

Typhoon Wutip at peak intensity in February 2019 Wutip 2019-02-25 0345Z.jpg
Typhoon Wutip at peak intensity in February 2019

Tropical cyclones that occur within the Northern Hemisphere between the anti-meridian and 100°E are officially named by the Japan Meteorological Agency when they become tropical storms. [2] However, PAGASA also names tropical cyclones that occur or develop into tropical depressions within their self-defined area of responsibility between 5°N–25°N and 115°E-135°E. [3] This often results in tropical cyclones in the region having two names. [3]

International names

Tropical cyclones within the Western Pacific are assigned international names by the JMA when they become a tropical storm with 10-minute sustained winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [2] The names are used sequentially without regard to year and are taken from five lists of names that were prepared by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, after each of the 14 members submitted 10 names in 1998. [2] The order of the names to be used was determined by placing the English name of the members in alphabetical order. [2] Members of the committee are allowed to request the retirement or replacement of a system's name if it causes extensive destruction or for other reasons such as number of deaths. [2] Unlike other basins, storms are also named after plants, animals, objects, and mythological beings.

List of Western Pacific tropical cyclone names
ListContributing nation
CambodiaChinaNorth Korea
(DPRK)
Hong KongJapanLaosMacauMalaysiaMicronesiaPhilippinesSouth Korea
(ROK)
ThailandUnited StatesVietnam
1DamreyHaikuiKirogiYun-yeungKoinuBolavenSanbaJelawatEwiniarMaliksiGaemiPrapiroonMariaSon-Tinh
AmpilWukongJongdariShanshanYagiLeepiBebincaRumbia [nb 1] SoulikCimaronJebiMangkhut [nb 2] BarijatTrami
2Kong-reyYutuTorajiMan-yiUsagiPabukWutipSepatMunDanasNariWiphaFranciscoLekima
KrosaBailuPodulLinglingKajikiFaxaiPeipahTapahMitagHagibisNeoguriBualoiMatmoHalong
3NakriFengshenKalmaegiFung-wongKammuriPhanfoneVongfongNuriSinlakuHagupitJangmiMekkhalaHigosBavi
MaysakHaishenNoulDolphinKujiraChan-homLinfaNangkaSaudelMolaveGoniAtsaniEtauVamco
4KrovanhDujuanSurigaeChoi-wanKogumaChampiIn-faCempakaNepartakLupitMirinaeNidaOmaisConson
ChanthuDianmuMindulleLionrockKompasuNamtheunMalouNyatohRaiMalakasMegiChabaAereSongda
5TrasesMulanMeariMa-onTokageHinnamnorMuifaMerbokNanmadolTalasNoruKulapRokeSonca
NesatHaitangNalgaeBanyanYamanekoPakharSanvuMawarGucholTalimDoksuriKhanunLanSaola
References: [2] [14]

Philippines

Typhoon Paeng (Trami) at peak intensity in September 2018 Trami 2018-09-25 0050Z.png
Typhoon Paeng (Trami) at peak intensity in September 2018

Since 1963, PAGASA has independently operated its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones that occur within its own self-defined Philippine Area of Responsibility. [3] [15] The names are taken from four different lists of 25 names and are assigned when a system moves into or develops into a tropical depression within PAGASA's jurisdiction. [3] [15] The four lists of names are rotated every four years, with the names of significant tropical cyclones retired should they have caused at least

List of Philippine region tropical cyclone names
2019
MainAmangBettyChedengDodongEgayFalconGoringHannaInengJennyKabayanLiwaywayMarilyn
NimfaOnyokPerlaQuielRamonSarahTisoyUrsulaViringWengYoyoyZigzag
AuxiliaryAbeBertoCharoDadoEstoyFelionGeningHermanIrmaJaime
2020
MainAmboButchoyCarinaDindoEntengFerdieGenerHelenIgmeJulianKristineLeonMarce
NikaOfelPepitoQuintaRollySionyTonyoUlyssesVickyWarrenYoyongZosimo
AuxiliaryAlakdanBaldoClaraDencioEstongFelipeGomerHelingIsmaelJulio
2021
MainAuringBisingCrisingDanteEmongFabianGorioHuaningIsangJolinaKikoLannieMaring
NandoOdettePaoloQuedanRamilSalomeTinoUwanVerbenaWilmaYasminZoraida
AuxiliaryAlamidBrunoConchingDolorErnieFloranteGerardoHernanIskoJerome
2022
MainAgatonBasyangCaloyDomengEsterFloritaGardoHenryIndayJosieKardingLuisMaymay
NenengObetPaengQueenieRosalSamuelTomasUmbertoVenusWaldoYayangZeny
AuxiliaryAgilaBagwisChitoDiegoElenaFelinoGundingHarrietIndangJessa
References: [15]

North Indian Ocean (45°E – 100°E)

Cyclone Mekunu near its peak intensity in May 2018 Mekunu 2018-05-25 0947Z.jpg
Cyclone Mekunu near its peak intensity in May 2018

Within the North Indian Ocean between 45°E – 100°E, tropical cyclones are named by the India Meteorological Department (IMD/RSMC New Delhi) when they are judged to have intensified into a cyclonic storm with 3-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [17] There are eight lists of names which are used in sequence and are not rotated every few years; however, the names of significant tropical cyclones are retired. [18]

List of Northern Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
ListContributing nation
BangladeshIndiaMaldivesMyanmarOmanPakistanSri LankaThailand
1 Onil Agni Hibaru Pyarr Baaz Fanoos Mala Mukda
2 Ogni Akash Gonu Yemyin Sidr Nargis Rashmi Khai-Muk
3 Nisha Bijli Aila Phyan Ward Laila Bandu Phet
4 Giri Jal Keila Thane Murjan Nilam Viyaru Phailin
5 Helen Lehar Madi Nanauk Hudhud Nilofar Ashobaa Komen
6 Chapala Megh Roanu Kyant Nada Vardah Maarutha Mora
7 Ockhi Sagar Mekunu Daye Luban Titli Gaja Phethai
8 Fani VayuHikaaKyarrMahaBulbulPawanAmphan
References: [17]

South-West Indian Ocean (Africa – 90°E)

Cyclone Idai nearing landfall in Mozambique in March 2019 Idai 2019-03-14 1135Z.jpg
Cyclone Idai nearing landfall in Mozambique in March 2019

Within the South-West Indian Ocean in the Southern Hemisphere between Africa and 90°E, a tropical or subtropical disturbance is named when it is judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [5] [19] This is defined as being when gales are either observed or estimated to be present near a significant portion of the system's center. [5] Systems are named in conjunction with Météo-France Reunion by either Météo Madagascar or the Mauritius Meteorological Service. [5] If a disturbance reaches the naming stage between Africa and 55°E, then Météo Madagascar names it; if it reaches the naming stage between 55°E and 90°E, then the Mauritius Meteorological Service names it. [5] The names are taken from three pre-determined lists of names, which rotate on a triennial basis, with any names that have been used automatically removed. [5] The names that are going to be used during a season are selected in advance by the World Meteorological Organization's RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee from names submitted by member countries. [5]

List of South–West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
2018–19
NamesAlcideBouchraCilidaDesmondEketsangFunaniGelenaHaleh Idai Joaninha Kenneth LornaMaipelo
NjaziOscarPamelaQuentinRajabSavanaThembaUyapoVivianeWalterXangyYemuraiZanele
2019–20
NamesAmbaliBelnaCalviniaDianeEsamiFranciscoGabekileHeroldIrondroJerutoKundaiLiseboMichel
NousraOlivierPokeraQuincyRebaoneSalamaTristanUrsulaVioletWilsonXilaYekelaZania
2020–21 [nb 3]
NamesAvaBerguittaCebileDumazileEliakimFakirGuambeHabanaImanJoboKangaLudziMelina
NathanOniasPelagieQuamarRitaSolaniTarikUriliaVuyaneWagnerXusaYaronaZacarias
References: [19] [20]

Australian Region (90°E – 160°E)

Within the Australian region in the Southern Hemisphere between 90°E – 160°E, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the center which are forecast to continue. [6] The Indonesian Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 90°E and 141°E, while Papua New Guinea's National Weather Service names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 141°E and 160°E. [6] Outside of these areas, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology names systems that develop into tropical cyclones. [6] In order to enable local authorities and their communities in taking action to reduce the impact of a tropical cyclone, each of these warning centres reserve the right to name a system early if it has a high chance of being named. [6] If a name is assigned to a tropical cyclone that causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that storm is retired from the list of names for the region. [6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting. [6] [10]

Indonesia

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator – 10°S and 90°E – 141°E, it will be named by the Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG/TCWC Jakarta). [6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A, while list B details names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons. [6]

List of Indonesian tropical cyclone names
List A
AnggrekBakungCempakaDahliaFlamboyanKenangaLiliManggaSerojaTeratai
List B
AnggurBelimbingDukuJambuLengkengMelatiNangkaPisangRambutanSawo
References: [6] [21]

Papua New Guinea

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator – 10°S and 141°E – 160°E, then it will be named by Papua New Guinea National Weather Service (NWS, TCWC Port Moresby). [6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A and are automatically retired after being used regardless of any damage caused. [6] List B contains names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons. [6]

List of Papua New Guinea tropical cyclone names
List A
AluBuriDodoEmauFereHibuIlaKamaLobuMaila
List B
NouObahaPaiaRanuSabiTauUmeValiWauAuram
References: [6]

Australia

Cyclone Marcus at peak intensity in March 2018 Marcus 2018-03-22 0632Z.jpg
Cyclone Marcus at peak intensity in March 2018

When a system develops into a tropical cyclone below 10°S between 90°E and 160°E, then it will be named by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) which operates three Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane. [6] The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year. [6] [10]

List of Australian tropical cyclone names
List A
NamesAnikaBillyCharlotteDominicEllieFreddyGabrielleHermanIlsaJasperKirrily
LincolnMeganNevilleOlgaPaulRobynSeanTashaVinceZelia------
List B
NamesAnthonyBiancaCourtneyDianneErrolFinaGrantHayleyIggyJennaKoji
LuanaMitchellNarelleOranPetaRiordanSandraTimVictoriaZane------
List C
NamesAlessiaBruceCatherineDylanEdnaFletcherGillianHadiIvanaJackKate
LaszloMingzhuNathanOlwynQuinceyRaquelStanTatianaUriahYvette------
List D
NamesAlfredBlancheCalebDaraErnieFrancesGregHildaIrvingJoyceKelvin
LindaMarcoNoraOwenPennyRileySavannahTrevorVeronicaWallace------
List E
NamesAnnBlakeClaudiaDamienEstherFerdinandGretelHaroldImogenJoshuaKimi
LucasMarianNiranOdettePaddyRubySethTiffanyVernon-----------
References: [6] [10]

Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E – 120°W)

Cyclone Gita at peak intensity in February 2018 Gita 2018-02-14 0150Z.jpg
Cyclone Gita at peak intensity in February 2018

Within the Southern Pacific basin in the Southern Hemisphere between 160°E – 120°W, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the centre which are forecast to continue. [6] The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) names systems that are located between the Equator and 25°S, while the New Zealand MetService names systems (in conjunction with the FMS) that develop to the south of 25°S. [6] In order to enable local authorities and their communities in taking action to reduce the impact of a tropical cyclone, the FMS reserves the right to name a system early if it has a high chance of being named. [6] If a tropical cyclone causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that cyclone is retired from the list of names for the region. [6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting. [6] The name of a tropical cyclone is determined by using Lists A — D in order, without regard to the year before restarting with List A. [6] List E contains names that will replace names on A-D when needed. [6]

List of South Pacific tropical cyclone names
List A
NamesAnaBinaCodyDoviEvaFiliGinaHaleIreneJudyKevinLolaMal
NatOsaiPitaRaeSeruTamUrmilVaianuWatiXavierYaniZita
List B
NamesArthurBeckyChipDeniaElisaFotuGlenHettieInnisJulieKenLinMaciu
NishaOreaPearlReneSarahTroyUinitaVanessaWano------YvonneZaka
List C
NamesAlvinBuneCyrilDaphneEdenFlorinGarryHaleyIsaJuneKofiLouiseMike
NikoOpetiPerryReubenSoloTuniUluVictorWanita------YatesZidane
List D
NamesAmosBartCrystalDeanEllaFehiGarthHolaIrisJosieKeniLiuaMona
NeilOmaPolaRitaSaraiTinoUesiVickyWasi------YolandaZazu
List E (Standby)
NamesAruBenChrisDanialEmosiFekiGermaineHartIliJoseKirioLuteMata
NetaOliviaPanaRexSamadiyoTasiUilaVelmaWane------YasaZanna
References: [6]

South Atlantic

When a tropical or subtropical storm exists in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center's Marine Meteorological Service names the system using a predetermined list of names. The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year. [7]

List of South Atlantic tropical cyclone names
NamesAraniBapoCariDeniEçaíGuaráIbaJaguarKurumíManiOquiraPotiraRaoniUbáYakecan
References: [7]

See also

Notes

  1. The name Rumbia was retired from the 2018 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2020. [12]
  2. The name Mangkhut was retired from the 2018 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2020. [13]
  3. The names Ava through Fakir were automatically removed from the naming lists during the 2017–18 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. No replacement names have been chosen.

Related Research Articles

2005 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2005 Pacific typhoon season was the least active typhoon season since 2000, featuring only 24 tropical storms, 13 typhoons and three super typhoons. The season ran throughout 2005, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Kulap, developed on January 15, while the season's last named storm, Bolaven, dissipated on November 20.

1995 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1995 Pacific typhoon season occurred all year round, unusual in that most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November.

1976 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1976 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1976, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

1969 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1969 Pacific typhoon season was the fourth least-active season on record. The season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1969, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

1968 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1968 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1968, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

1967 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1967 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1967, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Tropical cyclones are ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

1948 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1948 Pacific typhoon season is an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout 1948, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2007 until April 30, 2008, although the first cyclone, Tropical Depression 01F, developed on October 17. The most intense tropical cyclone of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Daman, which reached a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) as it affected Fiji. After the season had ended, the names Daman, Funa, and Gene were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only three tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004 with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 4 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 23. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.

South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone type of tropical cyclone located in South West Indian Ocean and measured by Météo-France La Reunion scale

In the south-west Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones form south of the equator and west of 90° E to the coast of Africa.

1996–97 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1996–97 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the most active and longest South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with 12 tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season officially ran from November 1, 1996 - April 30, 1997, however, the season ended later than normal with three systems monitored after the official end of the season. The strongest tropical cyclone of the season was Cyclone Gavin which had a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg). After the season had ended 4 tropical cyclone names were retired from the naming lists, after the cyclones had caused significant impacts to South Pacific islands.

2014 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2014 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season, featuring 23 tropical storms, 11 typhoons, and 8 super typhoons. The season's peak months August and September saw minimal activity caused by an unusually strong and a persistent suppressing phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The season ran throughout 2014, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season began with the development of Tropical Storm Lingling on January 18, and ended after Tropical Storm Jangmi which dissipated on January 1 of the next year.

2019 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2019 Pacific typhoon season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout 2019, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, developed on January 1, becoming the earliest-forming tropical storm of the western Pacific Ocean on record, breaking the previous record held by Typhoon Alice in 1979. The season's first typhoon, Wutip, reached typhoon status on February 20. Wutip further intensified into a super typhoon on February 23, becoming the strongest February typhoon on record, and the strongest tropical cyclone recorded in February in the Northern Hemisphere. March had Tropical Depression Chedeng east of Mindanao, and April was an inactive month with no development occurring.

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.

2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season North Indian Ocean Ocean cyclone season in 2019

The 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with the two peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, entered the basin on January 4, becoming the earliest-forming cyclonic storm of the North Indian Ocean on record. The second cyclone of the season, Fani, was the strongest tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal by three-minute sustained wind speed and minimum barometric pressure since the 1999 Odisha Cyclone.

Tropical cyclones in 2014

Tropical cyclones in 2014 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Typhoon Vongfong, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 900 mbar before striking the east coast of Japan. 119 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 82 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2014 was the Western Pacific, which documented 23 named systems, while the Eastern Pacific, despite only amounting to 22 named systems, was its basin's most active since 1992. Conversely, both the North Atlantic hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 9 and 3, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Timeline of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

This timeline documents all events that have taken place during the 2019 Pacific typhoon season. This article is limited to the Western Pacific basin which is located north of the equator and between 100°E and the International Date Line. Systems that reach tropical storm intensity are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Tropical depressions that form within the basin are assigned a number with a "W" suffix by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). Additionally, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones that either form in or move into its self defined area of responsibility, which runs from 135°E to 115°E and 5°N to 25°N.

Tropical cyclones in 2004 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Cyclone Gafilo, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 895 mbar becomes the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean before striking the east coast of Madagascar. 130 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 81 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2004 was the Western Pacific, which documented 29 named systems, while the North Atlantic, despite only amounting to 15 named systems, was its basin's hyperactive season since 1995. Conversely, both the Eastern Pacific hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 12 and 4, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 RA IV Hurricane Committee (May 16, 2018). "9". Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean) Hurricane Operational Plan 2018 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-30). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 WMO/ESCP Typhoon Committee (March 13, 2015). Typhoon Committee Operational Manual Meteorological Component 2015 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-23). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 1–7, 33–34. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Why and how storms get their names". GMA News. September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  4. 1 2 RSMC — Tropical Cyclones New Delhi (2010). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2009 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 6, 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee (September 16, 2016). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean: 2016 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-12). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (October 11, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2018 (PDF) (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. I–4&nbsp, – II–9 (9–21). Archived from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  7. 1 2 3 "NORMAS DA AUTORIDADE MARÍTIMA PARA AS ATIVIDADES DE METEOROLOGIA MARÍTIMA NORMAM-19 1a REVISÃO" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Navy. 2018. p. C-1-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 6, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Dorst, Neal M (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). Hurricane Research Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Slides 8–72.
  9. 1 2 Landsea, Christopher W; Dorst, Neal M (June 1, 2014). "Subject: Tropical Cyclone Names: B1) How are tropical cyclones named?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Question. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015.
  10. 1 2 3 4 "Tropical Cyclone Names". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. November 10, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  11. "PAGASA replaces names of 2014 destructive typhoons" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. February 5, 2015. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  12. "CMA". www.cma.gov.cn. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  13. "CMA". www.cma.gov.cn. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  14. RSMC Tokyo-Typhoon Center (March 24, 2018). "List of names for tropical cyclones adopted by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee for the western North Pacific and the South China Sea (valid as of 2018): Names of tropical cyclones". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 "Philippine Tropical cyclone names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  16. "PAGASA replaces Tropical Cyclone "Lando" to "Liwayway"" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  17. 1 2 Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea: 2015 (PDF) (2015 ed.). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 11–12. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  18. "Naming of Cyclones over the North Indian Ocean" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
  19. 1 2 La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (August 31, 2015). "How are the names chosen?". Météo-France. Archived from the original on September 1, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
  20. "Tropical Cyclone Naming". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
  21. "Cyclone Names". Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2015.