Tropical cyclone naming

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Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph), names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Contents

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins, as well as the Australian region, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean.

History

Tropical cyclone naming institutions
BasinInstitutionArea of responsibility
Northern Hemisphere
North Atlantic
Eastern Pacific
United States National Hurricane Center Equator northward, European and African Atlantic Coasts – 140°W [1]
Central Pacific United States Central Pacific Hurricane Center Equator northward, 140°W - 180° [1]
Western Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
PAGASA (Unofficial)
Equator – 60°N, 180 – 100°E
5°N – 21°N, 115°E – 135°E
[2]
[3]
North Indian Ocean India Meteorological Department Equator northward, 100°E – 45°E [4]
Southern Hemisphere
South-West
Indian Ocean
Mauritius Meteorological Services
Météo Madagascar
Météo France Reunion
Equator – 40°S, 55°E – 90°E
Equator – 40°S, African Coast – 55°E
Equator – 40°S, African Coast – 90°E
[5]
Australian region Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics
Papua New Guinea National Weather Service
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Equator – 10°S, 90°E – 141°E
Equator – 10°S, 141°E – 160°E
10°S – 36°S, 90°E – 160°E
[6]
Southern Pacific Fiji Meteorological Service
Meteorological Service of New Zealand
Equator – 25°S, 160°E – 120°W
25°S – 40°S, 160°E – 120°W
[6]
South Atlantic Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center (Unofficial)Equator – 35°S, Brazilian Coast – 20°W [7]

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were often named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. [8] The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. [8] This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. [8] Formal naming schemes have subsequently been introduced for the North Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean. [8]

At present, tropical cyclones are officially named by one of eleven warning centers and retain their names throughout their lifetimes to facilitate the effective communication of forecasts and storm-related hazards to the general public. [9] This is especially important when multiple storms are occurring simultaneously in the same ocean basin. [9] Names are generally assigned in order from predetermined lists, once they produce one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph). [1] [4] [5] However, standards vary from basin to basin, with some systems named in the Western Pacific when they develop into tropical depressions or enter PAGASA's area of responsibility. [3] Within the Southern Hemisphere, systems must be characterized by a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the center before they are named. [5] [6]

Any member of the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane, typhoon and tropical cyclone committees can request that the name of a tropical cyclone be retired or withdrawn from the various tropical cyclone naming lists. [1] [2] [6] A name is retired or withdrawn if a consensus or majority of members agree that the system has acquired a special notoriety, such as causing a large number of deaths and amounts of damage, impact, or for other special reasons. [1] A replacement name is then submitted to the committee concerned and voted upon, but these names can be rejected and replaced with another name for various reasons: [1] [2] these reasons include the spelling and pronunciation of the name, the similarity to the name of a recent tropical cyclone or on another list of names, and the length of the name for modern communication channels such as social media. [1] [10] PAGASA also retires the names of significant tropical cyclones when they have caused at least

North Atlantic Ocean

Hurricane Dorian right before making landfall on Abaco Island as a strong Category 5 hurricane. Dorian 2019-09-01 1500Z.jpg
Hurricane Dorian right before making landfall on Abaco Island as a strong Category 5 hurricane.

Within the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical or subtropical cyclones are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami) when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [1] There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the first letters A—W used, skipping Q and U, and alternating between male and female names. [1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee meeting. [1] If all of the names on a list for a season are used, any additional tropical storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet. [1]

List of Atlantic tropical cyclone names
2019
NamesAndreaBarryChantalDorianErinFernandGabrielleHumbertoImeldaJerryKaren
LorenzoMelissaNestorOlgaPabloRebekahSebastienTanyaVanWendy
2020
NamesArthurBerthaCristobalDollyEdouardFayGonzaloHannaIsaiasJosephineKyle
LauraMarcoNanaOmarPauletteReneSallyTeddyVickyWilfred
2021
NamesAnaBillClaudetteDannyElsaFredGraceHenriIdaJulianKate
LarryMindyNicholasOdettePeterRoseSamTeresaVictorWanda
2022
NamesAlexBonnieColinDanielleEarlFionaGastonHermineIanJuliaKarl
LisaMartinNicoleOwenPaulaRichardSharyTobiasVirginieWalter
2023
NamesArleneBretCindyDonEmilyFranklinGertHaroldIdaliaJoseKatia
LeeMargotNigelOpheliaPhilippeRinaSeanTammyVinceWhitney
2024
NamesAlbertoBerylChrisDebbyErnestoFrancineGordonHeleneIsaacJoyceKirk
LeslieMiltonNadineOscarPattyRafaelSaraTonyValerieWilliam
References: [1]

Eastern Pacific Ocean

Hurricane Barbara near peak intensity in July 2019 Barbara 2019-07-02 2145Z.jpg
Hurricane Barbara near peak intensity in July 2019

Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean, there are two warning centers that assign names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [1] Tropical cyclones that intensify into tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami), while tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC/RSMC Honolulu). [1] Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee. [1]

The current naming scheme began with the 1978 season, one year before the Atlantic basin (and which anomalously used the list that will be used next in 2018, rather than the one for 2020). As with the Atlantic basin, it uses alternating women's and men's names, and also includes some Spanish and a few French names. Before then, only women's names were used. Because Eastern Pacific hurricanes mainly threaten western Mexico and Central America, the lists contain more Spanish names than the Atlantic lists.

North Pacific east of 140°W

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between the coastline of the Americas and 140°W, it will be named by the NHC. There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the letters A—Z used, skipping Q and U, with each name alternating between a male or a female name. [1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee. [1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named using the letters of the Greek alphabet. [1]

List of Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone names
2019
NamesAlvinBarbaraCosmeDalilaErickFlossieGilHenrietteIvoJulietteKikoLorena
MarioNardaOctavePriscillaRaymondSoniaTicoVelmaWallisXinaYorkZelda
2020
NamesAmandaBorisCristinaDouglasElidaFaustoGenevieveHernanIselleJulioKarinaLowell
MarieNorbertOdalysPoloRachelSimonTrudyVanceWinnieXavierYolandaZeke
2021
NamesAndresBlancaCarlosDoloresEnriqueFeliciaGuillermoHildaIgnacioJimenaKevinLinda
MartyNoraOlafPamelaRickSandraTerryVivianWaldoXinaYorkZelda
2022
NamesAgathaBlasCeliaDarbyEstelleFrankGeorgetteHowardIvetteJavierKayLester
MadelineNewtonOrlenePaineRoslynSeymourTinaVirgilWinifredXavierYolandaZeke
2023
NamesAdrianBeatrizCalvinDoraEugeneFernandaGregHilaryIrwinJovaKennethLidia
MaxNormaOtisPilarRamonSelmaToddVeronicaWileyXinaYorkZelda
2024
NamesAlettaBudCarlottaDanielEmiliaFabioGilmaHectorIleanaJohnKristyLane
MiriamNormanOliviaPaulRosaSergioTaraVicenteWillaXavierYolandaZeke
References: [1]

Central North Pacific Ocean (140°W to 180°)

Hurricane Walaka in October 2018, at peak intensity south of Johnston Atoll Walaka 2018-10-02 0054Z.jpg
Hurricane Walaka in October 2018, at peak intensity south of Johnston Atoll

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between 140°W and 180°, it is named by the CPHC. [1] Four lists of Hawaiian names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane committee, rotating without regard to year, with the first name for a new year being the next name in sequence that was not used the previous year. [1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next Hurricane Committee meeting. [1]

List of Central Pacific tropical cyclone names
ListNames
1AkoniEmaHoneIonaKeliLalaMokeNoloOlanaPenaUlanaWale
2AkaEkekaHeneIolanaKeoniLinoMeleNonaOliwaPamaUpanaWene
3AlikaEleHukoIopaKikaLanaMakaNekiOmekaPewaUnalaWali
4AnaElaHalolaIuneKiloLokeMaliaNialaOhoPaliUlikaWalaka
References: [1]

Western Pacific Ocean (180° – 100°E)

Typhoon Hagibis approaching Japan on October 2019 Hagibis 2019-10-10 0340Z.jpg
Typhoon Hagibis approaching Japan on October 2019

Tropical cyclones that occur within the Northern Hemisphere between the anti-meridian and 100°E are officially named by the Japan Meteorological Agency when they become tropical storms. [2] However, PAGASA also names tropical cyclones that occur or develop into tropical depressions within their self-defined area of responsibility between 5°N–25°N and 115°E-135°E. [3] This often results in tropical cyclones in the region having two names. However, the Japan Meteorological Agency reports numbers to the Japanese media and storms are numbered, not named, unless they also have a name assigned by the PAGASA in the Philippines. [3]

International names

Tropical cyclones within the Western Pacific are assigned international names by the Japan Meteorological Agency when they become a tropical storm with 10-minute sustained winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [2] The names are used sequentially without regard to year and are taken from five lists of names that were prepared by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, after each of the 14 members submitted 10 names in 1998. [2] The order of the names to be used was determined by placing the English name of the members in alphabetical order. [2] Members of the committee are allowed to request the retirement or replacement of a system's name if it causes extensive destruction or for other reasons such as number of deaths. [2] Unlike other basins, storms are also named after plants, animals, objects, and mythological beings.

List of Western Pacific tropical cyclone names
ListContributing nation
Cambodia China North Korea Hong Kong Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Micronesia Philippines South Korea Thailand United States Vietnam
1 Damrey Haikui Kirogi Yun-yeung Koinu Bolaven Sanba Jelawat Ewiniar Maliksi Gaemi Prapiroon Maria Son-Tinh
Ampil Wukong Jongdari Shanshan Yagi Leepi Bebinca Rumbia [nb 1] Soulik Cimaron Jebi Mangkhut [nb 2] Barijat Trami
2 Kong-rey Yutu Toraji Man-yi Usagi Pabuk Wutip Sepat Mun Danas Nari Wipha Francisco Lekima
Krosa Bailu Podul Lingling Kajiki Faxai Peipah Tapah Mitag Hagibis Neoguri Bualoi Matmo Halong
3 Nakri Fengshen Kalmaegi Fung-wong Kammuri Phanfone Vongfong Nuri Sinlaku Hagupit Jangmi Mekkhala Higos Bavi
Maysak Haishen Noul Dolphin Kujira Chan-hom Linfa Nangka Saudel Molave Goni Atsani Etau Vamco
4 Krovanh Dujuan Surigae Choi-wan Koguma Champi In-fa Cempaka Nepartak Lupit Mirinae Nida Omais Conson
Chanthu Dianmu Mindulle Lionrock Kompasu Namtheun Malou Nyatoh Rai Malakas Megi Chaba Aere Songda
5 Trases Mulan Meari Ma-on Tokage Hinnamnor Muifa Merbok Nanmadol Talas Noru Kulap Roke Sonca
Nesat Haitang Nalgae Banyan Yamaneko Pakhar Sanvu Mawar Guchol Talim Doksuri Khanun Lan Saola
References: [2] [15]

Philippines

Typhoon Hanna (Lekima) near peak intensity in August 2019 Lekima 2019-08-08 0232Z.jpg
Typhoon Hanna (Lekima) near peak intensity in August 2019

Since 1963, PAGASA has independently operated its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones that occur within its own self-defined Philippine Area of Responsibility. [3] [16] The names are taken from four different lists of 25 names and are assigned when a system moves into or develops into a tropical depression within PAGASA's jurisdiction. [3] [16] The four lists of names are rotated every four years, with the names of significant tropical cyclones retired should they have caused at least

List of Philippine region tropical cyclone names
2020
MainAmboButchoyCarinaDindoEntengFerdieGenerHelenIgmeJulianKristineLeonMarce
NikaOfelPepitoQuintaRollySionyTonyoUlyssesVickyWarrenYoyongZosimo
AuxiliaryAlakdanBaldoClaraDencioEstongFelipeGomerHelingIsmaelJulio
2021
MainAuringBisingCrisingDanteEmongFabianGorioHuaningIsangJolinaKikoLannieMaring
NandoOdettePaoloQuedanRamilSalomeTinoUwanVerbenaWilmaYasminZoraida
AuxiliaryAlamidBrunoConchingDolorErnieFloranteGerardoHernanIskoJerome
2022
MainAgatonBasyangCaloyDomengEsterFloritaGardoHenryIndayJosieKardingLuisMaymay
NenengObetPaengQueenieRosalSamuelTomasUmbertoVenusWaldoYayangZeny
AuxiliaryAgilaBagwisChitoDiegoElenaFelinoGundingHarrietIndangJessa
2023
MainAmangBettyChedengDodongEgayFalconGoringHannaInengJennyKabayanLiwaywayMarilyn
NimfaOnyokPerlaQuielRamonSarahTamarawUgongViringWengYoyoyZigzag
AuxiliaryAbeBertoCharoDadoEstoyFelionGeningHermanIrmaJaime
References: [16]

North Indian Ocean (45°E – 100°E)

Cyclone Fani near peak intensity in May 2019 Fani 2019-05-02 1657Z.jpg
Cyclone Fani near peak intensity in May 2019

Within the North Indian Ocean between 45°E – 100°E, tropical cyclones are named by the India Meteorological Department (IMD/RSMC New Delhi) when they are judged to have intensified into a cyclonic storm with 3-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [18] There are eight lists of names which are used in sequence and are not rotated every few years; however, the names of significant tropical cyclones are retired. [19]

List of Northern Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
ListContributing nation
BangladeshIndiaMaldivesMyanmarOmanPakistanSri LankaThailand
1 Onil Agni Hibaru Pyarr Baaz Fanoos Mala Mukda
2 Ogni Akash Gonu Yemyin Sidr Nargis Rashmi Khai-Muk
3 Nisha Bijli Aila Phyan Ward Laila Bandu Phet
4 Giri Jal Keila Thane Murjan Nilam Viyaru Phailin
5 Helen Lehar Madi Nanauk Hudhud Nilofar Ashobaa Komen
6 Chapala Megh Roanu Kyant Nada Vardah Maarutha Mora
7 Ockhi Sagar Mekunu Daye Luban Titli Gaja Phethai
8 Fani Vayu Hikaa Kyarr Maha Bulbul PawanAmphan

South-West Indian Ocean (Africa – 90°E)

Cyclone Idai nearing landfall in Mozambique in March 2019 Idai 2019-03-14 1135Z.jpg
Cyclone Idai nearing landfall in Mozambique in March 2019

Within the South-West Indian Ocean in the Southern Hemisphere between Africa and 90°E, a tropical or subtropical disturbance is named when it is judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h). [5] [20] This is defined as being when gales are either observed or estimated to be present near a significant portion of the system's center. [5] Systems are named in conjunction with Météo-France Reunion by either Météo Madagascar or the Mauritius Meteorological Service. [5] If a disturbance reaches the naming stage between Africa and 55°E, then Météo Madagascar names it; if it reaches the naming stage between 55°E and 90°E, then the Mauritius Meteorological Service names it. [5] The names are taken from three pre-determined lists of names, which rotate on a triennial basis, with any names that have been used automatically removed. [5] The names that are going to be used during a season are selected in advance by the World Meteorological Organization's RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee from names submitted by member countries. [5]

List of South–West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
2019-20
NamesAmbaliBelnaCalviniaDianeEsamiFranciscoGabekileHeroldIrondroJerutoKundaiLiseboMichel
NousraOlivierPokeraQuincyRebaoneSalamaTristanUrsulaVioletWilsonXilaYekelaZania
2020–21
NamesAvaBongoyoChalaneDaniloEloiseFarajiGuambeHabanaImanJoboKangaLudziMelina
NathanOniasPelagieQuamarRitaSolaniTarikUriliaVuyaneWagnerXusaYaronaZacarias
2021–22
NamesAnaBatsiraiCliffDamakoEmnatiFezileGombeHalimaIssaJasmineKarimLetlamaMaipelo
NjaziOscarPamelaQuentinRajabSavanaThembaUyapoVivianeWalterXangyYemuraiZanele
References: [20] [21]

Australian Region (90°E – 160°E)

Within the Australian region in the Southern Hemisphere between 90°E – 160°E, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the center which are forecast to continue. [6] The Indonesian Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 90°E and 141°E, while Papua New Guinea's National Weather Service names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 141°E and 160°E. [6] Outside of these areas, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology names systems that develop into tropical cyclones. [6] In order to enable local authorities and their communities in taking action to reduce the impact of a tropical cyclone, each of these warning centres reserve the right to name a system early if it has a high chance of being named. [6] If a name is assigned to a tropical cyclone that causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that storm is retired from the list of names for the region. [6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting. [6] [10]

Indonesia

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator – 10°S and 90°E – 141°E, it will be named by the Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG/TCWC Jakarta). [6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A, while list B details names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons. [6]

List of Indonesian tropical cyclone names
List A
AnggrekBakungCempakaDahliaFlamboyanKenangaLiliManggaSerojaTeratai
List B
AnggurBelimbingDukuJambuLengkengMelatiNangkaPisangRambutanSawo
References: [6] [22]

Papua New Guinea

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator – 10°S and 141°E – 160°E, then it will be named by Papua New Guinea National Weather Service (NWS, TCWC Port Moresby). [6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A and are automatically retired after being used regardless of any damage caused. [6] List B contains names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons. [6]

List of Papua New Guinea tropical cyclone names
List A
AluBuriDodoEmauFereHibuIlaKamaLobuMaila
List B
NouObahaPaiaRanuSabiTauUmeValiWauAuram
References: [6]

Australia

Cyclone Marcus at peak intensity in March 2018 Marcus 2018-03-22 0632Z.jpg
Cyclone Marcus at peak intensity in March 2018

When a system develops into a tropical cyclone below 10°S between 90°E and 160°E, then it will be named by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) which operates three Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane. [6] The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year. [6] [10]

List of Australian tropical cyclone names
List A
NamesAnikaBillyCharlotteDominicEllieFreddyGabrielleHermanIlsaJasperKirrily
LincolnMeganNevilleOlgaPaulRobynSeanTashaVinceZelia------
List B
NamesAnthonyBiancaCourtneyDianneErrolFinaGrantHayleyIggyJennaKoji
LuanaMitchellNarelleOranPetaRiordanSandraTimVictoriaZane------
List C
NamesAlessiaBruceCatherineDylanEdnaFletcherGillianHadiIvanaJackKate
LaszloMingzhuNathanOlwynQuinceyRaquelStanTatianaUriahYvette------
List D
NamesAlfredBlancheCalebDaraErnieFrancesGregHildaIrvingJoyceKelvin
LindaMarcoNoraOwenPennyRileySavannahTrevorVeronicaWallace------
List E
NamesAnnBlakeClaudiaDamienEstherFerdinandGretelHaroldImogenJoshuaKimi
LucasMarianNiranOdettePaddyRubySethTiffanyVernon-----------
References: [6] [10]

Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E – 120°W)

Cyclone Gita at peak intensity in February 2018 Gita 2018-02-14 0150Z.jpg
Cyclone Gita at peak intensity in February 2018

Within the Southern Pacific basin in the Southern Hemisphere between 160°E – 120°W, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the centre which are forecast to continue. [6] The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) names systems that are located between the Equator and 25°S, while the New Zealand MetService names systems (in conjunction with the FMS) that develop to the south of 25°S. [6] In order to enable local authorities and their communities in taking action to reduce the impact of a tropical cyclone, the FMS reserves the right to name a system early if it has a high chance of being named. [6] If a tropical cyclone causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that cyclone is retired from the list of names for the region. [6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting. [6] The name of a tropical cyclone is determined by using Lists A — D in order, without regard to the year before restarting with List A. [6] List E contains names that will replace names on A-D when needed. [6]

List of South Pacific tropical cyclone names
List A
NamesAnaBinaCodyDoviEvaFiliGinaHaleIreneJudyKevinLolaMal
NatOsaiPitaRaeSeruTamUrmilVaianuWatiXavierYaniZita
List B
NamesArthurBeckyChipDeniaElisaFotuGlenHettieInnisJulieKenLinMaciu
NishaOreaPearlReneSarahTroyUinitaVanessaWano------YvonneZaka
List C
NamesAlvinBuneCyrilDaphneEdenFlorinGarryHaleyIsaJuneKofiLouiseMike
NikoOpetiPerryReubenSoloTuniUluVictorWanita------YatesZidane
List D
NamesAmosBartCrystalDeanEllaFehiGarthHolaIrisJosieKeniLiuaMona
NeilOmaPolaRitaSaraiTinoUesiVickyWasi------YolandaZazu
List E (Standby)
NamesAruBenChrisDanialEmosiFekiGermaineHartIliJoseseKirioLuteMata
NetaOliviaPanaRexSamadiyoTasiUilaVelmaWane------YasaZanna
References: [6]

South Atlantic

When a tropical or subtropical storm exists in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center's Marine Meteorological Service names the system using a predetermined list of names. The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year. [7]

List of South Atlantic tropical cyclone names
NamesAraniBapoCariDeniEçaíGuaráIbaJaguarKurumíManiOquiraPotiraRaoniUbáYakecan
References: [7]

See also

Notes

  1. The name Rumbia was retired from the 2018 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2020. [13]
  2. The name Mangkhut was retired from the 2018 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2020. [14]

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The 1948 Pacific typhoon season is an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout 1948, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2007 until April 30, 2008, although the first cyclone, Tropical Depression 01F, developed on October 17. The most intense tropical cyclone of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Daman, which reached a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) as it affected Fiji. After the season had ended, the names Daman, Funa, and Gene were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone type of tropical cyclone located in South West Indian Ocean and measured by Météo-France La Reunion scale

In the south-west Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones form south of the equator and west of 90° E to the coast of Africa.

2014 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2014 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season, featuring 23 tropical storms, 11 typhoons, 8 super typhoons, and 7 Category 5 typhoons. The season's peak months August and September saw minimal activity caused by an unusually strong and a persistent suppressing phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The season ran throughout 2014, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season began with the development of Tropical Storm Lingling on January 18, and ended after Tropical Storm Jangmi which dissipated on January 1 of the next year.

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.

1994–95 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1994–95 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only two tropical cyclones officially occurring within the South Pacific Ocean basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season ran from November 1, 1994, until April 30, 1995, with the first disturbance of the season developing on November 12 and the last disturbance dissipating on March 17. The most intense tropical cyclone during the season was Tropical Cyclone William, which affected the Cook Islands. After the season the name William was retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

1984–85 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1984–85 South Pacific cyclone season was an above-average tropical cyclone season, with nine tropical cyclones occurring within the basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season ran from November 1, 1984, to April 30, 1985, with tropical cyclones officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS), Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and New Zealand's MetService. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and other national meteorological services including Météo-France and NOAA also monitored the basin during the season. During the season there was nine tropical cyclones occurring within the basin, including three that moved into the basin from the Australian region. The BoM, MetService and RSMC Nadi all estimated sustained wind speeds over a period of 10-minutes, which are subsequently compared to the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

The 2020 Pacific typhoon season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout the year, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October.

Timeline of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season

This timeline documents all of the events of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season. Most of the tropical cyclones formed between May and November. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator between 100°E and the International Date Line. Tropical storms that form in the entire Western Pacific basin are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions that form in this basin are given a number with a "W" suffix by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center. In addition, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility. These names, however, are not in common use outside of the Philippines.

Tropical cyclones in 2015 Wikimedia list article

During 2015, tropical cyclones formed within seven different tropical cyclone basins, located within various parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. During the year, a total of 133 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 92 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

Tropical cyclones in 2014 Wikimedia list article

During 2014, tropical cyclones formed within seven different tropical cyclone basins, located within various parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. During the year, a total of 119 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 82 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2014 was the Western Pacific, which documented 23 named systems, while the Eastern Pacific, despite only amounting to 22 named systems, was its basin's most active since 1992. Conversely, both the North Atlantic hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 9 and 3, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Tropical cyclones in 2020 Wikimedia list article

Throughout 2020, tropical cyclones will form within seven different tropical cyclone basins, which are located within various parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. During the year a total of 22 tropical cyclones have developed, with 12 of these being named by the appropriate warning centre. Tropical cyclones are primarily monitored by a group of ten warning centres, which have been designated as a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC) by the World Meteorological Organisation. These are the United States National Hurricane Center (NHC) and Central Pacific Hurricane Center, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Météo-France, Indonesia's Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), Papua New Guinea's National Weather Service, the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) as well as New Zealand's MetService. Other notable warning centres include the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) and the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC).

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