India Meteorological Department

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Indian SCIENCE Department
IMDlogo.png
Agency overview
Formed1875
Type Government agency
Jurisdiction Government of India
HeadquartersMausam Bhavan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi
Annual budget3.52 billion (US$49 million) (2011) [1]
Ministers responsible
  • Harsh Vardhan, Union Minister of Earth Sciences
  • Madhavan Nair Rajveeran, Secretary, Ministry of Earth Sciences
Agency executive
  • Dr. Mrutyunjay Mohapatra, Director General of Meteorology
Parent department Ministry of Earth Sciences
Website mausam.imd.gov.in

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal organization responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. IMD is headquartered in Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across India and Antarctica. Regional offices are at Mumbai, Kolkata, Nagpur and Pune.

Contents

IMD is also one of the six Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres of the World Meteorological Organization. It has the responsibility for forecasting, naming and distribution of warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northern Indian Ocean region, including the Malacca Straits, the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.

History

In 1686, Edmond Halley published his treatise on the Indian summer monsoon, which he attributed to a seasonal reversal of winds due to the differential heating of the Asian land mass and the Indian Ocean. The first meteorological observatories were established in India by the British East India Company. These included the Calcutta Observatory in 1785, the Madras Observatory in 1796 and the Colaba Observatory in 1826. Several other observatories were established in India during the first half of the 19th century by various provincial governments.

The Asiatic Society, founding in Calcutta in 1784 and in Bombay in 1804, promoted the study of meteorology in India. Henry Piddington published almost 40 papers dealing with tropical storms from Calcutta between 1835 and 1855 in The Journal of the Asiatic Society. He also coined the term cyclone , meaning the coil of a snake. In 1842, he published his landmark thesis, Laws of the Storms. [2]

After a tropical cyclone hit Calcutta in 1864, and the subsequent famines in 1866 and 1871 due to the failure of the monsoons, it was decided to organise the collection and analysis of meteorological observations under one roof. As a result, the India Meteorology Department was established in 1875. Henry Francis Blanford was appointed the first Meteorological Reporter of the IMD. In May 1889, Sir John Eliot was appointed the first Director General of Observatories in the erstwhile capital, Calcutta. The IMD headquarters were later shifted to Shimla in 1905, then to Pune in 1928 and finally to New Delhi in 1944. [3]

IMD became a member of the World Meteorological Organization after independence on 27 April 1949. [4] The agency has gained in prominence due to the significance of the monsoon rains on Indian agriculture. It plays a vital role in preparing the annual monsoon forecast, as well as in tracking the progress of the monsoon across India every season. [5]

Organisation

IMD weather radar on Kailasagiri. Doppler Weather Radar Station on Kailasagiri (May 2019).jpg
IMD weather radar on Kailasagiri.

IMD is headed by the Director General of Meteorology, currently Dr. Mrutyunjay Mohapatra. [6] [7] IMD has six Regional Meteorological Centres, each under a Deputy Director General. These are located in Chennai, Guwahati, Kolkata, Mumbai, Nagpur and New Delhi. There are also Meteorological Centres in every state capital. Other IMD units such as Forecasting Offices, Agrometeorological Advisory Service Centers, Hydro-meteorological Office, Flood Meteorological Offices, Area Cyclone Warning Centers and Cyclone Warning Centers are usually co-located with various observatories or meteorological center. [8]

IMD operates a network of hundreds of surface and glacial observatories, Upper Air (high altitude) stations, ozone and radiation observatories and weather radar stations. Additional data is received from India's constellation of satellites, such as Kalpana-1, Megha-Tropiques and instruments on board the IRS series and the INSAT series of satellites. [9] Data and observations are also reported into the IMD network from meteorological instruments on board Indian merchant marine and Indian Navy ships. IMD was the first organisation in India to deploy a message switching computer for supporting its global data exchange.

IMD collaborates with other agencies such as the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting and the National Institute of Ocean Technology.

IMD also operates seismic monitoring centres at key locations for earthquake monitoring and measurements. The new public website of IMD is https://mausam.imd.gov.in/

Tasks

IMD undertakes observations, communications, forecasting and weather services. In collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation, the IMD also uses the IRS series and the Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) for weather monitoring of the Indian subcontinent. IMD was first weather bureau of a developing country to develop and maintain its own satellite system.

IMD is one of the six worldwide Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres of the Tropical Cyclone Programme of the World Weather Watch of the World Meteorological Organization. [10] It is regional nodal agency for forecasting, naming and disseminating warnings about tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean north of the Equator.

New initiatives

The IMD launched System of Aerosol Monitoring and Research (SAMAR) in January 2016 to study the concentration of Black carbon, radiative properties of aerosols, environmental visibility and their climatological impacts. It would contain a network of 16 aethalometers, 12 sky radiometers and 12 nephelometers. [11]

Further reading

Related Research Articles

North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone type of tropical cyclone located in North Indian Ocean and measured by India Meteorological Department (IMD) scale.

In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India. On the east side is the Bay of Bengal, and on the west side is the Arabian Sea.

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology

The Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) is a scientific institution based in Pune, India for expanding research in tropical Indian Ocean, of the tropics in general with special reference to monsoon meteorology, and air-sea interaction of Indian monsoon.

2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was at the time, the most active North Indian Ocean cyclone season on record until surpassed in 2019. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

A Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre is responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch.

2008 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2008 North Indian cyclone season was one of the most disastrous tropical cyclone seasons in modern history, with tropical cyclones leaving more than 140,000 people dead and causing nearly US$14 billion in damage, making it the costliest season on record in the North Indian Ocean. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form between April and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.

2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the first in which tropical cyclones were officially named in the basin. Cyclone Onil, which struck Pakistan, was named in late September. The final storm, Cyclone Agni, was also named, and crossed into the southern hemisphere shortly before dissipation. This storm became notable during its origins and became one of the storms closest to the equator. The season was fairly active, with ten depressions forming from May to November. The India Meteorological Department designated four of these as cyclonic storms, which have maximum sustained winds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) averaged over three minutes. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issued warnings for five of the storms on an unofficial basis.

1990 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1990 North Indian Ocean cyclone season featured a below average total of twelve cyclonic disturbances and one of the most intense tropical cyclones in the basin on record. During the season the systems were primarily monitored by the India Meteorological Department, while other warning centres such as the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center also monitored the area. During the season, there were at least 1,577 deaths, while the systems caused over US$693 million in damages. The most significant system was the 1990 Andhra Pradesh cyclone, which was the most intense, damaging, and the deadliest system of the season.

1993 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 1993 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the quietest on record in the basin, with only four tropical disturbances. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean – the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) issued advisories for the systems in its official capacity as the local Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issued advisories for two of the storms on an unofficial basis. Of the five disturbances tracked by the IMD, two intensified into cyclonic storms.

2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2009 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

2010 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2010 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the most intense tropical cyclone season in the North Indian Ocean since the 1998 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. The season saw 8 depressions and 5 named storms forming in the region.

2011 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2011 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the least active tropical cyclone season in the North Indian Ocean since 1993. Only two cyclonic storms formed, below the average of four to six. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The scope of this article is limited to the Indian Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, east of the Horn of Africa and west of the Malay Peninsula. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean — the Arabian Sea to the west of the Indian subcontinent, abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD); and the Bay of Bengal to the east, abbreviated BOB by the IMD.

Cyclone Laila North Indian cyclone in 2010

Cyclonic Storm Laila was the first cyclonic storm to affect southeastern India in May since the 1990 Andhra Pradesh cyclone. The first tropical cyclone of the 2010 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, Laila developed on May 17 in the Bay of Bengal from a persistent area of convection. Strengthening as it tracked northwestward, it became a severe cyclonic storm on May 19. The next day, Laila made landfall in Andhra Pradesh, and it later dissipated over land. It caused flooding and damage along its path. Laila is an Urdu/Arabic name, meaning Night. It was the worst storm to hit Andhra Pradesh in the last 14 years.

2012 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2012 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season had a late start, with the first system forming in October. During the season, only five systems formed, of which only two became cyclonic storms. Both the storms made landfall, and they, along with the deep depressions, were responsible for 128 deaths and economic losses worth at least $56.7 million.

Regional Meteorological Centre, Chennai

Regional Meteorological Centre, Chennai is one of the six regional meteorological centres (RMCs) of the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and is responsible for the weather-related activities of the southern Indian peninsula comprising the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep Islands and Puducherry. The other regional centres are located at Kolkata, Guwahati, Mumbai, Nagpur and New Delhi.

Cyclone Thane North Indian cyclone in 2011

Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Thane was the strongest tropical cyclone of 2011 within the North Indian Ocean. Thane initially developed as a tropical disturbance within the monsoon trough to the west of Indonesia. Over the next couple of days the disturbance gradually developed further while moving towards the northwest, and was declared a Depression during December 25, before being declared Cyclonic Storm Thane during the next day. As it was named, Thane started to turn towards the west under the influence of a subtropical ridge of high pressure before its development slowed down during December 27, as a strong outflow and marginally favourable sea surface temperatures fought with persistent vertical wind shear. After its development had slowed down during December 27, Thane became a Very Severe Cyclonic Storm during December 28, before as it approached the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, it weakened slightly. Thane then made landfall early on December 30, on the north Tamil Nadu coast between Cuddalore and Puducherry and rapidly weakened into a depression.

2013 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian ocean

The 2013 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones formed in the North Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. The season had no official bounds, but cyclones typically formed between May and December, with the peak from October to November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

2014 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian Ocean

The 2014 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The season included two very severe cyclonic storms, both in October, and one other named cyclonic storm, classified according to the tropical cyclone intensity scale of the India Meteorological Department. Cyclone Hudhud is estimated to have caused US$3.58 billion in damage across eastern India, and more than 120 deaths.

2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the North Indian Ocean

The 2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It was the deadliest season since 2010, killing more than 400 people. The season was an average one, seeing four named storms, with one further intensifying into a very severe cyclonic storm. The first named storm, Roanu, developed on 19 May while the season's last named storm, Vardah, dissipated on 18 December. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with the two peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

INSAT-1D was 4th and the concluding multipurpose geostationary satellite of INSAT-1 series. It was launched on June 12, 1990.

References

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  3. "Establishment of the IMD". Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved 18 November 2011.[ permanent dead link ]
  4. "Members". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  5. "Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)" (PDF). Indian Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  6. "IMD - DGM". www.imd.gov.in. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  7. "IMD - Secretary MoES". www.imd.gov.in. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  8. "Organisation". Indian Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  9. "Satellite Images & Products". Indian Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 31 October 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  10. "RSMCs and TCWCs". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  11. "Dr. Harsh vardhan dedicates system of aerosol monitoring and research and user-friendly website of India meteorological department". Press Information Bureau. pib.nic.in. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.