List of retired Atlantic hurricane names

Last updated
Cumulative tracks of retired Atlantic hurricanes Retired Atlantic hurricane tracks.png
Cumulative tracks of retired Atlantic hurricanes

This is a cumulative list of previously used tropical cyclone (tropical storm and hurricane) names which have been permanently removed from reuse in the North Atlantic region.

Contents

The naming of North Atlantic tropical cyclones is currently under the oversight of the Hurricane Committee of the World Meteorological Organization. This group maintains six alphabetic lists of names, with one list used each year. This normally results in each name being reused every six years. However, in the case of a particularly deadly or damaging storm, that storm's name is retired, and a replacement starting with the same letter is selected to take its place. The decision whether to remove a name in a given season is made at the annual session of the Hurricane Committee in the spring of the following year.

The practice of retiring storm names was begun by the United States Weather Bureau in 1955, after major hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the Northeastern United States during the previous year. Initially their names were retired for 10 years, after which time they could be reintroduced; however, in 1969, the policy was changed to have the names retired permanently. In 1977, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) transferred control of the naming lists to the Hurricane Committee.

Since the formal start of naming during the 1947 Atlantic hurricane season, an average of one Atlantic storm name has been retired each year, though many seasons (most recently 2014) did not have any names retired. The deadliest storm to have its name retired was Hurricane Mitch, which caused over 10,000 fatalities when it struck Central America during October 1998. The costliest storms were hurricanes Katrina in August 2005 and Harvey in August 2017; each storm struck the U.S. Gulf Coast, causing $125 billion in damage, much of it from flooding. [nb 1] The most recently retired storm names are Florence and Michael.

Background

By 1947, tropical cyclones developing in the North Atlantic Ocean were named by the United States Army Air Forces in private communications between weather centres and aircraft using the Phonetic alphabet. [1] [2] This practice continued until September 1950, when the names started to be used publicly after three hurricanes (Baker, Dog, Easy) had occurred simultaneously and caused confusion within the media and the public. [1] Public use of the phonetic alphabet continued until the 1953 Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference, where the decision was made to start using a new list of female names during that season, as a second phonetic alphabet had been developed. [1] [3] [4] During the active but mild 1953 Atlantic hurricane season, the names were readily used in the press with few objections recorded; as a result, the same names were reused during the next year with only one change: Gilda for Gail. Over the next six years a new list of names was developed ahead of each season, before in 1960 forecasters developed four alphabetical sets and repeated them every four years. [5] These new sets followed the example of the typhoon names and excluded names beginning with the letters Q, U, X, Y, and Z, and keeping them to female names only. [5]

In 1955, it was decided to start retiring the names of significant tropical cyclones for 10 years after which they might be reintroduced, with the names Carol and Edna reintroduced ahead of the 1965 and 1968 hurricane seasons respectively. [1] At the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference the naming lists were revised after it was decided that the names Carol, Edna and Hazel would be permanently retired because of their importance to the research community. [1] [6] It was also decided that any significant hurricane in the future would also be permanently retired. [1] [6] Ahead of the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season, 10 lists of hurricane names were inaugurated, by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In 1977 it was decided that the World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee (WMO) would control the names used, who subsequently decided that six lists of names would be used in the Atlantic Ocean from 1979 onwards with male names included. [1] Since 1979 the same six lists have been used by the United States National Hurricane Center (NHC) to name systems, with names of significant tropical cyclones retired from the lists permanently and replaced with new names as required at the following year's hurricane committee meeting. [1]

At present, the name of any tropical cyclone may be retired or withdrawn from the list of names at the request of a member state, if it acquires notoriety for various reasons including the number of deaths, amount of damages or other impacts. [7] The committee subsequently discuss the proposal and either through building consensus or a majority vote decides if the name should be retired or withdrawn. In March 2017, members of the British Caribbean Territories proposed that a third retirement criterion be added: the tropical cyclone must have sustained winds of at least 96 mph (154 km/h). This came in light of the retirement of Tropical Storm Erika in 2015 which caused catastrophic flooding and mudslides in Dominica without producing sustained tropical storm-force winds on the island. No action has been taken on this proposal yet. [8]

Names retired in the 1950s

Hurricane Audrey was the eighth-deadliest hurricane in United States history. Audrey before landfall.gif
Hurricane Audrey was the eighth-deadliest hurricane in United States history.

Between 1954 and 1959, eight names were deemed significant enough to be retired for 10 years due to their impact, before being permanently retired after 1969. There were no names retired for the 1956, 1958, and 1959 seasons. [7] [9] [10] Collectively, these storms resulted in at least 2317 fatalities and over

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDeathsDamage
(USD)
Refs
Carol August 25 
September 1, 1954
Category 3 hurricane115 mph (185 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Northeastern United States, Canada60 [11] [12]
Edna September 5 – 11, 1954Category 3 hurricane125 mph (205 km/h)943 hPa (27.85 inHg)New England, Atlantic Canada21 [13] [14]
Hazel October 5 – 15, 1954Category 4 hurricane130 mph (210 km/h)938 hPa (27.70 inHg)The Caribbean, Eastern United States, Canada581 [15] [16] [17]
Connie August 3 – 15, 1955Category 4 hurricane140 mph (220 km/h)944 hPa (27.88 inHg)Mid-Atlantic states, New England25 [18] [19]
Diane August 7 – 21, 1955Category 2 hurricane105 mph (165 km/h)969 hPa (28.61 inHg)Mid-Atlantic states, New England184 [18] [11]
Ione September 10 – 21, 1955Category 4 hurricane140 mph (220 km/h)938 hPa (27.70 inHg)North Carolina7 [15] [19]
Janet September 21 – 30, 1955Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)914 hPa (26.99 inHg)Lesser Antilles, Central America1,023 [19]
Audrey June 25 – 29, 1957Category 3 hurricane125 mph (205 km/h)946 hPa (27.94 inHg)Southern United States416 [18] [20]
8 namesReferences: [nb 2] [nb 3] 2317

Names retired in the 1960s

Hurricane Betsy was the first hurricane to have damages exceeding US$1 billion. Hurricane Betsy.jpg
Hurricane Betsy was the first hurricane to have damages exceeding US$1 billion.

In 1960, four rotating lists of names were developed to avoid having to create new lists each year, while the practice of retiring any particularly damaging storm names for 10 years continued, with 11 names deemed significant enough to be retired during the decade. [1] [22] At the 1969 Hurricane Warning Conference, the National Hurricane Center requested that Carol, Edna, Hazel, and Inez be permanently retired due to their importance to the research community. [1] [23] This request was subsequently accepted and led to today's practice of retiring names of significant tropical cyclones permanently. [1] [6] There were no names retired for the 1962 and 1968 seasons. [nb 2] Collectively, the 11 systems were responsible for at least 9082 fatalities and in excess of

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDeathsDamage
(USD)
Replacement NameRefs
Donna August 29 
September 14, 1960
Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)The Caribbean, Eastern United States164Dora [24]
Carla September 3 – 13, 1961Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)927 hPa (27.37 inHg)Texas, Louisiana
Midwestern United States
46Carol [18] [15]
Hattie October 27 
November 1, 1961
Category 5 hurricane165 mph (270 km/h)914 hPa (26.99 inHg)Central America319None [25] [26]
Flora September 26 
October 12, 1963
Category 4 hurricane150 mph (240 km/h)933 hPa (27.55 inHg)The Caribbean7,193Fern [27]
Cleo August 20 
September 5, 1964
Category 4 hurricane150 mph (240 km/h)938 hPa (27.70 inHg)The Caribbean, Southeastern United States217Candy [28]
Dora August 28 
September 14, 1964
Category 4 hurricane130 mph (215 km/h)942 hPa (27.82 inHg)Southeastern United States5Dolly [28]
Hilda September 28 
October 4, 1964
Category 4 hurricane140 mph (220 km/h)941 hPa (27.79 inHg)Southern United States38None [18] [29]
Betsy August 27 
September 14, 1965
Category 4 hurricane140 mph (220 km/h)942 hPa (27.82 inHg)Bahamas, Southeastern United States75Blanche [18] [30]
Inez September 21 
October 11, 1966
Category 4 hurricane150 mph (240 km/h)929 hPa (27.43 inHg)The Caribbean, Florida, Mexico710Isabel [31]
Beulah September 5 – 22, 1967Category 5 hurricane160 mph (260 km/h)921 hPa (27.20 inHg)The Caribbean, Mexico, Texas59Beth [32]
Camille August 14 – 22, 1969Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Cuba, United States Gulf Coast256Cindy [18] [30] [33]
11 namesReferences: [nb 2] [nb 3] 9082

Names retired in the 1970s

Hurricane David at its peak intensity. Hurricane David Aug 31 1979 1700Z.jpg
Hurricane David at its peak intensity.

Starting in 1979, the World Meteorological Organization began assigning both male and female names to tropical cyclones. [1] This decade featured hurricanes David and Frederic, the first male Atlantic hurricane names to be retired. During this decade, 9 storms were deemed significant enough to have their names retired. Together these 9 systems caused at least

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDeathsDamage
(USD)
Replacement NameRefs
Celia July 31 – August 5, 1970Category 3 hurricane125 mph (205 km/h)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Cuba, United States Gulf Coast20Carmen [34] [18]
Agnes June 14 – 23, 1972Category 1 hurricane85 mph (140 km/h)977 hPa (28.85 inHg)Mexico, Cuba, Eastern United States124None [18] [35]
Carmen August 29 – September 10, 1974Category 4 hurricane150 mph (240 km/h)928 hPa (27.40 inHg)Central America, Mexico
United States Gulf Coast
8None [36] [37]
Fifi September 14 – 24, 1974Category 2 hurricane110 mph (180 km/h)971 hPa (28.67 inHg)Jamaica, Central America, Mexico8,200None [38] [39]
Eloise September 13 – 24, 1975Category 3 hurricane125 mph (205 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)The Caribbean, Yucatán Peninsula, Florida80None [40]
Anita August 29 – September 4, 1977Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)926 hPa (27.34 inHg)Mexico10None [41]
Greta September 13 – 23, 1978Category 4 hurricane130 mph (215 km/h)947 hPa (27.96 inHgThe Caribbean, Central America, Mexico5None [42]
David August 25 – September 8, 1979Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)924 hPa (27.29 inHg)The Caribbean, United States East coast2,068Danny [42] [43]
Frederic August 29 – September 15, 1979Category 4 hurricane130 mph (215 km/h)943 hPa (27.85 inHg)The Caribbean, Southeastern United States12Fabian [43] [30]
9 namesReferences: [nb 2] [nb 3] >10,527

Names retired in the 1980s

Hurricane Gilbert at its peak intensity. Gilbert 1988-09-13 1831Z.png
Hurricane Gilbert at its peak intensity.

After control of the naming scheme was turned over to the World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee during the mid-1970s, the 1980s marked the least prolific decade in terms of the number of retired storms with 7 names warranting removal. Between them the 7 systems caused over

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDeathsDamage
(USD)
Replacement NameRefs
Allen July 31 – August 11, 1980Category 5 hurricane190 mph (305 km/h)899 hPa (26.55 inHg)The Caribbean, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, South Texas269Andrew [42] [46] [47]
Alicia August 15 – 21, 1983Category 3 hurricane115 mph (185 km/h)963 hPa (28.44 inHg)Eastern Texas, Louisiana21Allison [30] [48]
Elena August 28 – September 4, 1985Category 3 hurricane125 mph (205 km/h)953 hPa (28.14 inHg)Cuba, United States Gulf Coast9Erika [30] [49] [50]
Gloria September 16 – October 2, 1985Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)919 hPa (27.14 inHg)United States East Coast, Atlantic Canada9Grace [49]
Gilbert September 8 – 19, 1988Category 5 hurricane185 mph (295 km/h)888 hPa (26.22 inHg)Jamaica, Venezuela, Central America, Hispaniola, Mexico318Gordon [18] [51] [52]
Joan October 11 – November 2, 1988Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)932 hPa (27.52 inHg)Lesser Antilles, Colombia, Venezuela, Central America216Joyce [51]
Hugo September 9 – 25, 1989Category 5 hurricane160 mph (260 km/h)918 hPa (27.11 inHg)The Caribbean, United States East Coast49Humberto [18] [53]
7 namesReferences: [nb 2] [nb 3] 891

Names retired in the 1990s

Damage after Hurricane Andrew in Miami. Destruction following hurricane andrew.jpg
Damage after Hurricane Andrew in Miami.

During the 1990s, the Atlantic Ocean moved into its active era, which led to more tropical cyclones forming during the hurricane seasons. The decade featured Hurricane Andrew which at the time was the costliest hurricane on record, and also Hurricane Mitch which is considered to be the deadliest tropical cyclone to have its name retired, killing over 11,000 people in Central America. A total of 15 names were retired in this decade, with seven of those during the 1995 and 1996 seasons. Cumulatively, the 15 systems caused over

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDeathsDamage
(USD)
replacement NameRefs
Diana August 4 – 9, 1990Category 2 hurricane100 mph (165 km/h)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Yucatán Peninsula, Central Mexico96$90 millionDolly [54]
Klaus October 3 – 9, 1990Category 1 hurricane80 mph (130 km/h)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Lesser Antilles, The Bahamas, Southeast United States11Kyle [54] [55]
Bob August 16 – 20, 1991Category 3 hurricane115 mph (185 km/h)950 hPa (28.06 inHg)United States East Coast, Canada17Bill [56]
Andrew August 16 – 28, 1992Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)922 hPa (27.23 inHg)The Bahamas, Florida, United States Gulf Coast65Alex [30] [57]
Luis August 27 – September 11, 1995Category 4 hurricane140 mph (220 km/h)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Bermuda19Lorenzo [58]
Marilyn September 12 – 22, 1995Category 3 hurricane115 mph (185 km/h)949 hPa (28.02 inHg)The Caribbean, Bermuda8Michelle [30] [58]
Opal September 27 – October 6, 1995Category 4 hurricane150 mph (240 km/h)916 hPa (27.05 inHg)Guatemala, Yucatán Peninsula, Eastern United States59Olga [30] [59]
Roxanne October 7 – 21, 1995Category 3 hurricane115 mph (185 km/h)956 hPa (28.23 inHg)Mexico14Rebekah [58]
Cesar July 24 – 29, 1996Category 1 hurricane85 mph (140 km/h)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Central America, Mexico113Cristobal [42] [60] [61] [62] [63]
Fran August 23 – September 8, 1996Category 3 hurricane120 mph (195 km/h)946 hPa (27.94 inHg)Eastern United States26Fay [18] [30]
Hortense September 3 – 16, 1996Category 4 hurricane140 mph (220 km/h)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)The Caribbean, Puerto Rico, Atlantic Canada39Hanna [64] [65] [66]
Georges September 15 – October 1, 1998Category 4 hurricane155 mph (250 km/h)937 hPa (27.67 inHg)The Caribbean, United States Gulf Coast604Gaston [67] [68] [69] [70] [71]
Mitch October 22 – November 5, 1998Category 5 hurricane180 mph (285 km/h)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, South Florida>11,000Matthew [72] [73] [74]
Floyd September 7 – 19, 1999Category 4 hurricane155 mph (250 km/h)921 hPa (27.20 inHg)The Bahamas, Eastern United States, Atlantic Canada57Franklin [75]
Lenny November 13 – 23, 1999Category 4 hurricane155 mph (250 km/h)933 hPa (27.55 inHg)Colombia, Puerto Rico, Leeward Islands17Lee [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81]
15 namesReferences: [nb 2] [nb 3] >12,145

Names retired in the 2000s

Hurricane Charley making landfall on August 13, 2004, at its peak intensity. Charley Landfall.gif
Hurricane Charley making landfall on August 13, 2004, at its peak intensity.

After the Atlantic basin had moved into the warm phase of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation during the mid-1990s, the 2000s marked the most prolific decade in terms of the number of retired storms, with 24 names warranting removal. [nb 2] The decade featured one of the costliest tropical cyclones on record, Hurricane Katrina, which inflicted roughly

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDeathsDamage
(USD)
Replacement NameRefs
Keith September 28 – October 6, 2000Category 4 hurricane140 mph (220 km/h)939 hPa (27.73 inHg)Central America56Kirk [42] [85] [86] [87]
Allison June 4 – 18, 2001Tropical storm60 mph (95 km/h)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Texas, Louisiana, Southern United States50Andrea [30] [88]
Iris October 4 – 9, 2001Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)948 hPa (27.99 inHg)Hispaniola, Jamaica, Belize, Guatemala, Mexico31Ingrid [89] [90]
Michelle October 29 – November 6, 2001Category 4 hurricane140 mph (220 km/h)933 hPa (27.55 inHg)Central America, Jamaica, Cuba, Bahamas17Melissa [69] [89]
Isidore September 14 – 27, 2002Category 3 hurricane125 mph (205 km/h)934 hPa (27.58 inHg)Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula, Louisiana17Ike [91] [92]
Lili September 21 – October 4, 2002Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)938 hPa (27.70 inHg)Windward Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Louisiana15Laura [30] [93]
Fabian August 25 – September 8, 2003Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)939 hPa (27.73 inHg)Bermuda4Fred [94]
Isabel September 6 – 20, 2003Category 5 hurricane165 mph (270 km/h)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Greater Antilles, Bahamas, Eastern United States, Ontario50Ida [30] [95]
Juan September 24 – 29, 2003Category 2 hurricane105 mph (170 km/h)969 hPa (28.61 inHg)Atlantic Canada5Joaquin [94] [96]
Charley August 9 – 15, 2004Category 4 hurricane150 mph (240 km/h)941 hPa (27.79 inHg)Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Florida, The Carolinas40Colin [30] [97]
Frances August 24 – September 10, 2004Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)The Caribbean, Eastern United States, Ontario50Fiona [98] [99] [100]
Ivan September 2 – 24, 2004Category 5 hurricane165 mph (270 km/h)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)The Caribbean, Venezuela, United States Gulf Coast124Igor [30] [99] [101]
Jeanne September 13 – 28, 2004Category 3 hurricane120 mph (195 km/h)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)The Caribbean, Eastern United States3,035Julia [42] [84] [99]
Dennis July 4 – 13, 2005Category 4 hurricane150 mph (240 km/h)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Greater Antilles, Southeastern United States89Don [30] [102] [103]
Katrina August 23 – 30, 2005Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)902 hPa (26.64 inHg)Bahamas, United States Gulf Coast1,836Katia [30] [104]
Rita September 18 – 26, 2005Category 5 hurricane180 mph (290 km/h)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)Cuba, United States Gulf Coast62Rina [30] [105]
Stan October 1 – 5, 2005Category 1 hurricane80 mph (130 km/h)977 hPa (28.85 inHg)Mexico, Central America1,668Sean [42] [106]
Wilma October 15 – 26, 2005Category 5 hurricane185 mph (295 km/h)882 hPa (26.05 inHg)Greater Antilles, Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, Florida87Whitney [30] [107] [108] [109] [110]
Dean August 13 – 23, 2007Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)The Caribbean, Central America45Dorian [42] [111]
Felix August 31 – September 5, 2007Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)929 hPa (27.43 inHg)Nicaragua, Honduras130Fernand [111] [112] [113] [114]
Noel October 28 – November 2, 2007Category 1 hurricane80 mph (130 km/h)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Greater Antilles, Eastern United States, Atlantic Canada163Nestor [111]
Gustav August 25 – September 4, 2008Category 4 hurricane155 mph (250 km/h)941 hPa (27.79 inHg)Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, United States Gulf Coast153Gonzalo [30] [42] [115]
Ike September 1 – 14, 2008Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Greater Antilles, Texas, Louisiana, Midwestern United States195Isaias [30]
Paloma November 5 – 10, 2008Category 4 hurricane145 mph (230 km/h)944 hPa (27.88 inHg)Cayman Islands, Cuba1Paulette [116] [117]
24 namesReferences: [nb 2] [nb 3] 7,875

Names retired in the 2010s

Hurricane Harvey hours before landfall on August 25, 2017. Harvey 2017-08-25 2231Z.png
Hurricane Harvey hours before landfall on August 25, 2017.

So far, in the 2010s decade, 15 tropical cyclone names have been retired. [nb 2] Collectively, these systems killed at least 4542 people and caused at least

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDeathsDamage
(USD)
replacement NameRefs
Igor September 8 – 21, 2010Category 4 hurricane155 mph (250 km/h)924 hPa (27.29 inHg)Bermuda, Newfoundland4Ian [119]
Tomas October 29 – November 7, 2010Category 2 hurricane100 mph (155 km/h)982 hPa (29.00 inHg)Caribbean44Tobias [120]
Irene August 21 – 28, 2011Category 3 hurricane120 mph (195 km/h)942 hPa (27.82 inHg)Caribbean, Bahamas, United States East Coast, Eastern Canada58Irma [30] [42] [121] [122]
Sandy October 22 – 29, 2012Category 3 hurricane115 mph (185 km/h)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Caribbean, Bahamas, United States East Coast, Eastern Canada234Sara [30] [123] [124]
Ingrid September 12 – 17, 2013Category 1 hurricane85 mph (140 km/h)983 hPa (29.03 inHg)Mexico32Imelda [42] [125]
Erika August 24 – 28, 2015Tropical storm50 mph (85 km/h)1001 hPa (29.56 inHg)Lesser Antilles, Hispaniola35Elsa
Joaquin September 28 – October 8, 2015Category 4 hurricane155 mph (250 km/h)931 hPa (27.49 inHg)Bahamas, Bermuda34Julian
Matthew September 28 – October 9, 2016Category 5 hurricane165 mph (270 km/h)934 hPa (27.58 inHg)Caribbean, Southeastern United States603Martin [30]
Otto November 20 – 26, 2016Category 3 hurricane115 mph (185 km/h)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua23Owen
Harvey August 17 – September 1, 2017Category 4 hurricane130 mph (215 km/h)937 hPa (27.67 inHg)Texas, Louisiana107Harold [30]
Irma August 30 – September 12, 2017Category 5 hurricane180 mph (290 km/h)914 hPa (26.99 inHg)Caribbean, Southeastern United States134Idalia [30]
Maria September 16 – 30, 2017Category 5 hurricane175 mph (280 km/h)908 hPa (26.81 inHg)Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico3,057Margot [126]
Nate October 4 – 9, 2017Category 1 hurricane90 mph (150 km/h)981 hPa (28.97 inHg)Central America, United States Gulf Coast48Nigel
Florence August 31 – September 17, 2018Category 4 hurricane150 mph (240 km/h)937 hPa (27.67 inHg)Eastern United States57Francine
Michael October 7 – 11, 2018Category 5 hurricane160 mph (260 km/h)919 hPa (27.14 inHg)Central America, United States Gulf Coast74Milton
15 namesReferences: [nb 2] [nb 3] 4,542

Names retired by letter

Eleven storms with names beginning with 'I' have been retired, the most of any letter. No name beginning with 'V' has been retired. Because storm names are used in alphabetical order, starting at A each year, storm names closer to the beginning of the alphabet tend to be used more, which gives them more opportunities to be retired. The names in the table below are ordered by which year they occurred, with the name that was used (and therefore retired) the most recently for each letter being last (farthest to the right), as in italics.

LetterTotalListFirstMost Recent
A7Audrey, Agnes, Anita, Allen, Alicia, Andrew, Allison19572001
B3Betsy, Beulah, Bob19651991
C9Carol, Connie, Carla, Cleo, Camille, Celia, Carmen, Cesar, Charley19542004
D7Diane, Donna, Dora, David, Diana, Dennis, Dean19552007
E4Edna, Eloise, Elena, Erika19542015
F9Flora, Fifi, Frederic, Fran, Floyd, Fabian, Frances, Felix, Florence19632018
G5Greta, Gloria, Gilbert, Georges, Gustav19782008
H6Hazel, Hattie, Hilda, Hugo, Hortense, Harvey19542017
I11Ione, Inez, Iris, Isidore, Isabel, Ivan, Ike, Igor, Irene, Ingrid, Irma19552017
J5Janet, Joan, Juan, Jeanne, Joaquin19552015
K3Klaus, Keith, Katrina19902005
L3Luis, Lenny, Lili19952002
M6Marilyn, Mitch, Michelle, Matthew, Maria, Michael19952018
N2Noel, Nate20072017
O2Opal, Otto19952016
P1Paloma2008
R2Roxanne, Rita19952005
S2Stan, Sandy20052012
T1Tomas2010
W1Wilma2005

See also

Notes

  1. Unless otherwise noted, all of the damage totals in this article are in the original year USD.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 References for the retired names. [7] [9] [10]
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Reference for dates, season, wind speeds and pressure. [21]

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The 1970 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season of the most recent low-activity era of tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic. It was also the first year in which reconnaissance aircraft flew into all four quadrants of a tropical cyclone. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was fairly average, with 10 total storms forming, of which five were hurricanes. Two of those five became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. The first system, Hurricane Alma, developed on May 17. The storm killed eight people, seven from flooding in Cuba and one from a lightning strike in Florida. In July, Tropical Storm Becky brought minor flooding to Florida and other parts of the Southern United States, leaving one death and about $500,000 (1970 USD) in damage.

1976 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1976 Atlantic hurricane season featured only one fully tropical storm throughout both the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, a rare occurrence. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the first system, a subtropical storm, developed in the Gulf of Mexico on May 21, several days before the official start of the season. The system spawned nine tornadoes in Florida, resulting in about $628,000 (1976 USD) in damage, though impact was minor otherwise. The season was near average, with ten tropical storm forming, of which six became hurricanes. Two of those six became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale.

1957 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1957 Atlantic hurricane season featured the one of longest travelling tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin, Hurricane Carrie. Nevertheless, the season was generally inactive with eight tropical storms – two of which went unnamed – and three hurricanes, two of which intensified further to attain major hurricane intensity. The season officially began on June 15 and ended on November 15, though the year's first tropical cyclone developed prior to the start of the season on June 8. The final storm dissipated on October 27, well before the official end of the season. The strongest hurricane of the year was Carrie, which reached the equivalent of a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale on two separate occasions in the open Atlantic; Carrie later caused the sinking of the German ship Pamir southwest of the Azores, resulting in 80 deaths.

1911 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1911 Atlantic hurricane season was relatively inactive, with only six known tropical cyclones forming in the Atlantic during the summer and fall. There were three suspected tropical depressions, including one that began the season in February and one that ended the season when it dissipated in December. Three storms intensified into hurricanes, two of which attained Category 2 status on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Storm data is largely based on the Atlantic hurricane database, which underwent a thorough revision for the period between 1911 and 1914 in 2005.

1896 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1896 Atlantic hurricane season was fairly inactive but produced one of the costliest hurricanes ever to strike the United States until that point, along with several other destructive tropical cyclones. The season began in early July with a hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico and ended in late November with a slow-moving tropical storm over the Lesser Antilles. Of the season's seven documented systems, six are believed to have become hurricanes, and two intensified into major hurricanes—the equivalence of Category 3 or greater on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson scale. All but one of the systems directly affected land to some degree; Hurricane "Six" remained over open water and only posed a threat to shipping lanes. In addition, a possible storm was identified off the coast of North Carolina on August 28–29, but modern reanalysis efforts have found insufficient evidence to classify it as a tropical cyclone. Tropical systems in the 1896 season killed at least 286 people and inflicted more than $10 million in damage.

Pacific hurricane Mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the northeastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

1888 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1888 Atlantic hurricane season ran through the summer and the first half of fall in 1888. In the 1888 Atlantic season there were two tropical storms, four hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. However, in the absence of modern satellite and other remote-sensing technologies, only storms that affected populated land areas or encountered ships at sea are known, so the actual total could be higher. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910 has been estimated.

Hurricane Irene–Olivia Category 3 Atlantic and Pacific hurricane in 1971

Hurricane Irene–Olivia was the first actively tracked tropical cyclone to move into the eastern Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic basin. It originated as a tropical depression on September 11, 1971, in the tropical Atlantic. The cyclone tracked nearly due westward at a low latitude, passing through the southern Windward Islands and later over northern South America. In the southwest Caribbean Sea, it intensified to a tropical storm and later a hurricane. Irene made landfall on southeastern Nicaragua on September 19, and maintained its circulation as it crossed the low-lying terrain of the country. Restrengthening after reaching the Pacific, Irene was renamed Hurricane Olivia, which ultimately attained peak winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). Olivia weakened significantly before moving ashore on the Baja California Peninsula on September 30; the next day it dissipated.

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