This is a cumulative list of previously used tropical cyclone (tropical storm and hurricane) names which have been permanently removed from reuse in the North Atlantic region.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
The naming of North Atlantic tropical cyclones is currently under the oversight of the Hurricane Committee of the World Meteorological Organization. This group maintains six alphabetic lists of names, with one list used each year. This normally results in each name being reused every six years. However, in the case of a particularly deadly or damaging storm, that storm's name is retired, and a replacement starting with the same letter is selected to take its place. The decision whether to remove a name in a given season is made at the annual session of the Hurricane Committee in the spring of the following year.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 192 Member States and Territories. Its current Secretary-General is Petteri Taalas and the President of the World Meteorological Congress, its supreme body, is David Grimes. The Organization is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
The practice of retiring storm names was begun by the United States Weather Bureau in 1955, after major hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the Northeastern United States during the previous year. Initially their names were retired for 10 years, after which time they could be reintroduced; however, in 1969, the policy was changed to have the names retired permanently. In 1977, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) transferred control of the naming lists to the Hurricane Committee.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States federal government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland, within the Washington metropolitan area. The agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970.
Hurricane Carol was among the worst tropical cyclones on record to affect the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island in the United States. It developed from a tropical wave near the Bahamas on August 25, 1954, and slowly strengthened as it moved northwestward. On August 27, Carol intensified to reach winds of 105 mph (165 km/h), but weakened as its motion turned to a northwest drift. A strong trough of low pressure turned the hurricane northeastward, and Carol later intensified into a major hurricane. While paralleling the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, the storm produced strong winds and rough seas that caused minor coastal flooding and slight damage to houses in North Carolina, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Delaware, and New Jersey. The well-organized hurricane accelerated north-northeastward and made landfall on eastern Long Island, New York, and then over eastern Connecticut on August 31 with sustained winds estimated at 110-mph and a barometric pressure near 956 mb. Carol later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over New Hampshire, on August 31, 1954.
Hurricane Edna was a deadly and destructive major hurricane that impacted the United States East Coast in September of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. It was one of two hurricanes to strike Massachusetts in that year, the other being Hurricane Carol. The fifth tropical cyclone and storm of the season, as well as the fourth hurricane and second major hurricane, Edna developed from a tropical wave on September 2. Moving towards the north-northwest, Edna skirted the northern Leeward Islands as a tropical depression before turning more towards the west. The depression attained tropical storm status to the east of Puerto Rico and strengthened further to reach hurricane status by September 7. The storm rapidly intensified and reached its peak intensity of 125 mph (205 km/h) north of the Bahamas before weakening to Category 2 status near landfall in Massachusetts on September 11. Edna transitioned into an extratropical cyclone in Atlantic Canada before its remnants dissipated in the northern Atlantic.
Since the formal start of naming during the 1947 Atlantic hurricane season, an average of one Atlantic storm name has been retired each year, though many seasons (most recently 2014) did not have any names retired. The deadliest storm to have its name retired was Hurricane Mitch, which caused over 10,000 fatalities when it struck Central America during October 1998. The costliest storms were hurricanes Katrina in August 2005 and Harvey in August 2017; each storm struck the U.S. Gulf Coast, causing $125 billion in damage, much of it from flooding.The most recently retired storm names are Florence and Michael.
The 1947 Atlantic hurricane season was the first Atlantic hurricane season to have tropical storms labeled by the United States Air Force. The season officially began on June 16, 1947, and ended on November 1, 1947. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the first tropical cyclone developed on June 13, while the final system was absorbed by a cold front on December 1. There were 10 tropical storms; 5 of them attained hurricane status, while two became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the modern day Saffir–Simpson scale. Operationally, the third tropical storm was considered two separate tropical cyclones, resulting in the storm receiving two names. The eighth tropical storm went undetected and was not listed in HURDAT until 2014.
The 2014 Atlantic hurricane season was a below average season in terms of named storms, and an average season in terms of both hurricanes and major hurricanes. It produced nine tropical cyclones, eight named storms, the fewest since the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season, six hurricanes and two major hurricanes. It officially began on June 1, 2014, and ended on November 30, 2014. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first storm of the season, Arthur, developed on July 1, while the final storm, Hanna, dissipated on October 28, about a month prior to the end of the season.
Hurricane Mitch was the second-deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record, causing over 11,000 fatalities in Central America, with over 7,000 occurring in Honduras alone due to the catastrophic flooding it wrought, due to the slow motion of the storm. It was the deadliest hurricane in Central America, surpassing Hurricane Fifi–Orlene, which killed slightly fewer people there in 1974. The thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, Mitch formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, and after drifting through extremely favorable conditions, it rapidly strengthened to peak at Category 5 status, the highest possible rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. After drifting southwestward and weakening, the hurricane hit Honduras as a minimal hurricane. Mitch drifted through Central America, regenerated in the Bay of Campeche, and ultimately struck Florida as a strong tropical storm. It then became extratropical and accelerated northeastward across the North Atlantic, before dissipating on November 9. At the time, Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane observed in the month of October, though it has since been surpassed by Hurricane Wilma of the 2005 season. In addition, Mitch is the eighth-most intense Atlantic hurricane on record.
By 1947, tropical cyclones developing in the North Atlantic Ocean were named by the United States Army Air Forces in private communications between weather centres and aircraft using the Phonetic alphabet.This practice continued until September 1950, when the names started to be used publicly after three hurricanes (Baker, Dog, Easy) had occurred simultaneously and caused confusion within the media and the public. Over the next two years, the public use of the phonetic alphabet to name systems continued before at the 1953 Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference it was decided to start using a new list of female names during that season, as a second phonetic alphabet had been developed. During the active but mild 1953 Atlantic hurricane season, the names were readily used in the press with few objections recorded; as a result, the same names were reused during the next year with only one change: Gilda for Gail. Over the next six years a new list of names was developed ahead of each season, before in 1960 forecasters developed four alphabetical sets and repeated them every four years. These new sets followed the example of the typhoon names and excluded names beginning with the letters Q, U, X, Y, and Z, and keeping them to female names only.
An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually between the months of June and November. A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean.
The United States Army Air Forces, informally known as the Air Force, or United States Army Air Force, was the aerial warfare service component of the United States Army during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services. The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply, and the Army Air Forces. Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Army Chief of Staff.
Hurricane Baker was a Category 2 hurricane that affected the Leeward Islands, Greater Antilles, and the Gulf Coast of the United States. The tropical cyclone was the second tropical storm and second hurricane of the 1950 Atlantic hurricane season. Originating as a tropical depression east of the Windward Islands on August 18, Baker became a tropical storm on August 19, and further intensified into a hurricane on August 21. It attained an initial peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) on August 22 before weakening to a tropical storm as it made landfall on the island of Antigua. Baker weakened to a tropical depression late on August 23 while southwest of Puerto Rico. By the following morning, it had restrengthened into a tropical storm, though a landfall in Cuba caused it to weaken once again. Entering the Gulf of Mexico, Baker began to strengthen once more, regaining hurricane strength on August 29 and reaching its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) early the following day. The cyclone weakened before making its final landfall in the United States near Gulf Shores, Alabama, with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). Hurricane Baker produced extensive damage in the Lesser Antilles and Cuba, but impacts were minimal in the United States.
In 1955, it was decided to start retiring the names of significant tropical cyclones for 10 years after which they might be reintroduced, with the names Carol and Edna reintroduced ahead of the 1965 and 1968 hurricane seasons respectively.At the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference the naming lists were revised after it was decided that the names Carol, Edna and Hazel would be permanently retired because of their importance to the research community. It was also decided that any significant hurricane in the future would also be permanently retired. Ahead of the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season, 10 lists of hurricane names were inaugurated, by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In 1977 it was decided that the World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee (WMO) would control the names used, who subsequently decided that six lists of names would be used in the Atlantic Ocean from 1979 onwards with male names included. Since 1979 the same six lists have been used by the United States National Hurricane Center (NHC) to name systems, with names of significant tropical cyclones retired from the lists permanently and replaced with new names as required at the following year's hurricane committee meeting.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.
At present, the name of any tropical cyclone may be retired or withdrawn from the list of names at the request of a member state, if it acquires notoriety for various reasons including the number of deaths, amount of damages or other impacts. 96 mph (154 km/h). This came in light of the retirement of Tropical Storm Erika in 2015 which caused catastrophic flooding and mudslides in Dominica without producing sustained tropical storm-force winds on the island. No action has been taken on this proposal yet.The committee subsequently discuss the proposal and either through building consensus or a majority vote decides if the name should be retired or withdrawn. In March 2017, members of the British Caribbean Territories proposed that a third retirement criterion be added: the tropical cyclone must have sustained winds of at least
Between 1954 and 1959, eight names were deemed significant enough to be retired for 10 years due to their impact, before being permanently retired after 1969. There were no names retired for the 1956, 1958, and 1959 seasons. 2317 fatalities and over $2.04 billion in damage. The deadliest hurricane was Hurricane Janet, which killed at least 1,023 people, while the costliest was Hurricane Diane, which caused US$831 million in damage.Collectively, these storms resulted in at least
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Carol||August 25 –|
September 1, 1954
|Category 3 hurricane||115 mph (185 km/h)||955 hPa (28.20 inHg)||Northeastern United States, Canada||60||$462 million|
|Edna||September 5 – 11, 1954||Category 3 hurricane||125 mph (205 km/h)||943 hPa (27.85 inHg)||New England, Atlantic Canada||21||$42 million|
|Hazel||October 5 – 15, 1954||Category 4 hurricane||130 mph (210 km/h)||938 hPa (27.70 inHg)||The Caribbean, Eastern United States, Canada||581||$382 million|
|Connie||August 3 – 15, 1955||Category 4 hurricane||140 mph (220 km/h)||944 hPa (27.88 inHg)||Mid-Atlantic states, New England||25||$40 million|
|Diane||August 7 – 21, 1955||Category 2 hurricane||105 mph (165 km/h)||969 hPa (28.61 inHg)||Mid-Atlantic states, New England||184||$831 million|
|Ione||September 10 – 21, 1955||Category 4 hurricane||140 mph (220 km/h)||938 hPa (27.70 inHg)||North Carolina||7||$88 million|
|Janet||September 21 – 30, 1955||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||914 hPa (26.99 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, Central America||1,023||$47.8 million|
|Audrey||June 25 – 29, 1957||Category 3 hurricane||125 mph (205 km/h)||946 hPa (27.94 inHg)||Southern United States||416||$150 million|
|8 names||References:||2317||$2.04 billion|
In 1960, four rotating lists of names were developed to avoid having to create new lists each year, while the practice of retiring any particularly damaging storm names for 10 years continued, with 11 names deemed significant enough to be retired during the decade. At the 1969 Hurricane Warning Conference, the National Hurricane Center requested that Carol, Edna, Hazel, and Inez be permanently retired due to their importance to the research community. This request was subsequently accepted and led to today's practice of retiring names of significant tropical cyclones permanently. There were no names retired for the 1962 and 1968 seasons. Collectively, the 11 systems were responsible for at least 9082 fatalities and in excess of $5.63 billion in damage.
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Donna||August 29 –|
September 14, 1960
|Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||The Caribbean, Eastern United States||164||$400 million|
|Carla||September 3 – 16, 1961||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (260 km/h)||931 hPa (27.49 inHg)||Texas, Louisiana|
Midwestern United States
|Hattie||October 27 –|
November 1, 1961
|Category 5 hurricane||160 mph (260 km/h)||920 hPa (27.17 inHg)||Central America||319||$60.3 million|
|Flora||September 26 –|
October 12, 1963
|Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||940 hPa (27.76 inHg)||The Caribbean||7,193||$529 million|
|Cleo||August 20 –|
September 5, 1964
|Category 4 hurricane||155 mph (250 km/h)||950 hPa (28.06 inHg)||The Caribbean, Southeastern United States||217||$198 million|
|Dora||August 28 –|
September 14, 1964
|Category 4 hurricane||140 mph (220 km/h)||942 hPa (27.82 inHg)||Southeastern United States||5||$250 million|
|Hilda||September 28 –|
October 4, 1964
|Category 4 hurricane||150 mph (240 km/h)||941 hPa (27.79 inHg)||Southern United States||38||$125 million|
|Betsy||August 27 –|
September 14, 1965
|Category 4 hurricane||155 mph (250 km/h)||941 hPa (27.79 inHg)||Bahamas, Southeastern United States||75||$1.42 billion|
|Inez||September 21 –|
October 11, 1966
|Category 4 hurricane||150 mph (240 km/h)||929 hPa (27.43 inHg)||The Caribbean, Florida, Mexico||710||$616 million|
|Beulah||September 5 – 22, 1967||Category 5 hurricane||160 mph (260 km/h)||921 hPa (27.20 inHg)||The Caribbean, Mexico, Texas||59||$208 million|
|Camille||August 14 – 22, 1969||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||900 hPa (26.58 inHg)||Cuba, United States Gulf Coast||256||$1.42 billion|
|11 names||References:||9082||$5.63 billion|
Starting in 1979, the World Meteorological Organization began assigning both male and female names to tropical cyclones. $9.41 billion in damage, while at least 10527 people lost their lives. There were no names retired for the 1971, 1973, and 1976 seasons.This decade featured hurricanes David and Frederic, the first male Atlantic hurricane names to be retired. During this decade, 9 storms were deemed significant enough to have their names retired. Together these 9 systems caused at least
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Celia||July 31 – August 5, 1970||Category 3 hurricane||125 mph (205 km/h)||945 hPa (27.91 inHg)||Cuba, United States Gulf Coast||20||$930 million|
|Agnes||June 14 – 23, 1972||Category 1 hurricane||85 mph (140 km/h)||977 hPa (28.85 inHg)||Mexico, Cuba, Eastern United States||124||$2.1 billion|
|Carmen||August 29 – September 10, 1974||Category 4 hurricane||150 mph (240 km/h)||928 hPa (27.40 inHg)||Central America, Mexico|
United States Gulf Coast
|Fifi||September 14 – 24, 1974||Category 2 hurricane||110 mph (180 km/h)||971 hPa (28.67 inHg)||Jamaica, Central America, Mexico||8,200||$1.8 billion|
|Eloise||September 13 – 24, 1975||Category 3 hurricane||125 mph (205 km/h)||955 hPa (28.20 inHg)||The Caribbean, Yucatán Peninsula, Florida||80||$550 million|
|Anita||August 29 – September 4, 1977||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||926 hPa (27.34 inHg)||Mexico||10||Extensive|
|Greta||September 13 – 23, 1978||Category 4 hurricane||130 mph (215 km/h)||947 hPa (27.96 inHg||The Caribbean, Central America, Mexico||5||$26 million|
|David||August 25 – September 8, 1979||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||924 hPa (27.29 inHg)||The Caribbean, United States East coast||2,068||$1.54 billion|
|Frederic||August 29 – September 15, 1979||Category 4 hurricane||130 mph (215 km/h)||943 hPa (27.85 inHg)||The Caribbean, Southeastern United States||12||$1.7 billion|
|9 names||References:||>10,527||$9.41 billion|
After control of the naming scheme was turned over to the World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee during the mid-1970s, the 1980s marked the least prolific decade in terms of the number of retired storms with 7 names warranting removal. Between them the 7 systems caused over $23.1 billion in damage while over 891 people lost their lives. Hurricane Gilbert was the most intense tropical cyclone during the decade by pressure, with a minimum value of 888 hPa (26.22 inHg). This was the lowest recorded pressure in a North Atlantic hurricane until Hurricane Wilma surpassed it during 2005. In addition, Hurricane Allen was the most intense tropical cyclone during the decade by wind speed, with maximum 1–minute sustained winds of 190 mph (305 km/h). This remains the highest sustained wind speed of any Atlantic hurricane on record. There were no names retired for the 1981, 1982, 1984, 1986, and 1987 seasons, which was the most of any decade since the introduction of the practice of retiring hurricane names.
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Allen||July 31 – August 11, 1980||Category 5 hurricane||190 mph (305 km/h)||899 hPa (26.55 inHg)||The Caribbean, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, South Texas||269||$1.24 billion|
|Alicia||August 15 – 21, 1983||Category 3 hurricane||115 mph (185 km/h)||963 hPa (28.44 inHg)||Eastern Texas, Louisiana||21||$3 billion|
|Elena||August 28 – September 4, 1985||Category 3 hurricane||125 mph (205 km/h)||953 hPa (28.14 inHg)||Cuba, United States Gulf Coast||9||$1.3 billion|
|Gloria||September 16 – October 2, 1985||Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||919 hPa (27.14 inHg)||United States East Coast, Atlantic Canada||9||$900 million|
|Gilbert||September 8 – 19, 1988||Category 5 hurricane||185 mph (295 km/h)||888 hPa (26.22 inHg)||Jamaica, Venezuela, Central America, Hispaniola, Mexico||318||$2.98 billion|
|Joan||October 11 – November 2, 1988||Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||932 hPa (27.52 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, Colombia, Venezuela, Central America||216||$2 billion|
|Hugo||September 9 – 25, 1989||Category 5 hurricane||160 mph (260 km/h)||918 hPa (27.11 inHg)||The Caribbean, United States East Coast||49||$9.7 billion|
|7 names||References:||891||$21.1 billion|
During the 1990s, the Atlantic Ocean moved into its active era, which led to more tropical cyclones forming during the hurricane seasons. The decade featured Hurricane Andrew which at the time was the costliest hurricane on record, and also Hurricane Mitch which is considered to be the deadliest tropical cyclone to have its name retired killing over 11,000 people in Central America. A total of 15 names were retired in this decade, with seven of those during the 1995 and 1996 seasons. Cumulatively, the 15 systems caused over $68 billion in damage while over 12145 people lost their lives. There were no names retired for the 1993, 1994 and 1997 seasons.
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Diana||August 4 – 9, 1990||Category 2 hurricane||100 mph (165 km/h)||980 hPa (28.94 inHg)||Yucatán Peninsula, Central Mexico||96||$90 million|
|Klaus||October 3 – 9, 1990||Category 1 hurricane||80 mph (130 km/h)||985 hPa (29.09 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, The Bahamas, Southeast United States||11||$1 million|
|Bob||August 16 – 20, 1991||Category 3 hurricane||115 mph (185 km/h)||950 hPa (28.06 inHg)||United States East Coast, Canada||17||$1.5 billion|
|Andrew||August 16 – 28, 1992||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||922 hPa (27.23 inHg)||The Bahamas, Florida, United States Gulf Coast||65||$27.3 billion|
|Luis||August 27 – September 11, 1995||Category 4 hurricane||140 mph (220 km/h)||935 hPa (27.61 inHg)||Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Bermuda||19||$2.5 billion|
|Marilyn||September 12 – 22, 1995||Category 3 hurricane||115 mph (185 km/h)||949 hPa (28.02 inHg)||The Caribbean, Bermuda||8||$2.1 billion|
|Opal||September 27 – October 6, 1995||Category 4 hurricane||150 mph (240 km/h)||916 hPa (27.05 inHg)||Guatemala, Yucatán Peninsula, Eastern United States||59||$4.7 billion|
|Roxanne||October 7 – 21, 1995||Category 3 hurricane||115 mph (185 km/h)||956 hPa (28.23 inHg)||Mexico||14||$1.5 billion|
|Cesar||July 24 – 29, 1996||Category 1 hurricane||85 mph (140 km/h)||985 hPa (29.09 inHg)||Central America, Mexico||113||$203 million|
|Fran||August 23 – September 8, 1996||Category 3 hurricane||120 mph (195 km/h)||946 hPa (27.94 inHg)||Eastern United States||26||$5 billion|
|Hortense||September 3 – 16, 1996||Category 4 hurricane||140 mph (220 km/h)||935 hPa (27.61 inHg)||The Caribbean, Puerto Rico, Atlantic Canada||39||$158 million|
|Georges||September 15 – October 1, 1998||Category 4 hurricane||155 mph (250 km/h)||937 hPa (27.67 inHg)||The Caribbean, United States Gulf Coast||604||$9.37 billion|
|Mitch||October 22 – November 5, 1998||Category 5 hurricane||180 mph (285 km/h)||905 hPa (26.72 inHg)||Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, South Florida||>11,000||$6.08 billion|
|Floyd||September 7 – 19, 1999||Category 4 hurricane||155 mph (250 km/h)||921 hPa (27.20 inHg)||The Bahamas, Eastern United States, Atlantic Canada||57||$6.9 billion|
|Lenny||November 13 – 23, 1999||Category 4 hurricane||155 mph (250 km/h)||933 hPa (27.55 inHg)||Colombia, Puerto Rico, Leeward Islands||17||$686 million|
|15 names||References:||>12,145||$68 billion|
After the Atlantic basin had moved into the warm phase of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation during the mid-1990s, the 2000s marked the most prolific decade in terms of the number of retired storms, with 24 names warranting removal. US$125 billion in damage across the Gulf Coast of the United States. Katrina was also the deadliest hurricane to strike the United States since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. After stalling over and flooding southeastern Texas, and causing approximately US$8.5 billion in damage, Tropical Storm Allison became the first tropical storm in this basin to have its name retired, while subtropical storms started to be named during 2002. Hurricane Jeanne was the deadliest storm during the decade and was responsible for over 3000 deaths, when it impacted Haiti and other parts of the Caribbean as a tropical storm and minimal hurricane. During October 2005, Hurricane Wilma became the most intense tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin on record, with a central pressure of 882 hPa (26.05 inHg). There were no names retired for the 2006 and 2009 seasons. Collectively, the 24 systems were responsible for nearly 7,900 fatalities and in excess of US$300 billion in damage.The decade featured one of the costliest tropical cyclones on record, Hurricane Katrina, which inflicted roughly
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Keith||September 28 – October 6, 2000||Category 4 hurricane||140 mph (220 km/h)||939 hPa (27.73 inHg)||Central America||56||$319 million|
|Allison||June 4 – 18, 2001||Tropical storm||60 mph (95 km/h)||1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)||Texas, Louisiana, Southern United States||50||$8.5 billion|
|Iris||October 4 – 9, 2001||Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||948 hPa (27.99 inHg)||Hispaniola, Jamaica, Belize, Guatemala, Mexico||31||$140 million|
|Michelle||October 29 – November 6, 2001||Category 4 hurricane||140 mph (220 km/h)||933 hPa (27.55 inHg)||Central America, Jamaica, Cuba, Bahamas||17||$2 billion|
|Isidore||September 14 – 27, 2002||Category 3 hurricane||125 mph (205 km/h)||934 hPa (27.58 inHg)||Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula, Louisiana||17||$1.3 billion|
|Lili||September 21 – October 4, 2002||Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||938 hPa (27.70 inHg)||Windward Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Louisiana||15||$1.16 billion|
|Fabian||August 25 – September 8, 2003||Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||939 hPa (27.73 inHg)||Bermuda||4||$300 million|
|Isabel||September 6 – 20, 2003||Category 5 hurricane||165 mph (270 km/h)||915 hPa (27.02 inHg)||Greater Antilles, Bahamas, Eastern United States, Ontario||50||$5.5 billion|
|Juan||September 24 – 29, 2003||Category 2 hurricane||105 mph (170 km/h)||969 hPa (28.61 inHg)||Atlantic Canada||5||$200 million|
|Charley||August 9 – 15, 2004||Category 4 hurricane||150 mph (240 km/h)||941 hPa (27.79 inHg)||Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Florida, The Carolinas||40||$16.9 billion|
|Frances||August 24 – September 10, 2004||Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||935 hPa (27.61 inHg)||The Caribbean, Eastern United States, Ontario||50||$9.8 billion|
|Ivan||September 2 – 24, 2004||Category 5 hurricane||165 mph (270 km/h)||910 hPa (26.87 inHg)||The Caribbean, Venezuela, United States Gulf Coast||124||$26.1 billion|
|Jeanne||September 13 – 28, 2004||Category 3 hurricane||120 mph (195 km/h)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||The Caribbean, Eastern United States||3,035||$7.94 billion|
|Dennis||July 4 – 13, 2005||Category 4 hurricane||150 mph (240 km/h)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||Greater Antilles, Southeastern United States||89||$3.98 billion|
|Katrina||August 23 – 30, 2005||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||902 hPa (26.64 inHg)||Bahamas, United States Gulf Coast||1,836||$125 billion|
|Rita||September 18 – 26, 2005||Category 5 hurricane||180 mph (290 km/h)||895 hPa (26.43 inHg)||Cuba, United States Gulf Coast||62||$18.5 billion|
|Stan||October 1 – 5, 2005||Category 1 hurricane||80 mph (130 km/h)||977 hPa (28.85 inHg)||Mexico, Central America||1,668||$3.96 billion|
|Wilma||October 15 – 26, 2005||Category 5 hurricane||185 mph (295 km/h)||882 hPa (26.05 inHg)||Greater Antilles, Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, Florida||23||$27.4 billion|
|Dean||August 13 – 23, 2007||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||905 hPa (26.72 inHg)||The Caribbean, Central America||45||$1.78 billion|
|Felix||August 31 – September 5, 2007||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||929 hPa (27.43 inHg)||Nicaragua, Honduras||130||$720 million|
|Noel||October 28 – November 2, 2007||Category 1 hurricane||80 mph (130 km/h)||980 hPa (28.94 inHg)||Greater Antilles, Eastern United States, Atlantic Canada||163||$580 million|
|Gustav||August 25 – September 4, 2008||Category 4 hurricane||155 mph (250 km/h)||941 hPa (27.79 inHg)||Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, United States Gulf Coast||153||$8.31 billion|
|Ike||September 1 – 14, 2008||Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||935 hPa (27.61 inHg)||Greater Antilles, Texas, Louisiana, Midwestern United States||195||$38 billion|
|Paloma||November 5 – 10, 2008||Category 4 hurricane||145 mph (230 km/h)||944 hPa (27.88 inHg)||Cayman Islands, Cuba||1||$300 million|
|24 names||References:||7,875||$309 billion|
So far during the current decade, 15 tropical cyclone names have been retired. 4542 people and caused at least $432 billion worth of damage. So far, of those storms whose names have been retired during the decade, Hurricane Maria is the most intense tropical cyclone by pressure, with a minimum value of 908 hPa (26.81 inHg), as well as the deadliest, with 3,057 fatalities directly or indirectly caused by Maria. Hurricane Irma is the most intense in terms of wind speed, with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph (285 km/h). Hurricane Harvey is currently the costliest Atlantic hurricane to have its name retired during the 2010s, as well as the costliest to have its name retired overall, tied with Katrina in 2005. There were no names retired for the 2014 season.Collectively, these systems killed at least
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Igor||September 8 – 21, 2010||Category 4 hurricane||155 mph (250 km/h)||924 hPa (27.29 inHg)||Bermuda, Newfoundland||4||$200 million|
|Tomas||October 29 – November 7, 2010||Category 2 hurricane||100 mph (155 km/h)||982 hPa (29.00 inHg)||Caribbean||44||$348 million|
|Irene||August 21 – 28, 2011||Category 3 hurricane||120 mph (195 km/h)||942 hPa (27.82 inHg)||Caribbean, Bahamas, United States East Coast, Eastern Canada||58||$14.2 billion|
|Sandy||October 22 – 29, 2012||Category 3 hurricane||115 mph (185 km/h)||940 hPa (27.76 inHg)||Caribbean, Bahamas, United States East Coast, Eastern Canada||234||$68.7 billion|
|Ingrid||September 12 – 17, 2013||Category 1 hurricane||85 mph (140 km/h)||983 hPa (29.03 inHg)||Mexico||32||$1.5 billion|
|Erika||August 24 – 28, 2015||Tropical storm||50 mph (85 km/h)||1001 hPa (29.56 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, Hispaniola||35||$511 million|
|Joaquin||September 28 – October 8, 2015||Category 4 hurricane||155 mph (250 km/h)||931 hPa (27.49 inHg)||Bahamas, Bermuda||34||$200 million|
|Matthew||September 28 – October 9, 2016||Category 5 hurricane||165 mph (270 km/h)||934 hPa (27.58 inHg)||Caribbean, Southeastern United States||603||$15.1 billion|
|Otto||November 20 – 26, 2016||Category 3 hurricane||115 mph (185 km/h)||975 hPa (28.79 inHg)||Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua||23||$192 million|
|Harvey||August 17 – September 1, 2017||Category 4 hurricane||130 mph (215 km/h)||937 hPa (27.67 inHg)||Texas, Louisiana||107||$125 billion|
|Irma||August 30 – September 12, 2017||Category 5 hurricane||180 mph (290 km/h)||914 hPa (26.99 inHg)||Caribbean, Southeastern United States||134||$64.8 billion|
|Maria||September 16 – 30, 2017||Category 5 hurricane||175 mph (280 km/h)||908 hPa (26.81 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico||3,057||$91.6 billion|
|Nate||October 4 – 9, 2017||Category 1 hurricane||90 mph (150 km/h)||981 hPa (28.97 inHg)||Central America, United States Gulf Coast||48||$787 million|
|Florence||August 31 – September 17, 2018||Category 4 hurricane||150 mph (240 km/h)||937 hPa (27.67 inHg)||Eastern United States||57||$24 billion|
|Michael||October 7 – 11, 2018||Category 5 hurricane||160 mph (260 km/h)||919 hPa (27.14 inHg)||Central America, United States Gulf Coast||74||$25.1 billion|
|15 names||References:||4,542||$432 billion|
A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone.
The 1970 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season of the most recent low-activity era of tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic. It was also the first year in which reconnaissance aircraft flew into all four quadrants of a tropical cyclone. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was fairly average, with 10 total storms forming, of which five were hurricanes. Two of those five became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. The first system, Hurricane Alma, developed on May 17. The storm killed eight people, seven from flooding in Cuba and one from a lightning strike in Florida. In July, Tropical Storm Becky brought minor flooding to Florida and other parts of the Southern United States, leaving one death and about $500,000 (1970 USD) in damage.
The 1976 Atlantic hurricane season featured only one fully tropical storm throughout both the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, a rare occurrence. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the first system, a subtropical storm, developed in the Gulf of Mexico on May 21, several days before the official start of the season. The system spawned nine tornadoes in Florida, resulting in about $628,000 (1976 USD) in damage, though impact was minor otherwise. The season was near average, with ten tropical storm forming, of which six became hurricanes. Two of those six became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale.
The 1979 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season to include both male and female names, as well as the common six-year rotating lists of tropical cyclone names. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was slightly below average, with nine systems reaching tropical storm intensity. The first system, an unnumbered tropical depression, developed north of Puerto Rico on June 9. Two days later, Tropical Depression One formed and produced severe flooding in Jamaica, with 40 deaths and about $27 million (1979 USD) in damage. Tropical Storm Ana caused minimal impact in the Lesser Antilles. Hurricane Bob spawned tornadoes and produced minor wind damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States, primarily in Louisiana, while the remnants caused flooding, especially in Indiana. Tropical Storm Claudette caused extensive flooding, due to torrential rainfall. There were two deaths and damaged totaled $750 million.
Hurricane Allen was a rare and extremely powerful Cape Verde hurricane that struck the Caribbean, eastern and northern Mexico, and southern Texas in August 1980. The first named storm and first tropical cyclone of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season, it was one of the strongest hurricanes in recorded history. It was one of the few hurricanes to reach Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale on three separate occasions, and spent more time as a Category 5 than all but two other Atlantic hurricanes. Allen is the only hurricane in the recorded history of the Atlantic basin to achieve sustained winds of 190 mph (305 km/h), thus making it the strongest Atlantic hurricane by wind speed. These were also the highest sustained winds in the Western Hemisphere until Hurricane Patricia in 2015.
Hurricane Ione was a strong, Category 4 hurricane that affected North Carolina in September 1955, bringing high winds and significant rainfall. It came on the heels of Hurricanes Connie and Diane, and compounded problems already caused by the two earlier hurricanes. Spawned by a tropical wave which left the African coast on September 6, the system became a tropical depression in the tropical North Atlantic, before turning northwest and developing into a hurricane. After turning back to the west east of the Bahamas, Ione turned northwest and northward, moving across eastern North Carolina before moving east-northeastward out to sea. Ione caused $600 million (2005 USD) in damage, much of it to crops across North Carolina. As a result of Ione's impacts seven people lost their lives.
The 1957 Atlantic hurricane season featured the one of longest travelling tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin, Hurricane Carrie. Nevertheless, the season was generally inactive with eight tropical storms – two of which went unnamed – and three hurricanes, two of which intensified further to attain major hurricane intensity. The season officially began on June 15 and ended on November 15, though the year's first tropical cyclone developed prior to the start of the season on June 8. The final storm dissipated on October 27, well before the official end of the season. The strongest hurricane of the year was Carrie, which reached the equivalent of a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale on two separate occasions in the open Atlantic; Carrie later caused the sinking of the German ship Pamir southwest of the Azores, resulting in 80 deaths.
The 1911 Atlantic hurricane season was relatively inactive, with only six known tropical cyclones forming in the Atlantic during the summer and fall. There were three suspected tropical depressions, including one that began the season in February and one that ended the season when it dissipated in December. Three storms intensified into hurricanes, two of which attained Category 2 status on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Storm data is largely based on the Atlantic hurricane database, which underwent a thorough revision for the period between 1911 and 1914 in 2005.
A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.