Hurricane Sandy

Last updated

Hurricane Sandy
Category 3 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Sandy Oct 25 2012 0320Z.png
Hurricane Sandy at peak intensity just before landfall in Cuba on October 25
FormedOctober 22, 2012
DissipatedNovember 2, 2012
( Extratropical after October 29)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:115 mph (185 km/h)
Lowest pressure940 mbar (hPa); 27.76 inHg
Fatalities233 total
Damage$68.7 billion (2012 USD)
(Fourth-costliest hurricane in U.S. history)
Areas affected Greater Antilles, Bahamas, most of the eastern United States (especially the coastal Mid-Atlantic States), Bermuda, eastern Canada
Part of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Sandy (unofficially referred to as Superstorm Sandy) [1] [2] was the deadliest and most destructive hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. Inflicting nearly $70 billion (2012 USD) in damage, it was the second-costliest hurricane on record in the United States until surpassed by Hurricanes Harvey and Maria in 2017. The eighteenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the year, Sandy was a Category 3 storm at its peak intensity when it made landfall in Cuba. [3] While it was a Category 2 hurricane off the coast of the Northeastern United States, the storm became the largest Atlantic hurricane on record (as measured by diameter, with tropical-storm-force winds spanning 900 miles (1,400 km)). [4] [5] [6] At least 233 people were killed along the path of the storm in eight countries. [7] [8]

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

2012 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2012 Atlantic hurricane season was the final year in a consecutive string of three very active seasons, although many of the storms were weak. It is tied with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2011 for having the third-most named storms on record. It was also the third-costliest season, behind 2005 and 2017. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period during each year in which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. However, Alberto, the first system of the year, developed on May 19 – the earliest date of formation since Tropical Storm Ana in 2003. A second tropical cyclone, Beryl, developed later that month. This was the first occurrence of two pre-season named storms in the Atlantic basin since 1951. It moved ashore in North Florida on May 29 with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), making it the strongest pre-season storm to make landfall in the Atlantic basin. This season marked the first time since 2009 where no tropical cyclones formed in July. Another record was set by Hurricane Nadine later in the season; the system became the fourth-longest-lived tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic, with a total duration of 22.25 days. The final storm to form, Tony, dissipated on October 25 – however, Hurricane Sandy, which formed before Tony, became extratropical on October 29.

Hurricane Harvey Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2017

Hurricane Harvey of 2017 is tied with 2005's Hurricane Katrina as the costliest tropical cyclone on record, inflicting $125 billion in damage, primarily from catastrophic rainfall-triggered flooding in the Houston metropolitan area and Southeast Texas. It was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the United States since Wilma in 2005, ending a record 12-year span in which no hurricanes made landfall at the intensity of a major hurricane throughout the country. In a four-day period, many areas received more than 40 inches (1,000 mm) of rain as the system slowly meandered over eastern Texas and adjacent waters, causing unprecedented flooding. With peak accumulations of 60.58 in (1,539 mm), in Nederland, Texas, Harvey was the wettest tropical cyclone on record in the United States. The resulting floods inundated hundreds of thousands of homes, which displaced more than 30,000 people and prompted more than 17,000 rescues.

Contents

Sandy developed from a tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, quickly strengthened, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Sandy six hours later. Sandy moved slowly northward toward the Greater Antilles and gradually intensified. On October 24, Sandy became a hurricane, made landfall near Kingston, Jamaica, re-emerged a few hours later into the Caribbean Sea and strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane. On October 25, Sandy hit Cuba as a Category 3 hurricane, then weakened to a Category 1 hurricane. Early on October 26, Sandy moved through the Bahamas. [9] On October 27, Sandy briefly weakened to a tropical storm and then restrengthened to a Category 1 hurricane. Early on October 29, Sandy curved west-northwest (the "left turn" or "left hook") and then [10] moved ashore near Brigantine, New Jersey, just to the northeast of Atlantic City, as a post-tropical cyclone with hurricane-force winds. [3] [11]

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

Greater Antilles Region of the Caribbean

The Greater Antilles is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea: Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands.

Kingston, Jamaica Capital city in Surrey, Jamaica

Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. In the Americas, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States.

In Jamaica, winds left 70% of residents without electricity, blew roofs off buildings, killed one person, and caused about $100 million (2012 USD) in damage. Sandy's outer bands brought flooding to Haiti, killing at least 54, causing food shortages, and leaving about 200,000 homeless; the hurricane also caused two deaths in the Dominican Republic. In Puerto Rico, one man was swept away by a swollen river. In Cuba, there was extensive coastal flooding and wind damage inland, destroying some 15,000 homes, killing 11, and causing $2 billion (2012 USD) in damage. Sandy caused two deaths and an estimated $700 million (2012 USD) in damage in The Bahamas.

Jamaica Country in the Caribbean

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola.

Haiti country in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

Dominican Republic country in the Caribbean

The Dominican Republic is a country located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two sovereign states. The Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area at 48,671 square kilometers (18,792 sq mi), and third by population with approximately 10 million people, of which approximately three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city.

In the United States, Hurricane Sandy affected 24 states, including the entire eastern seaboard from Florida to Maine and west across the Appalachian Mountains to Michigan and Wisconsin, with particularly severe damage in New Jersey and New York. Its storm surge hit New York City on October 29, flooding streets, tunnels and subway lines and cutting power in and around the city. [12] [13] Damage in the United States amounted to $65 billion (2012 USD). [14] In Canada, two were killed in Ontario, and the storm caused an estimated $100 million (2012 CAD) in damage throughout Ontario and Quebec. [15]

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Florida State of the United States of America

Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.

Maine State of the United States of America

Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, and the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, and the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes. It is known for its jagged, rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested interior; and picturesque waterways, as well as its seafood cuisine, especially lobster and clams. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland. The capital is Augusta.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Sandy 2012 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Hurricane Sandy began as a low pressure system which developed sufficient organized convection to be classified as Tropical Depression Eighteen on October 22 south of Kingston, Jamaica. [16] It moved slowly at first due to a ridge to the north. Low wind shear and warm waters allowed for strengthening, [16] and the system was named Tropical Storm Sandy late on October 22. [17] Early on October 24, an eye began developing, and it was moving steadily northward due to an approaching trough. [18] Later that day, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) upgraded Sandy to hurricane status about 65 mi (105 km) south of Kingston, Jamaica. [19] At about 1900 UTC that day, Sandy made landfall near Kingston with winds of about 85 mph (140 km/h). [20] Just offshore Cuba, Sandy rapidly intensified to winds of 115 mph (185 km/h), [3] and at that intensity it made landfall just west of Santiago de Cuba at 0525 UTC on October 25. [21] Operationally, Sandy was assessed to have peaked as a high-end Category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). [3]

Wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Sea surface temperature Water temperature close to the oceans surface

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 millimetre (0.04 in) and 20 metres (70 ft) below the sea surface. Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Localized areas of heavy snow can form in bands downwind of warm water bodies within an otherwise cold air mass. Warm sea surface temperatures are known to be a cause of tropical cyclogenesis over the Earth's oceans. Tropical cyclones can also cause a cool wake, due to turbulent mixing of the upper 30 metres (100 ft) of the ocean. SST changes diurnally, like the air above it, but to a lesser degree. There is less SST variation on breezy days than on calm days. In addition, ocean currents such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), can effect SST's on multi-decadal time scales, a major impact results from the global thermohaline circulation, which affects average SST significantly throughout most of the world's oceans.

Eye (cyclone) region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones

The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.

A time-lapse video made from NASA satellite images of Hurricane Sandy

After Sandy exited Cuba, the structure became disorganized, [22] and it turned to the north-northwest over the Bahamas. [23] By October 27, Sandy was no longer fully tropical, as evidenced by the development of frontal structures in the outer circulation. [3] Despite strong shear, Sandy maintained convection due to influence from an approaching trough; the same that turned the hurricane to the northeast. [24] After briefly weakening to a tropical storm, [25] Sandy re-intensified into a hurricane, [26] and on October 28 an eye began redeveloping. [27] The storm moved around an upper-level low over the eastern United States and also to the southwest of a ridge over Atlantic Canada, turning it to the northwest. [28] Sandy briefly re-intensified to Category 2 intensity on the morning of October 29, around which time it had become an extremely large hurricane with a wind diameter of over 1,000 miles (1,609 km), and an unusually low central barometric pressure of 940 mbar, possibly due to the very large size of the system. [3] This pressure set records for many cities across the Northeastern United States for the lowest pressures ever observed. [29] The convection diminished while the hurricane accelerated toward the New Jersey coast, [30] and the cyclone was no longer tropical by 2100 UTC on October 29. [31] About 2½ hours later, Sandy made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey, [32] with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). [3] During the next four days, Sandy's remnants drifted northward and then northeastward over Ontario, before merging with another low pressure area over Eastern Canada on November 2. [3] [33]

Cold-core low cyclone aloft which has an associated cold pool of air residing at high altitude within the Earths troposphere

A cold-core low, also known as an upper level low or cold-core cyclone, is a cyclone aloft which has an associated cold pool of air residing at high altitude within the Earth's troposphere. It is a low pressure system that strengthens with height in accordance with the thermal wind relationship. If a weak surface circulation forms in response to such a feature at subtropical latitudes of the eastern north Pacific or north Indian oceans, it is called a subtropical cyclone. Cloud cover and rainfall mainly occurs with these systems during the day. Severe weather, such as tornadoes, can occur near the center of cold-core lows. Cold lows can help spawn cyclones with significant weather impacts, such as polar lows, and Kármán vortices. Cold lows can lead directly to the development of tropical cyclones, owing to their associated cold pool of air aloft or by acting as additional outflow channels to aid in further development.

Atlantic Canada Region in Canada

Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $121.888 billion in 2011.

Northeastern United States region of the United States

The Northeastern United States, also referred to as simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States. The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the United States Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics.

Forecasts

On October 23, 2012, the path of Hurricane Sandy was correctly predicted by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) headquartered in Reading, England nearly eight days in advance of its striking the American East Coast. The computer model noted that the storm would turn west towards land and strike the New York/New Jersey region on October 29, rather than turn east and head out to the open Atlantic as most hurricanes in this position do. By October 27, four days after the ECMWF made its prediction, the National Weather Service and National Hurricane Center confirmed the path of the hurricane predicted by the European model. The National Weather Service was criticized for not employing its higher-resolution forecast models the way that its European counterpart did. A hardware and software upgrade completed at the end of 2013 enabled the weather service to make more accurate predictions, and do so far more in advance than the technology in 2012 had allowed. [34]

Relation to global warming

According to NCAR senior climatologist Kevin E. Trenberth, "The answer to the oft-asked question of whether an event is caused by climate change is that it is the wrong question. All weather events are affected by climate change because the environment in which they occur is warmer and moister than it used to be." [35] Although NOAA meteorologist Martin Hoerling attributes Sandy to "little more than the coincidental alignment of a tropical storm with an extratropical storm", [36] Trenberth does agree that the storm was caused by "natural variability" but adds that it was "enhanced by global warming". [37] One factor contributing to the storm's strength was abnormally warm sea surface temperatures offshore the East Coast of the United States—more than 3 °C (5 °F) above normal, to which global warming had contributed 0.6 °C (1 °F). [37] As the temperature of the atmosphere increases, the capacity to hold water increases, leading to stronger storms and higher rainfall amounts. [37]

As they move north, Atlantic hurricanes typically are forced east and out to sea by the Prevailing Westerlies. [38] In Sandy's case, this typical pattern was blocked by a ridge of high pressure over Greenland resulting in a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, forming a kink in the jet stream, causing it to double back on itself off the East Coast. Sandy was caught up in this northwesterly flow. [38] The blocking pattern over Greenland also stalled an Arctic front which combined with the cyclone. [38] Mark Fischetti of Scientific American said that the jet stream's unusual shape was caused by the melting of Arctic ice. [39] Trenberth said that while a negative North Atlantic Oscillation and a blocking anticyclone were in place, the null hypothesis remained that this was just the natural variability of weather. [36] Sea level at New York and along the New Jersey coast has increased by nearly a foot (300 mm) over the last hundred years, [40] which contributed to the storm surge. [41] Harvard geologist Daniel P. Schrag calls Hurricane Sandy's 13-foot (4 m) storm surge an example of what will, by mid-century, be the "new norm on the Eastern seaboard". [42]

Preparations

Caribbean and Bermuda

After the storm became a tropical cyclone on October 22, the Government of Jamaica issued a tropical storm watch for the entire island. [43] Early on October 23, the watch was replaced with a tropical storm warning and a hurricane watch was issued. [44] At 1500 UTC, the hurricane watch was upgraded to a hurricane warning, while the tropical storm warning was discontinued. [45] In preparation of the storm, many residents stocked up on supplies and reinforced roofing material. Acting Prime Minister Peter Phillips urged people to take this storm seriously, and also to take care of their neighbors, especially the elderly, children, and disabled. Government officials shut down schools, government buildings, and the airport in Kingston on the day prior to the arrival of Sandy. Meanwhile, numerous and early curfews were put in place to protect residents, properties, and to prevent crime. [46] Shortly after Jamaica issued its first watch on October 22, the Government of Haiti issued a tropical storm watch for Haiti. [47] By late October 23, it was modified to a tropical storm warning. [48]

The Government of Cuba posted a hurricane watch for the Cuban Provinces of Camagüey, Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, and Santiago de Cuba at 1500 UTC on October 23. [45] Only three hours later, the hurricane watch was switched to a hurricane warning. [49] The Government of the Bahamas, at 1500 UTC on October 23, issued a tropical storm watch for several Bahamian islands, including the Acklins, Cat Island, Crooked Island, Exuma, Inagua, Long Cay, Long Island, Mayaguana, Ragged Island, Rum Cay, and San Salvador Island. [45] Later that day, another tropical storm watch was issued for Abaco Islands, Andros Island, the Berry Islands, Bimini, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, and New Providence. [49] By early on October 24, the tropical storm watch for Cat Island, Exuma, Long Island, Rum Cay, and San Salvador was upgraded to a tropical storm warning. [50]

At 1515 UTC on October 26, the Bermuda Weather Service issued a tropical storm watch for Bermuda, reflecting the enormous size of the storm and the anticipated wide-reaching impacts. [51]

United States

White House conference with FEMA and Department of Homeland Security in preparation for arrival of the hurricane. White House teleconference for Hurricane Sandy.jpg
White House conference with FEMA and Department of Homeland Security in preparation for arrival of the hurricane.

Much of the East Coast of the United States, in Mid-Atlantic and New England regions, had a good chance of receiving gale-force winds, flooding, heavy rain and possibly snow early in the week of October 28 from an unusual hybrid of Hurricane Sandy and a winter storm producing a Fujiwhara effect. [52] Government weather forecasters said there was a 90% chance that the East Coast would be impacted by the storm. Jim Cisco of the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center coined the term "Frankenstorm", as Sandy was expected to merge with a storm front a few days before Halloween. [53] [54] [55] As coverage continued, several media outlets began eschewing this term in favor of "superstorm". [56] [57] Utilities and governments along the East Coast attempted to head off long-term power failures Sandy might cause. Power companies from the Southeast to New England alerted independent contractors to be ready to help repair storm damaged equipment quickly and asked employees to cancel vacations and work longer hours. Researchers from Johns Hopkins University, using a computer model built on power outage data from previous hurricanes, conservatively forecast that 10 million customers along the Eastern Seaboard would lose power from the storm. [58]

President Obama discusses preparations for Hurricane Sandy

Through regional offices in Atlanta, Philadelphia, New York City, and Boston, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) monitored Sandy, closely coordinating with state and tribal emergency management partners in Florida and the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and New England states. [59] President Obama signed emergency declarations on October 28 for several states expected to be impacted by Sandy, allowing them to request federal aid and make additional preparations in advance of the storm. [60] Flight cancellations and travel alerts on the U.S. East Coast were put in place in the Mid-Atlantic and the New England areas. [61] Over 5,000 commercial airline flights scheduled for October 28 and 29 were canceled by the afternoon of October 28 [62] and Amtrak canceled some services through October 29 in preparation for the storm. [63] In addition, the National Guard and U.S. Air Force put as many as 45,000 personnel in at least seven states on alert for possible duty in response to the preparations and aftermath of Sandy. [64]

Southeast

A tilted satellite image of the storm on October 28, with most of the U.S. coastline artificially highlighted. The entire east coast is visible, with a cloudless Florida coast seen at the bottom of the image and the outline of the coast of Maine at the top right. Sandy Oct 28 2012 1600Z.jpg
A tilted satellite image of the storm on October 28, with most of the U.S. coastline artificially highlighted. The entire east coast is visible, with a cloudless Florida coast seen at the bottom of the image and the outline of the coast of Maine at the top right.
Florida

Schools on the Treasure Coast announced closures for October 26 in anticipation of Sandy. [65] A Russian intelligence-gathering ship was allowed to stay in Jacksonville to avoid Sandy; the port is not far from Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base. [66]

Carolinas

At 0900 UTC on October 26, a tropical storm watch was issued from the mouth of the Savannah River in South Carolina to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina, including Pamlico Sound. [67] Twelve hours later, the portion of the tropical storm watch from the Santee River in South Carolina to Duck, North Carolina, including Pamlico Sound, was upgraded to a warning. [68] Governor of North Carolina Beverly Perdue declared a state of emergency for 38 eastern counties on October 26, which took effect on the following day. [69] By October 29, the state of emergency was extended to 24 counties in western North Carolina, with up to a foot (30 cm) of snow attributed to Sandy anticipated in higher elevations. The National Park Service closed at least five sections of the Blue Ridge Parkway. [70]

Mid-Atlantic

Virginia

On October 26, Governor of Virginia Bob McDonnell declared a state of emergency. The U.S. Navy sent more than twenty-seven ships and forces to sea from Naval Station Norfolk for their protection. [71] Governor McDonnell authorized the National Guard to activate 630 personnel ahead of the storm. [72] Republican Party presidential candidate Mitt Romney canceled campaign appearances scheduled for October 28 in Virginia Beach, Virginia, and New Hampshire October 30 because of Sandy. Vice President Joe Biden canceled his appearance on October 27 in Virginia Beach and an October 29 campaign event in New Hampshire. [73] President Barack Obama canceled a campaign stop with former President Bill Clinton in Virginia scheduled for October 29, as well as a trip to Colorado Springs, Colorado, the next day because of the impending storm. [74]

Washington, D.C.

On October 26, Mayor of Washington, D.C. Vincent Gray declared a state of emergency, [75] which President Obama signed on October 28. [76] The United States Office of Personnel Management announced federal offices in the Washington, D.C. area would be closed to the public on October 29–30. [77] In addition, Washington D.C. Metro service, both rail and bus, was canceled on October 29 due to expected high winds, the likelihood of widespread power outages, and the closing of the federal government. [78] The Smithsonian Institution closed for the day of October 29. [79]

Maryland

Governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley declared a state of emergency on October 26. [71] By the following day, Smith Island residents were evacuated with the assistance of the Maryland Natural Resources Police, Dorchester County opened two shelters for those in flood prone areas, and Ocean City initiated Phase I of their Emergency Operations Plan. [80] [81] [82] Baltimore Gas and Electric Co. put workers on standby and made plans to bring in crews from other states. [83] On October 28, President Obama declared an emergency in Maryland and signed an order authorizing the Federal Emergency Management Agency to aid in disaster relief efforts. [84] Also, numerous areas were ordered to be evacuated including part of Ocean City, Worcester County, Wicomico County, and Somerset County. [85] [86] Officials warned that more than a hundred million tons of dirty sediment mixed with tree limbs and debris floating behind Conowingo Dam could be eventually poured into the Chesapeake Bay, posing a potential environmental threat. [87]

The Maryland Transit Administration canceled all service for October 29 and 30. The cancellations applied to buses, light rail, and Amtrak and MARC train service. [88] On October 29, six shelters opened in Baltimore, and early voting was canceled for the day. [79] Maryland Insurance Commissioner Therese M. Goldsmith activated an emergency regulation requiring pharmacies to refill prescriptions regardless of their last refill date. [89] On October 29, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge over the Chesapeake Bay and the Millard E. Tydings Memorial Bridge and Thomas J. Hatem Memorial Bridge over the Susquehanna River were closed to traffic in the midday hours. [90]

Delaware

On October 28, Governor Markell declared a state of emergency, with coastal areas of Sussex County evacuated. [91] In preparation for the storm, the Delaware Department of Transportation suspended some weekend construction projects, removed traffic cones and barrels from construction sites, and removed several span-wire overhead signs in Sussex County. [92] Delaware Route 1 through Delaware Seashore State Park was closed due to flooding. [91] Delaware roads were closed to the public, except for emergency and essential personnel, [93] and tolls on I-95 and Delaware Route 1 were waived. [94] DART First State transit service was also suspended during the storm. [95]

New Jersey
Airmen of the New Jersey National Guard's 108th Wing assemble before being sent to assist at various emergency shelters. NJ National Guard Prepares for Hurricane Sandy.jpg
Airmen of the New Jersey National Guard's 108th Wing assemble before being sent to assist at various emergency shelters.
A downed tree in Cheltenham Township, Pennsylvania. HurricaneSANDYCheltenham.jpg
A downed tree in Cheltenham Township, Pennsylvania.

Preparations began on October 26, when officials in Cape May County advised residents on barrier islands to evacuate. There was also a voluntary evacuation for Mantoloking, Bay Head, Barnegat Light, Beach Haven, Harvey Cedars, Long Beach, Ship Bottom, and Stafford in Ocean County. [96] [97] [98] Governor of New Jersey Chris Christie ordered all residents of barrier islands from Sandy Hook to Cape May to evacuate and closed Atlantic City casinos. Tolls were suspended on the northbound Garden State Parkway and the westbound Atlantic City Expressway starting at 6 a.m. on October 28. [99] President Obama signed an emergency declaration for New Jersey, allowing the state to request federal funding and other assistance for actions taken before Sandy's landfall. [100]

On October 28, Mayor of Hoboken Dawn Zimmer ordered residents of basement and street-level residential units to evacuate, due to possible flooding. [101] On October 29, residents of Logan Township were ordered to evacuate. [102] Jersey Central Power & Light told employees to prepare to work extended shifts. [83] Most schools, colleges and universities were closed October 29 while at least 509 out of 580 school districts were closed October 30. [103] Although tropical storm conditions were inevitable and hurricane-force winds were likely, the National Hurricane Center did not issue any tropical cyclone watches or warnings for New Jersey, because Sandy was forecast to become extratropical before landfall and thus would not be a tropical cyclone. [104]

Pennsylvania

Preparations in Pennsylvania began when Governor Tom Corbett declared a state of emergency on October 26. [71] Mayor of Philadelphia Michael Nutter asked residents in low-lying areas and neighborhoods prone to flooding to leave their homes by 1800 UTC October 28 and move to safer ground. [105] The Philadelphia International Airport suspended all flight operations for October 29. [106] On October 29, Philadelphia shut down its mass transit system. [79] On October 28, Mayor of Harrisburg Linda D. Thompson declared a state of disaster emergency for the city to go into effect at 5 a.m. October 29. Electric utilities in the state brought in crews and equipment from other states such as New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma, to assist with restoration efforts. [107]

New York
Manhattan suffered a widespread power outage during the storm. Sandy Poweroutage 1.jpg
Manhattan suffered a widespread power outage during the storm.
Damage from Hurricane Sandy to a house in Brooklyn, New York. Damage from Hurricane Sandy to house in Brooklyn, NY.jpeg
Damage from Hurricane Sandy to a house in Brooklyn, New York.

Governor Andrew Cuomo declared a statewide state of emergency and asked for a pre-disaster declaration on October 26, [108] which President Obama signed later that day. [109] By October 27, major carriers canceled all flights into and out of JFK, LaGuardia, and Newark-Liberty airports, and the Metro North and Long Island Rail Roads suspended service. [110] The Tappan Zee Bridge was closed, [111] and later the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel and Holland Tunnel were also closed. [112] On Long Island, an evacuation was ordered for South Shore, including areas south of Sunrise Highway, north of Route 25A, and in elevations of less than 16 feet (4.9 m) above sea level on the North Shore. [113] In Suffolk County, mandatory evacuations were ordered for residents of Fire Island and six towns. [114] Most schools closed in Nassau and Suffolk counties on October 29. [115]

The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel remained flooded on the Tuesday morning after the storm. Hugh L. Carey Tunnel during Hurricane Sandy vc.jpg
The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel remained flooded on the Tuesday morning after the storm.

New York City began taking precautions on October 26. Governor Cuomo ordered the closure of MTA and its subway on October 28, and the MTA suspended all subway, bus, and commuter rail service beginning at 2300 UTC. [116] After Hurricane Irene nearly submerged subways and tunnels in 2011, [117] entrances and grates were covered just before Sandy, but were still flooded. [118] PATH train service and stations as well as the Port Authority Bus Terminal were shut down in the early morning hours of October 29. [119] [120]

Later on October 28, officials activated the coastal emergency plan, with subway closings and the evacuation of residents in areas hit by Hurricane Irene in 2011. More than 76 evacuation shelters were open around the city. [108] On October 29, Mayor Michael Bloomberg ordered public schools closed [119] and called for a mandatory evacuation of Zone A, which comprised areas near coastlines or waterways. [121] Additionally, 200  National Guard troops were deployed in the city. [120] NYU Langone Medical Center canceled all surgeries and medical procedures, except for emergency procedures. [120] Additionally, one of NYU Langone Medical Center's backup generators failed on October 29, prompting the evacuation of hundreds of patients, including those from the hospital's various intensive care units. [122] U.S. stock trading was suspended for October 29–30. [123]

New England

Flooding in Marblehead, Massachusetts, caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29. Flooding in Marblehead Massachusetts caused by Hurricane Sandy.jpg
Flooding in Marblehead, Massachusetts, caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29.

Connecticut Governor Dannel Malloy partially activated the state's Emergency Operations Center on October 26 [124] and signed a Declaration of Emergency the next day. [125] On October 28, President Obama approved Connecticut's request for an emergency declaration, and hundreds of National Guard personnel were deployed. [126] On October 29, Governor Malloy ordered road closures for all state highways. [127] Numerous mandatory and partial evacuations were issued in cities across Connecticut. [128]

Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick ordered state offices to be closed October 29 and recommended schools and private businesses close. On October 28, President Obama issued a Pre-Landfall Emergency Declaration for Massachusetts. Several shelters were opened, and many schools were closed. [129] The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority shut down all services on the afternoon of October 29. [130] On October 28, Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin, New Hampshire Governor John Lynch, and Maine's Governor Paul LePage all declared states of emergency. [79] [131] [132]

Appalachia and the Midwest

The National Weather Service issued a storm warning for Lake Huron on October 29 that called for wave heights of 26 feet (7.9 m), and possibly as high as 38 feet (12 m). Lake Michigan waves were expected to reach 19 feet (5.8 m), with a potential of 33 feet (10 m) on October 30. [133] Flood warnings were issued in Chicago on October 29, where wave heights were expected to reach 18 to 23 feet (5.5 to 7.0 m) in Cook County and 25 feet (7.6 m) in northwest Indiana. [134] Gale warnings were issued for Lake Michigan and Green Bay in Wisconsin until the morning of October 31, and waves of 33 feet (10 m) in Milwaukee and 20 feet (6.1 m) in Sheboygan were predicted for October 30. [135] The actual waves reached about 20 feet (6.1 m) but were less damaging than expected. [136] [137] The village of Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin urged a voluntary evacuation of its lakefront area, though few residents signed up, and little flooding actually occurred. [135] [137]

Michigan was impacted by a winter storm system coming in from the west, mixing with cold air streams from the Arctic and colliding with Hurricane Sandy. [133] The forecasts slowed shipping traffic on the Great Lakes, as some vessels sought shelter away from the peak winds, except those on Lake Superior. [138] [139] Detroit-based DTE Energy released 100 contract line workers to assist utilities along the eastern U.S. with storm response, and Consumers Energy did the same with more than a dozen employees and 120 contract employees. [140] Due to the widespread power outages, numerous schools had to close, especially in St. Clair County and areas along Lake Huron north of Metro Detroit. [141]

As far as Ohio's western edge, areas were under a wind advisory. [142] All departing flights at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport were canceled until October 30 at 3 p.m. [143]

Governor of West Virginia Earl Ray Tomblin declared a state of emergency ahead of storm on October 29. [144] Up to 2 to 3 feet (0.6–0.9 m) of snow was forecast for mountainous areas of the state. [145]

Canada

The Canadian Hurricane Centre issued its first preliminary statement for Hurricane Sandy on October 25 from Southern Ontario to the Canadian Maritimes, [146] with the potential for heavy rain and strong winds. [147] On October 29, Environment Canada issued severe wind warnings for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Valley corridor, from Southwestern Ontario as far as Quebec City. [148] On October 30, Environment Canada issued storm surge warnings along the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. [149] Rainfall warnings were issued for the Charlevoix region in Quebec, as well as for several counties in New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, where about 2 to 3 inches (51 to 76 mm) of rain was to be expected. [150] [151] [152] Freezing rain warnings were issued for parts of Northern Ontario. [153]

Summary of tropical cyclone warnings and watches associated with Hurricane Sandy
DateTimeWarning typeAreas
October 2215:00 UTCTropical Storm Watch Jamaica
October 2309:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningJamaica
Hurricane WatchJamaica
Tropical Storm Watch Haiti
15:00 UTCHurricane WarningJamaica
Tropical Storm WatchSoutheastern and Central Bahamas
Hurricane Watch discontinuedJamaica
Hurricane Watch Camagüey to Guantánamo, Cuba
18:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningHaiti
21:00 UTCHurricane WarningCamagüey to Guantánamo, Cuba
Tropical Storm WatchNorthwestern Bahamas
October 2403:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningCentral Bahamas
09:00 UTCTropical Storm Watch Jupiter Inlet to Ocean Reef, Florida
Tropical Storm WatchOcean Reef to Craig Key, Florida
12:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningNorthwestern Bahamas
15:00 UTCTropical Storm Watch Volusia/Brevard County Line to Ocean Reef, Florida
Hurricane WatchCentral and Northwestern Bahamas
21:00 UTCHurricane WarningCentral and Northwestern Bahamas
Tropical Storm WatchOcean Reef to Craig Key, Florida
Tropical Storm Watch Sebastian Inlet to Flagler Beach, Florida
Tropical Storm WarningOcean Reef to Sebastian Inlet, Florida
Hurricane Watch discontinuedAll
October 2503:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningSoutheastern Bahamas
Tropical Storm Warning Lake Okeechobee
Hurricane Warning Ragged Island, Bahamas
09:00 UTCTropical Storm WatchFlagler Beach to Fernandina Beach, Florida
Tropical Storm WarningOcean Reef to Flagler Beach, Florida
Hurricane Warning discontinuedJamaica
15:00 UTCTropical Storm Warning discontinuedHaiti
Hurricane Warning discontinuedCamagüey to Guantánamo, Cuba
October 2603:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningCentral Bahamas
Tropical Storm Warning discontinuedSoutheastern Bahamas
Hurricane Warning discontinuedRagged Island, Bahamas
Hurricane WarningNorthwestern Bahamas
06:00 UTCTropical Storm Warning Andros Island, Bahamas
09:00 UTCTropical Storm Watch Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina
15:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningNorthwestern Bahamas except Great Abaco and Grand Bahama Island
Tropical Storm Warning discontinuedOcean Reef to Craig Key, Florida
Tropical Storm Watch Bermuda
Tropical Storm Warning discontinuedCentral Bahamas and Andros Island
Tropical Storm WarningGreat Abaco to Grand Bahama Island
18:00 UTCTropical Storm Warning Deerfield Beach to Flagler Beach, Florida
Tropical Storm Warning discontinuedNorthwestern Bahamas except Great Abaco and Grand Bahama Island
21:00 UTCTropical Storm Watch St. Augustine to Fernandina Beach, Florida
Tropical Storm WatchSavannah River, Georgia/South Carolina to South Santee River, South Carolina
Tropical Storm WarningDeerfield Beach to St. Augustine, Florida
Tropical Storm Warning discontinuedLake Okeechobee
Tropical Storm WarningSouth Santee River, South Carolina to Duck, North Carolina
October 2700:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningJupiter Inlet to St. Augustine, Florida
09:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningSebastian Inlet to St. Augustine, Florida
15:00 UTCTropical Storm Watch discontinuedSt. Augustine to Fernandina Beach, Florida
Tropical Storm Warning discontinuedSebastian Inlet to St. Augustine, Florida
21:00 UTCTropical Storm WarningBermuda
Tropical Storm Warning discontinuedGreat Abaco and Grand Bahama Island
October 2803:00 UTCTropical Storm Watch discontinuedAll
09:00 UTCTropical Storm Warning Cape Fear to Duck, North Carolina
21:00 UTCTropical Storm Warning Surf City to Duck, North Carolina
October 2915:00 UTCTropical Storm Warning discontinuedBermuda
21:00 UTCTropical Storm Warning discontinuedAll

Impact

Deaths and damage by country
CountryFatalitiesMissingDamage
2012 (USD)
Ref(s)
TotalDirectIndirectN/A
Bermuda 00000Minimal [3]
The Bahamas 22000 [7] [154] [155]
Canada 21100 [156] [157] [158]
Cuba 116050 [7] [154] [159] [160]
Dominican Republic 22000 [7] [154] [161]
Haiti 542003421 [7] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166]
Jamaica 21100 [7] [154] [167]
Puerto Rico 11000N/A [3]
United States 157718510 [14]
U.S. offshore22000N/A [3]
Totals:233106874021

At least 233 people were killed across the United States, the Caribbean, and Canada, as a result of the storm. [3] [7] [156] [154] [162] [168] [169]

Caribbean

Jamaica

Jamaica was the first country directly affected by Sandy, which was also the first hurricane to make landfall on the island since Hurricane Gilbert, 24 years prior. Trees and power lines were snapped and shanty houses were heavily damaged, both from the winds and flooding rains. More than 100 fishermen were stranded in outlying Pedro Cays off Jamaica's southern coast. [170] Stones falling from a hillside crushed one man to death as he tried to get into his house in a rural village near Kingston. [171] After 6 days another fatality recorded as a 27-year-old man, died due to electrocution, attempting a repair. [7] The country's sole electricity provider, the Jamaica Public Service Company, reported that 70 percent of its customers were without power. More than 1,000 people went to shelters. Jamaican authorities closed the island's international airports, and police ordered 48-hour curfews in major towns to keep people off the streets and deter looting. [172] Most buildings in the eastern portion of the island lost their roofs. [173] Damage was assessed at approximately $100 million throughout the country. [3]

Hispaniola

In Haiti, which was still recovering from both the 2010 earthquake and the ongoing cholera outbreak, at least 54 people died, [163] and approximately 200,000 were left homeless as a result of four days of ongoing rain from Hurricane Sandy. [174] Heavy damage occurred in Port-Salut after rivers overflowed their banks. [175] In the capital of Port-au-Prince, streets were flooded by the heavy rains, and it was reported that "the whole south of the country is underwater". [176] Most of the tents and buildings in the city's sprawling refugee camps and the Cité Soleil neighborhood were flooded or leaking, a repeat of what happened earlier in the year during the passage of Hurricane Isaac. [173] Crops were also wiped out by the storm and the country would be making an appeal for emergency aid. [177] Damage in Haiti was estimated at $750 million (2012 USD), making it the costliest tropical cyclone in Haitian history. [164] In the month following Sandy, a resurgence of cholera linked to the storm killed at least 44 people and infected more than 5,000 others. [166]

In the neighboring Dominican Republic, two people were killed and 30,000 people evacuated. [154] An employee of CNN estimated 70% of the streets in Santo Domingo were flooded. [178] One person was killed in Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico after being swept away by a swollen river. [154]

Cuba

Costliest Cuban hurricanes
RankHurricaneSeasonDamageRefs
1 Ike 2008 $7.3 billion [179]
2 Matthew 2016 $2.58 billion [180]
3 Gustav 2008$2.1 billion [179]
4 Michelle 2001 $2 billion [181]
Sandy 2012 [182]
6 Dennis 2005 $1.5 billion [183]
7 Ivan 2004 $1.2 billion [184]
8 Charley 2004$923 million [184]
9 Wilma 2005$700 million [185]
10 Irma 2017 $513 million [186] [187]
Hurricane Sandy damage in Guantanamo Bay Flickr - DVIDSHUB - Hurricane Sandy hits Guantanamo Bay (Image 1 of 3).jpg
Hurricane Sandy damage in Guantanamo Bay

At least 55,000 people were evacuated before Hurricane Sandy's arrival. [188] While moving ashore, the storm produced waves up to 29 feet (9 meters) and a 6-foot (2 meter) storm surge that caused extensive coastal flooding. [189] There was widespread damage, particularly to Santiago de Cuba where 132,733 homes were damaged, of which 15,322 were destroyed and 43,426 lost their roof. [159] Electricity and water services were knocked out, and most of the trees in the city were damaged. Total losses throughout Santiago de Cuba province is estimated as high as $2 billion (2012 USD). [160] Sandy killed 11 people in the country – nine in Santiago de Cuba Province and two in Guantánamo Province; most of the victims were trapped in destroyed houses. [190] [191] This makes Sandy the deadliest hurricane to hit Cuba since 2005, when Hurricane Dennis killed 16 people. [192]

Bahamas

A NOAA automated station at Settlement Point on Grand Bahama Island reported sustained winds of 49 mph (74 km/h) and a wind gust of 63 mph (102 km/h). [193] One person died from falling off his roof while attempting to fix a window shutter in the Lyford Cay area on New Providence. Another died in the Queen's Cove area on Grand Bahama Island where he drowned after the sea surge trapped him in his apartment. [154] Portions of the Bahamas lost power or cellular service, including an islandwide power outage on Bimini. Five homes were severely damaged near Williams's Town. [194] Overall damage in the Bahamas was about $700 million (2012 USD), with the most severe damage on Cat Island and Exuma where many houses were heavily damaged by wind and storm surge. [155]

Bermuda

Owing to the sheer size of the storm, Sandy also impacted Bermuda with high winds and heavy rains. On October 28, a weak F0 tornado touched down in Sandys Parish, damaging homes and businesses. [195] During a three-day span, the storm produced 0.98 in (25 mm) of rain at the L.F. Wade International Airport. The strongest winds were recorded on October 29: sustained winds reached 37 mph (60 km/h) and gusts peaked at 58 mph (93 km/h), which produced scattered minor damage. [196]

United States

Costliest U.S. Atlantic hurricanes
RankHurricaneSeasonDamage
1 Katrina 2005 $125 billion
Harvey 2017
3 Maria 2017 $90 billion
4 Sandy 2012 $65 billion
5 Irma 2017 $53.4 billion
6 Ike 2008 $30 billion
7 Andrew 1992 $27 billion
8 Michael 2018 $25 billion
9 Florence 2018 $24.2 billion
10 Ivan 2004 $20.5 billion
Source: National Hurricane Center [197] [nb 1] [198]
Damage to Casino Pier in Seaside Heights, New Jersey Hurricane Sandy New Jersey Pier.jpg
Damage to Casino Pier in Seaside Heights, New Jersey

A total of 24 U.S. states were in some way affected by Sandy. The hurricane caused tens of billions of dollars in damage in the United States, destroyed thousands of homes, left millions without electric service, [199] and caused 71 direct deaths in nine states, including 49 in New York, 10 in New Jersey, 3 in Connecticut, 2 each in Pennsylvania and Maryland, and 1 each in New Hampshire, Virginia and West Virginia. [7] There were also 2 direct deaths from Sandy in U.S. coastal waters in the Atlantic Ocean, about 90 miles (150 km) off the North Carolina coast, which are not counted in the U.S. total. In addition, the storm resulted in 87 indirect deaths. [3] In all, a total of 160 people were killed due to the storm, making Sandy the deadliest hurricane to hit the United States mainland since Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the deadliest to hit the U.S. East Coast since Hurricane Agnes in 1972. [200]

Due to flooding and other storm-related problems, Amtrak canceled all Acela Express, Northeast Regional, Keystone, and Shuttle services for October 29 and 30. [201] [202] More than 13,000 flights were canceled across the U.S. on October 29, and more than 3,500 were called off October 30. [203] From October 27 through early November 1, airlines canceled a total of 19,729 flights, according to FlightAware. [204]

On October 31, over 6 million customers were still without power in 15 states and the District of Columbia. The states with the most customers without power were New Jersey with 2,040,195 customers; New York with 1,933,147; Pennsylvania with 852,458; and Connecticut with 486,927. [205]

Storm total rainfall for Sandy (2012) across the United States Sandy 2012 rainfall.gif
Storm total rainfall for Sandy (2012) across the United States

The New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq reopened on October 31 after a two-day closure for the storm. [206] More than 1,500 FEMA personnel were along the East Coast working to support disaster preparedness and response operations, including search and rescue, situational awareness, communications and logistical support. In addition, 28 teams containing 294 FEMA Corps members were pre-staged to support Sandy responders. Three federal urban search and rescue task forces were positioned in the Mid-Atlantic and ready to deploy as needed. [207] Direct Relief provided medical supplies to community clinics, non-profit health centers, and other groups in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy, and mapped pharmacies, gas stations, and other facilities that remained in the New York City area despite power outages. [208]

On November 2, the American Red Cross announced they had 4,000 disaster workers across storm damaged areas, with thousands more en route from other states. Nearly 7,000 people spent the night in emergency shelters across the region. [209]

Hurricane Sandy: Coming Together , a live telethon on November 2 that featured rock and pop stars such as Bruce Springsteen, Billy Joel, Jon Bon Jovi, Mary J. Blige, Sting and Christina Aguilera, raised around $23 million for American Red Cross hurricane relief efforts. [210]

As of November 5, 2012, the National Hurricane Center ranks Hurricane Sandy the second-costliest US hurricane since 1900 in constant 2010 dollars, and the sixth-costliest after adjusting for inflation, population and property values. [211] Their report also states that due to global warming the number of future hurricanes will "either decrease or remain essentially unchanged" overall, but the ones that do form will likely be stronger, with fiercer winds and heavier rains. [211]

Scientists at the University of Utah reported the energy generated by Sandy was equivalent to "small earthquakes between magnitudes 2 and 3". [212]

Southeast

Florida

In South Florida, Sandy lashed the area with rough surf, strong winds, and brief squalls. Along the coast of Miami-Dade County, waves reached 10 feet (3.0 m), but may have been as high as 20 feet (6.1 m) in Palm Beach County. In the former county, minor pounding occurred on a few coastal roads. Further north in Broward County, State Road A1A was inundated with sand and water, causing more than a 2 miles (3.2 km) stretch of the road to be closed for the entire weekend. Additionally, coastal flooding extended inland up to 2 blocks in some locations and a few houses in the area suffered water damage. In Manalapan, which is located in southern Palm Beach County, several beachfront homes were threatened by erosion. The Lake Worth Pier was also damaged by rough seas. In Palm Beach County alone, losses reached $14 million. [213] Sandy caused closures and cancellations of some activities at schools in Palm Beach, Broward and Miami-Dade counties. [214] Storm surge from Sandy also caused flooding and beach erosion along coastal areas in South Florida. [215] Gusty winds also impacted South Florida, peaking at 67 mph (108 km/h) in Jupiter and Fowey Rocks Light, which is near Key Biscayne. [213] The storm left power outages across the region, which left many traffic lights out of order. [216]

In east-central Florida, damage was minor, though the storm left about 1,000 people without power. [217] Airlines at Miami International Airport canceled more than 20 flights to or from Jamaica or the Bahamas, while some airlines flying from Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport canceled a total of 13 flights to the islands. [71] The Coast Guard rescued two sea men in Volusia County off New Smyrna Beach on the morning of October 26. [218] Brevard and Volusia Counties schools canceled all extracurricular activities for October 26, including football. [219]

Two panther kittens escaped from the White Oak Conservation Center in Nassau County after the hurricane swept a tree into the fence of their enclosure; they were missing for 24 hours before being found in good health. [220]

North Carolina
The 180-foot (55 m) sailing ship, Bounty, is shown nearly submerged during Hurricane Sandy in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 90 miles (140 km) southeast of Hatteras, North Carolina on Monday, October 29, 2012. 121029-G-ZZ999-002 - Coast Guard rescues crewmembers aboard HMS.jpg
The 180-foot (55 m) sailing ship, Bounty , is shown nearly submerged during Hurricane Sandy in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 90 miles (140 km) southeast of Hatteras, North Carolina on Monday, October 29, 2012.

On October 28, Governor Bev Perdue declared a state of emergency in 24 western counties, due to snow and strong winds. [221]

North Carolina was spared from major damage for the most part (except at the immediate coastline), though winds, rain, and mountain snow affected the state through October 30. Ocracoke and Highway 12 on Hatteras Island were flooded with up to 2 feet (0.6 m) of water, closing part of the highway, while 20 people on a fishing trip were stranded on Portsmouth Island. [222]

There were three Hurricane Sandy-related deaths in the state. [7] [223]

On October 29, the Coast Guard responded to a distress call from Bounty , which was built for the 1962 movie Mutiny on the Bounty . It was taking on water about 90 miles (150 km) southeast of Cape Hatteras. Sixteen people were on board. [224] The Coast Guard said the 16 people abandoned ship and got into two lifeboats, wearing survival suits and life jackets. [225] The ship sank after the crew got off. [226] The Coast Guard rescued 14 crew members; another was found hours later but was unresponsive and later died. [227] The search for the captain, Robin Walbridge, was suspended on November 1, after efforts lasting more than 90 hours and covering approximately 12,000 square nautical miles (41,100 km²). [228]

Mid-Atlantic

Virginia
Damaged road at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge on Assateague Island Hurricane Sandy hit Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (VA) (8141816490).jpg
Damaged road at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge on Assateague Island

On October 29, snow was falling in parts of the state. [145] Gov. Bob McDonnell announced on October 30 that Virginia had been "spared a significant event", but cited concerns about rivers cresting and consequent flooding of major arteries. Virginia was awarded a federal disaster declaration, with Gov. McDonnell saying he was "delighted" that President Barack Obama and FEMA were on it immediately. At Sandy's peak, more than 180,000 customers were without power, most of whom were located in Northern Virginia. [205] [229] There were three Hurricane Sandy-related fatalities in the state. [7] [169]

Maryland and Washington, D.C.
Flooding in Crisfield, Maryland Hurricane Sandy flooding Crisfield MD.jpg
Flooding in Crisfield, Maryland

The Supreme Court and the United States Government Office of Personnel Management were closed on October 30, [230] [231] and schools were closed for two days. [232] MARC train and Virginia Railway Express were closed on October 30, and Metro rail and bus service were on Sunday schedule, opening at 2 p.m., until the system closes. [233]

At least 100 feet (30 m) of a fishing pier in Ocean City was destroyed. Governor Martin O'Malley said the pier was "half-gone". [234] Due to high winds, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and the Millard E. Tydings Memorial Bridge on I-95 were closed. [235] During the storm, the Mayor of Salisbury instituted a Civil Emergency and a curfew. [236] Interstate 68 in far western Maryland and northern West Virginia closed due to heavy snow, stranding multiple vehicles and requiring assistance from the National Guard. [237] Workers in Howard County tried to stop a sewage overflow caused by a power outage October 30. Raw sewage spilled at a rate of 2 million gallons per hour. It was unclear how much sewage had flowed into the Little Patuxent River. [238] Over 311,000 people were left without power as a result of the storm. [205]

Delaware
Before and after image of flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Hurricane Sandy impacts Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (DE).jpg
Before and after image of flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

By the afternoon of October 29, rainfall at Rehoboth Beach totaled 6.53 inches (166 mm). Other precipitation reports include nearly 7 inches (180 mm) at Indian River Inlet and more than 4 inches (100 mm) in Dover and Bear. At 4 p.m. on October 29, Delmarva Power reported on its website that more than 13,900 customers in Delaware and portions of the Eastern Shore of Maryland had lost electric service as high winds brought down trees and power lines. About 3,500 of those were in New Castle County, 2,900 were in Sussex, and more than 100 were in Kent County. Some residents in Kent and Sussex Counties experienced power outages that lasted up to nearly six hours. At the peak of the storm, more than 45,000 customers in Delaware were without power. [205] The Delaware Memorial Bridge speed limit was reduced to 25 mph (40 km/h) and the two outer lanes in each direction were closed. Officials planned to close the span entirely if sustained winds exceeded 50 mph (80 km/h). A wind gust of 64 mph (103 km/h) was measured at Lewes just before 2:30 p.m. on October 29. Delaware Route 1 was closed due to water inundation between Dewey Beach and Fenwick Island. In Dewey Beach, flood waters were 1 to 2 feet (0.30 to 0.61 m) in depth. [239] Following the impact in Delaware, President Barack Obama declared the entire state a federal disaster area, providing money and agencies for disaster relief in the wake of Hurricane Sandy. [240]

New Jersey
Damage to Mantoloking, New Jersey 121030-F-AL508-081c Aerial views during an Army search and rescue mission show damage from Hurricane Sandy to the New Jersey coast, Oct. 30, 2012.jpg
Damage to Mantoloking, New Jersey

A 50-foot (15 m) piece of the Atlantic City Boardwalk washed away. Half the city of Hoboken flooded; the city of 50,000 had to evacuate two of its fire stations, the EMS headquarters, and the hospital. With the city cut off from area hospitals and fire suppression mutual aid, the city's Mayor asked for National Guard help. [227] In the early morning of October 30, authorities in Bergen County, New Jersey, evacuated residents after a berm overflowed and flooded several communities. Police Chief of Staff Jeanne Baratta said there were up to five feet (1.5 m) of water in the streets of Moonachie and Little Ferry. The state Office of Emergency Management said rescues were undertaken in Carlstadt. [241] Baratta said the three towns had been "devastated" by the flood of water. [242] At the peak of the storm, more than 2,600,000 customers were without power. [205] There were 43 Hurricane Sandy-related deaths in the state of New Jersey. [7] [243] Damage in the state was estimated at $36.8 billion. [244]

Pennsylvania
Downed tree in Kutztown, Pennsylvania Hurricane Sandy downed tree Kutztown PA.jpg
Downed tree in Kutztown, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia Mayor Michael Nutter said the city would have no mass transit operations on any lines October 30. [207] All major highways in and around the city of Philadelphia were closed on October 29 during the hurricane, including Interstate 95, the Blue Route portion of Interstate 476, the Vine Street Expressway, Schuylkill Expressway (I-76), and the Roosevelt Expressway; U.S. Route 1. [245] The highways reopened at 4 a.m. on October 30. [245] The Delaware River Port Authority also closed its major crossings over the Delaware River between Pennsylvania and New Jersey due to high winds, including the Commodore Barry Bridge, the Walt Whitman Bridge, the Ben Franklin Bridge and the Betsy Ross Bridge. [245] Trees and powerlines were downed throughout Altoona, and four buildings partially collapsed. [246] More than 1.2 million were left without power. [79] The Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency reported 14 deaths believed to be related to Sandy. [247]

New York
Suomi NPP satellite imagery showing the power outages in New York and New Jersey on November 1 compared to October 21. NJ-NY lights comparison.png
Suomi NPP satellite imagery showing the power outages in New York and New Jersey on November 1 compared to October 21.

New York governor Andrew Cuomo called National Guard members to help in the state. Storm impacts in Upstate New York were much more limited than in New York City; there was some flooding and a few downed trees. [248] Rochester area utilities reported slightly fewer than 19,000 customers without power, in seven counties. [249] In the state as a whole, however, more than 2,000,000 customers were without power at the peak of the storm. [205]

Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg announced that New York City public schools would be closed on Tuesday, October 30 and Wednesday, October 31, but they remained closed through Friday, November 2. [250] CUNY and NYU canceled all classes and campus activities for October 30. [251] The New York Stock Exchange was closed for trading for two days, the first weather closure of the exchange since 1985. [252] It was also the first two-day weather closure since the Great Blizzard of 1888. [253]

The East River overflowed its banks, flooding large sections of Lower Manhattan. Battery Park had a water surge of 13.88 ft. [254] Seven subway tunnels under the East River were flooded. [255] The Metropolitan Transportation Authority said that the destruction caused by the storm was the worst disaster in the 108-year history of the New York City subway system. [256] Sea water flooded the Ground Zero construction site. [257] Over 10 billion gallons of raw and partially treated sewage were released by the storm, 94% of which went into waters in and around New York and New Jersey. [258] In addition, a four-story Chelsea building's facade crumbled and collapsed, leaving the interior on full display; however, no one was hurt by the falling masonry. [259] The Atlantic Ocean storm surge also caused considerable flood damage to homes, buildings, roadways, boardwalks and mass transit facilities in low-lying coastal areas of the outer boroughs of Queens, Brooklyn and Staten Island.

After receiving many complaints that holding the marathon would divert needed resources, Mayor Bloomberg announced late afternoon November 2 that the New York City Marathon had been canceled. The event was to take place on Sunday, November 4. Marathon officials said that they did not plan to reschedule. [260]

Gas shortages throughout the region led to an effort by the U.S. federal government to bring in gasoline and set up mobile truck distribution at which people could receive up to 10 gallons of gas, free of charge. This caused lines of up to 20 blocks long and was quickly suspended. [261] On Thursday, November 8, Mayor Bloomberg announced odd-even rationing of gasoline would be in effect beginning November 9 until further notice. [262]

On November 26, Governor Cuomo called Sandy "more impactful" than Hurricane Katrina, and estimated costs to New York at $42 billion. [263] Approximately 100,000 residences on Long Island were destroyed or severely damaged, including 2,000 that were rendered uninhabitable. [264] There were 53 Hurricane Sandy-related deaths in the state of New York. [265] In 2016, the hurricane was determined to have been the worst to strike the New York City area since at least 1700. [266]

New England

Sandy's storm total snowfall in inches across the Appalachians Sandy 2012 snowfall.gif
Sandy's storm total snowfall in inches across the Appalachians

Wind gusts to 83 mph were recorded on outer Cape Cod and Buzzards Bay. [267] Nearly 300,000 customers were without power in Massachusetts, [205] and roads and buildings were flooded. [268] Over 100,000 customers lost power in Rhode Island. [269] Most of the damage was along the coastline, where some communities were flooded. [270] Mount Washington, New Hampshire saw the strongest measured wind gust from the storm at 140 mph. [271] Nearly 142,000 customers lost power in the state. [205]

Appalachia and Midwest

West Virginia

Sandy's rain became snow in the Appalachian mountains, leading to blizzard conditions in some areas, especially West Virginia, [3] when a tongue of dense and heavy Arctic air pushed south through the region. This would normally cause a Nor'easter, prompting some to dub Sandy a "nor'eastercane" or "Frankenstorm". [272] There was 1–3 feet (30–91 cm) of snowfall in 28 of West Virginia's 55 counties. [3] [273] The highest snowfall accumulation was 36 inches (91 cm) near Richwood. [3] Other significant totals include 32 inches (81 cm) in Snowshoe, 29 inches (74 cm) in Quinwood, [274] and 28 inches (71 cm) in Davis, Flat Top, and Huttonsville. [275] By the morning of October 31, there were still 36 roads closed due to downed trees, powerlines, and snow in the road. [274] Approximately 271,800 customers lost power during the storm. [205]

Snow from Hurricane Sandy in West Virginia Hurricane Sandy pounds West Virginia.png
Snow from Hurricane Sandy in West Virginia

There were reports of collapsed buildings in several counties due to the sheer weight of the wet, heavy snow. [276] Overall, there were seven fatalities related to Hurricane Sandy and its remnants in West Virginia, [277] including John Rose, Sr., the Republican candidate for the state's 47th district in the state legislature, who was killed in the aftermath of the storm by a falling tree limb broken off by the heavy snowfall. [278] Governor Earl Ray Tomblin asked President Obama for a federal disaster declaration, and on October 30, President Obama approved a state of emergency declaration for the state. [279]

Ohio

Wind gusts at Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport were reported at 68 miles per hour (109 km/h). [280] On October 30, hundreds of school districts canceled or delayed school across the state with at least 250,000 homes and businesses without power. [281] Damage was reported across the state including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame which lost parts of its siding. [280] Snow was reported in some parts of eastern Ohio and south of Cleveland. Snow and icy roads also were reported south of Columbus. [281]

Michigan

The US Department of Energy reported that more than 120,000 customers lost power in Michigan as a result of the storm. [205] The National Weather Service said that waves up to 23 feet (7 m) high were reported on southern Lake Huron. [141]

Kentucky

More than one foot (300 mm) of snow fell in eastern Kentucky as Sandy merged with an Arctic front. [282] Winter warnings in Harlan, Letcher, and Pike County were put into effect until October 31. [283]

Canada

The remnants of Sandy produced high winds along Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, where gusts were measured at 105 km/h (63 mph). A 121 km/h (72 mph) gust was measured on top of the Bluewater Bridge. [284] One woman died after being hit by a piece of flying debris in Toronto. [156] At least 145,000 customers across Ontario lost power, [285] and a Bluewater Power worker was electrocuted in Sarnia while working to restore power. [286] Around 49,000 homes and businesses lost power in Quebec during the storm, with nearly 40,000 of those in the Laurentides region of the province, as well as more than 4,000 customers in the Eastern Townships and 1,700 customers in Montreal. [287] Hundreds of flights were canceled. [288] Around 14,000 customers in Nova Scotia lost power during the height of the storm. [289] The Insurance Bureau of Canada's preliminary damage estimate was over $100 million for the nation. [158]

Aftermath

Relief efforts

October 30, 2012, President Barack Obama visits the American Red Cross Digital Command Center following Hurricane Sandy RedCross Obama 1.jpg
October 30, 2012, President Barack Obama visits the American Red Cross Digital Command Center following Hurricane Sandy

Several media organizations contributed to the immediate relief effort: Disney–ABC Television Group held a "Day of Giving" on Monday, November 5, raising $17 million on their television stations for the American Red Cross [290] and NBC raised $23 million during their Hurricane Sandy: Coming Together telethon the same day. [291] On October 31, 2012, News Corporation donated $1 million to relief efforts in the New York metropolitan area. [292] As of December 2013, the NGO Hurricane Sandy New Jersey Relief Fund had distributed much of the funding raised in New Jersey. [293]

In Long Beach, New York, five years after the storm, homes are still being raised--lifted on temporary pilings so that permanent foundations could be put in. Home in Long Beach New York Being Raised 2017.jpg
In Long Beach, New York, five years after the storm, homes are still being raised—lifted on temporary pilings so that permanent foundations could be put in.

On November 6, the United Nations and World Food Programme promised humanitarian aid to at least 500,000 people in Santiago de Cuba. [294]

On December 12, 2012, the 12-12-12: The Concert for Sandy Relief took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Various television channels in the United States and internationally aired the four-hour concert which was expected to reach over 1 billion people worldwide, featuring Bon Jovi, Eric Clapton, Dave Grohl, Billy Joel, Alicia Keys, Chris Martin, Paul McCartney, The Rolling Stones, Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band, Roger Waters, Eddie Vedder, Kanye West, and The Who. Web sites including Fuse.tv, MTV.com, YouTube, and the sites of AOL and Yahoo! planned to stream the performance. [295]

On December 28, 2012, the United States Senate approved an emergency Hurricane Sandy relief bill to provide $60 billion for US states affected by Sandy, [296] but the House in effect postponed action until the next session which began January 3 by adjourning without voting on the bill. [297] On January 4, 2013 House leaders pledged to vote on a flood insurance bill and an aid package by January 15. [298] On January 28, the Senate passed the $50.5 billion Sandy aid bill by a count of 62–36. [299] which President Obama signed into law January 29. [300]

In January 2013, The New York Times reported that those affected by the hurricane were still struggling to recover. [301]

In June 2013, NY Governor Andrew Cuomo set out to centralize recovery and rebuilding efforts in impacted areas of New York State by establishing the Governor's Office of Storm Recovery (GOSR). He aimed to address communities' most urgent needs, and to identify innovative and enduring solutions to strengthen the State's infrastructure and critical systems. Operating under the umbrella of New York Rising, GOSR utilized approximately $3.8 billion in flexible funding made available by the U.S. Department of Housing & Urban Development's (HUD) Community Development Block Grant Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR) program to concentrate aid in four main areas: housing, small business, infrastructure, and the community reconstruction. [302]

On December 6, 2013, an analysis of Federal Emergency Management Agency data showed that fewer than half of those affected who requested disaster recovery assistance had received any, and a total of 30,000 residents of New York and New Jersey remained displaced. [303]

In March 2014, Newsday reported, that 17 months after the hurricane people displaced from rental units on Long Island faced unique difficulties due to lack of affordable rental housing and delays in housing program implementations by New York State. Close to 9,000 rental units on Long Island were damaged by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, and Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee in 2011 per the NY State Governor's Office of Storm Recovery (GOSR). [304] New York State officials said that additional assistance would soon be available from the HUD's Community Development Block Grant funds via the New York Rising program. [305] On March 15, 2014, a group of those who remained displaced by the hurricane organized a protest at the Nassau Legislative building in Mineola, New York, to raise awareness of their frustration with the timeline for receiving financial assistance from the New York Rising program. [306]

As of March 2014, the GOSR released a press statement, that the New York Rising Community Reconstruction Program had distributed more than $280 million in payments to 6,388 homeowners for damage from Hurricane Sandy, Hurricane Irene or Tropical Storm Lee. Every eligible homeowner who had applied by January 20, 2014 had been issued a check for home reconstruction, including over 4,650 Nassau residents for over $201 million and over 1,350 Suffolk residents for over $65 million. The State also had made offers over $293 million to buyout homes of 709 homeowners. [307]

Political impact

President Barack Obama and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie talking to storm victims in Brigantine President Barack Obama Tours Storm Damage in New Jersey 7.jpg
President Barack Obama and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie talking to storm victims in Brigantine
'Chris Christie On Post-Sandy Obama Meet- 'I Would Do It Again video from MSNBC in 2017 in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey

Hurricane Sandy sparked much political commentary. Many scientists said warming oceans and greater atmospheric moisture were intensifying storms while rising sea levels were worsening coastal effects. November 2012 Representative Henry Waxman of California, the top Democrat of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, requested a hearing in the lame duck session on links between climate change and Hurricane Sandy. [308] Some news outlets labeled the storm the October surprise of the 2012 United States Presidential election, [309] [310] while Democrats and Republicans accused each other of politicizing the storm. [311]

The storm hit the United States one week before its general United States elections, and affected the presidential campaign, local and state campaigns in storm-damaged areas. New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, one of Mitt Romney's leading supporters, praised President Barack Obama and his reaction to the hurricane, and toured storm-damaged areas of his state with the president. [312] It was reported at the time that Sandy might affect elections in several states, especially by curtailing early voting. [313] The Economist wrote, "the weather is supposed to clear up well ahead of election day, but the impact could be felt in the turnout of early voters." [314] ABC News predicted this might be offset by a tendency to clear roads and restore power more quickly in urban areas. [315] The storm ignited a debate over whether Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney in 2011 proposed to eliminate the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). [316] The next day the Romney campaign promised to keep FEMA funded, but did not explain what other parts of the federal budget it would cut to pay for it. [317] Beyond the election, National Defense Magazine said Sandy "might cause a rethinking (in the USA) of how climate change threatens national security". [318]

In his news conference on November 14, 2012, President Obama said, "we can't attribute any particular weather event to climate change. What we do know is the temperature around the globe is increasing faster than was predicted even 10 years ago. We do know that the Arctic ice cap is melting faster than was predicted even five years ago. We do know that there have been extraordinarily — there have been an extraordinarily large number of severe weather events here in North America, but also around the globe. And I am a firm believer that climate change is real, that it is impacted by human behavior and carbon emissions. And as a consequence, I think we've got an obligation to future generations to do something about it." [319]

On January 30, 2015, days after the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released a post-Sandy report examining flood risks for 31,200 miles (50,210 km) of the North Atlantic coast, President Obama issued an executive order directing federal agencies, state and local governments drawing federal funds to adopt stricter building and siting standards to reflect scientific projections that future flooding will be more frequent and intense due to climate change. [320]

Financial markets impact

Power outages and flooding in the area closed the New York Stock Exchange and other financial markets on both October 29 and 30, a weather-related closure that last happened in 1888. [321] When markets reopened on October 31, investors were relieved that it closed relatively flat that day. A week later, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners Capital Markets Bureau noted a slight uptick in the market (0.8%) and suggested that the negative economic impact of Hurricane Sandy was offset by the expected positive impacts of rebuilding. [322]

Media coverage

As Hurricane Sandy approached the United States, forecasters and journalists gave it several different unofficial names, at first related to its projected snow content, then to its proximity to Halloween, and eventually to the overall size of the storm. Early nicknames included "Snowicane Sandy" [323] and "Snor'eastercane Sandy". [324] [325] The most popular Halloween-related nickname was "Frankenstorm", [326] [327] coined by Jim Cisco, a forecaster at the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. [328] [329] [330] CNN banned the use of the term, saying it trivialized the destruction. [331] [332]

The severe and widespread damage the storm caused in the United States, as well as its unusual merger with a frontal system, resulted in the nicknaming of the hurricane "Superstorm Sandy" by the media, public officials, and several organizations, including U.S. government agencies. [333] [334] [335] [336] [337] [338] [339] This persisted as the most common nickname well into 2013. [340] [341] The term was also embraced by climate change proponents as a term for the new type of storms caused by global warming, [342] [ improper synthesis? ] while other writers used the term but maintained that it was too soon to blame the storm on climate change. [343] [344] Meanwhile, Popular Science called it "an imaginary scare-term that exists exclusively for shock value". [345]

Insurance fraud claims

Thousands of homeowners were denied their flood insurance claims based upon fraudulent engineers' reports, according to the whistleblowing efforts of Andrew Braum, an engineer who claimed that at least 175 of his more than 180 inspections were doctored. [346] [347] As a result, a class-action racketeering lawsuit has been filed against several insurance companies and their contract engineering firms. [348] As of 2015, the Federal Emergency Management Agency planned to review all flood insurance claims. [349]

Baby boom

New Jersey hospitals saw a spike in births nine months after Sandy, causing some to believe that there was a post-Sandy baby boom. The Monmouth Medical Center saw a 35% jump, and two other hospitals saw 20% increases. [350] An expert stated that post-storm births that year were higher than in past disasters. [351]

Retirement of the name

Because of the exceptional damage and deaths caused by the storm in many countries, the name "Sandy" was later retired by the World Meteorological Organization, and will never be used again for a North Atlantic hurricane. [352] The name was replaced with "Sara" as a naming candidate for the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season ("Sara" ended up unused in 2018 and will next be a candidate in 2024). [353]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Michelle Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2001

Hurricane Michelle was the fifth costliest tropical cyclone in Cuban history and strongest of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. The thirteenth named storm and seventh hurricane that year, Michelle developed from a tropical wave that had traversed into the western Caribbean Sea on October 29; the wave had initially moved off the coast of Africa 13 days prior. In its early developmental stages, the depression meandered over Nicaragua, later paralleling the Mosquito Coast before intensifying into tropical storm intensity on November 1; Michelle was upgraded to hurricane strength the following day. Shortly after, rapid intensification ensued within favorable conditions, with the storm's central barometric pressure dropping 51 mbar in 29 hours. After a slight fluctuation in strength, Michelle reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 140 mph (225 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 933 mbar. At roughly the same time, the hurricane began to accelerate northeastward; this brought the intense hurricane to a Cuban landfall within the Bay of Pigs later that day. Crossing over the island, Michelle was weakened significantly, and was only a Category 1 hurricane upon reentry into the Atlantic Ocean. The hurricane later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over The Bahamas on November 5, before being absorbed by a cold front the following day.

Hurricane Gloria Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1985

Hurricane Gloria was the first significant tropical cyclone to strike the northeastern United States since Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and the first major storm to affect New York and Long Island directly since Hurricane Donna in 1960. It was a powerful Cape Verde hurricane that formed during the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season, originating from a tropical wave on September 16 in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. After remaining a weak tropical cyclone for several days, Gloria intensified into a hurricane on September 22 north of the Lesser Antilles. During that time, the storm had moved generally westward, although it turned to the northwest due to a weakening of the ridge. Gloria quickly intensified on September 24, and the next day reached peak winds of 145 mph (230 km/h). The hurricane weakened before striking the Outer Banks of North Carolina on September 27. Later that day, Gloria made two subsequent landfalls on Long Island and later western Connecticut, before becoming extratropical on September 28 over New England. The remnants moved through Atlantic Canada, eventually dissipating on October 2.

1933 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1933 Atlantic hurricane season was the second-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, behind only the 2005 season, with 20 storms forming in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, breaking the record set by 1887. The season also produced highest Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) on record in the Atlantic basin, with a total of 259. The season ran through the summer and the first half of fall in 1933, with activity as early as May and as late as November. A tropical cyclone was active for all but 13 days from June 28 to October 7. The year was surpassed in total number of tropical cyclones by the 2005 season, which broke the record with 28 storms. Tropical cyclones that did not approach populated areas or shipping lanes, especially if they were relatively weak and of short duration, may have remained undetected. Because technologies such as satellite monitoring were not available until the 1960s, historical data on tropical cyclones from this period are often not reliable. Compensating for the lack of comprehensive observation, one hurricane researcher estimates the season could have produced 24 tropical cyclones.

Hurricane Edna Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1954

Hurricane Edna was a deadly and destructive major hurricane that impacted the United States East Coast in September of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. It was one of two hurricanes to strike Massachusetts in that year, the other being Hurricane Carol. The fifth tropical cyclone and storm of the season, as well as the fourth hurricane and second major hurricane, Edna developed from a tropical wave on September 2. Moving towards the north-northwest, Edna skirted the northern Leeward Islands as a tropical depression before turning more towards the west. The depression attained tropical storm status to the east of Puerto Rico and strengthened further to reach hurricane status by September 7. The storm rapidly intensified and reached its peak intensity of 125 mph (205 km/h) north of the Bahamas before weakening to Category 2 status near landfall in Massachusetts on September 11. Edna transitioned into an extratropical cyclone in Atlantic Canada before its remnants dissipated in the northern Atlantic.

Hurricane Belle Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1976

Hurricane Belle was a strong tropical cyclone that caused moderate damage across the East Coast of the United States in August 1976. In late July, a tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa. Traversing the Atlantic Ocean for more than a week, the system eventually consolidated into a tropical depression near the Bahamas on August 6. Remaining nearly stationary for a day, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm on August 7 and a hurricane later that day as it acquired a northwest motion. Formation of an eye accompanied quick intensification and Belle reached its peak the following day with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). The hurricane subsequently turned north and accelerated, skirting the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Early on August 10, Belle made landfall on Long Island, New York, as a minimal hurricane crossing Long Island Sound and hitting the central coast of Connecticut as strong tropical storm. Thereafter, Belle transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over New England before moving over Atlantic Canada. The system turned east while over the north Atlantic and ultimately dissipated on August 15 to the south of Iceland.

Hurricane Juan (1985) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1985

Hurricane Juan was a large and erratic tropical cyclone that looped twice near the Louisiana coast, causing widespread flooding. It was the tenth named storm of the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season, forming in the central Gulf of Mexico in late October. Juan moved northward after its formation, and was subtropical in nature with its large size. On October 27, the storm became a hurricane, reaching maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). Due to the influence of an upper-level low, Juan looped just off southern Louisiana before making landfall near Morgan City on October 29. Weakening to tropical storm status over land, Juan turned back to the southeast over open waters, crossing the Mississippi River Delta. After turning to the northeast, the storm made its final landfall just west of Pensacola, Florida, late on October 31. Juan continued quickly to the north and was absorbed by an approaching cold front, although its moisture contributed to a deadly flood event in the Mid-Atlantic states.

Hurricane Bonnie (1998) Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1998

Hurricane Bonnie was a major hurricane that made landfall in North Carolina, United States, inflicting severe crop damage. The second named storm, first hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, Bonnie developed from a tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on August 14. The wave gradually developed, and the system was designated a tropical depression on August 19. The depression began tracking towards the west-northwest, and became a tropical storm the next day. On August 22, Bonnie was upgraded to a hurricane, with a well-defined eye. The storm peaked as a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, and around the same time, the storm slowed and turned more towards the north-northwest. A large and powerful cyclone, Bonnie moved ashore in North Carolina early on August 27, slowing as it turned northeast. After briefly losing hurricane status, the storm moved offshore and regained Category 1-force winds, although it weakened again on entering cooler waters.

Hurricane Ernesto (2006) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2006

Hurricane Ernesto was the costliest tropical cyclone of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. The sixth tropical storm and first hurricane of the season, Ernesto developed from a tropical wave on August 24 in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Ernesto first affected the northern Caribbean, reaching minimal hurricane status near Haiti before weakening and moving across eastern Cuba as a tropical storm. Despite initial predictions for it to track through the eastern Gulf of Mexico as a major hurricane, Ernesto moved across eastern Florida as a weak tropical storm. After turning to the northeast, it re-intensified and made landfall on August 31 on the North Carolina coast just below hurricane status. Late the next day, Ernesto became extratropical after entering southern Virginia. The remnants spread moisture across the northeastern United States before dissipating over eastern Canada on September 4.

Hurricane Irene Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 2011

Hurricane Irene was a large and destructive tropical cyclone which affected much of the Caribbean and East Coast of the United States during late August 2011. The ninth named storm, first hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season, Irene originated from a well-defined Atlantic tropical wave that began showing signs of organization east of the Lesser Antilles. Due to development of atmospheric convection and a closed center of circulation, the system was designated as Tropical Storm Irene on August 20, 2011. After intensifying, Irene made landfall in St. Croix as a strong tropical storm later that day. Early on August 21, the storm made a second landfall in Puerto Rico. While crossing the island, Irene strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane. The storm paralleled offshore of Hispaniola, continuing to slowly intensify in the process. Shortly before making four landfalls in the Bahamas, Irene peaked as a 120 mph (190 km/h) Category 3 hurricane.

Hurricane Isaac (2012) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2012

Hurricane Isaac was a deadly and destructive tropical cyclone that came ashore in the U.S. state of Louisiana during August 2012. The ninth named storm and fourth hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Isaac originated from a tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on August 16. Tracking generally west, a broad area of low pressure developed along the wave axis the next day, and the disturbance developed into a tropical depression early on August 21 while several hundred miles east of the Lesser Antilles. The system intensified into a tropical storm shortly thereafter, but high wind shear initially prevented much change in strength.

Effects of Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey

New Jersey was severely impacted by Hurricane Sandy, with economic losses to businesses of up to $30 billion. Sandy, the most intense storm of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, formed in the Caribbean Sea north of Panama on October 22, 2012. As it moved northward, the hurricane degenerated into a still-massive extratropical cyclone and made landfall on New Jersey on October 29.

Effects of Hurricane Sandy in New York

New York was severely affected by Hurricane Sandy in 2012, particularly New York City, its suburbs, and Long Island. Sandy's impacts included the flooding of the New York City Subway system, of many suburban communities, and of all road tunnels entering Manhattan except the Lincoln Tunnel. The New York Stock Exchange closed for two consecutive days. Numerous homes and businesses were destroyed by fire, including over 100 homes in Breezy Point, Queens. Large parts of the city and surrounding areas lost electricity for several days. Several thousand people in midtown Manhattan were evacuated for six days due to a crane collapse at Extell's One57. Bellevue Hospital Center and a few other large hospitals were closed and evacuated. Flooding at 140 West Street and another exchange disrupted voice and data communication in lower Manhattan.

Effects of Hurricane Sandy in the Greater Antilles

The Greater Antilles were severely impacted by Hurricane Sandy, whom's effects were spread over five countries, including Jamaica, Haiti, Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, and included at least 120 deaths, primarily on October 24 and 25, 2012. Sandy formed in the central Caribbean Sea south of Jamaica on October 22 as part of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. It later struck Jamaica as an intensifying hurricane and then Cuba as a major hurricane. Total damages equaled up to nearly $3 billion.

Effects of Hurricane Sandy in New England

The effects of Hurricane Sandy in New England in late October 2012 spread as far north as Maine, and included hurricane-force wind gusts.

Effects of Hurricane Sandy in Canada

The effects of Hurricane Sandy in Canada included rainfall and high waves across much of eastern Canada.

Effects of Hurricane Sandy in Maryland and Washington, D.C.

The effects of Hurricane Sandy in Maryland and Washington, D.C. included tropical storm force sustained winds with isolated gusts to hurricane force, plus significant mountain snow and coastal flooding.

References

Informational notes

  1. All damage figures in this table are in the USD amounts of their respective year.

Citations

  1. Kate Sheppard (September 18, 2014). "Report Warns That Superstorm Sandy Was Not 'The Big One'". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  2. Eric Zerkel (October 29, 2014). "Superstorm Sandy Anniversary: Remembering Hurricane Sandy Two Years Later". The Weather Company . Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Blake, Eric S; Kimberlain, Todd B; Berg, Robert J; Cangialosi, John P; Beven II, John L; National Hurricane Center (February 12, 2013). Hurricane Sandy: October 22 – 29, 2012 (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  4. Masters, Jeff. "Will Global Warming Create Larger Hurricanes?". Weather Underground. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  5. "Sandy Brings Hurricane-Force Gusts After New Jersey Landfall". Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 12, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  6. "Hurricane Sandy Grows To Largest Atlantic Tropical Storm Ever". WBZ-TV . Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Diakakis M.; Deligiannakis G.; Katsetsiadou K.; Lekkas E. (2015). "Hurricane Sandy mortality in the Caribbean and continental North America". Disaster Prevention and Management: an International Journal. 24 (1): 132. doi:10.1108/DPM-05-2014-0082.
  8. Cumulative total of death toll by country; see chart.
  9. "Hurricane Sandy storms through Bahamas, Central Florida on alert". Central Florida News 13 . Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  10. "Post-Tropical Cyclone SANDY Update Statement". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  11. "Sandy wreaks havoc across Northeast; at least 11 dead". CNN. October 30, 2012.
  12. "Superstorm Sandy causes at least 9 U.S. deaths as it slams East Coast", CNN
  13. "Eli Manning deals with Superstorm Sandy flooding". National Football League . October 31, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  14. 1 2 Costliest U.S. tropical cyclones tables updated (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  15. "Sandy caused $100M in Canadian insurance claims". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 28, 2012.
  16. 1 2 Robbie Berg; Lixion Avila (October 22, 2012). Tropical Depression Eighteen Discussion Number 1 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  17. Richard Pasch (October 22, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Discussion Number 2 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  18. Jack Beven (October 24, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Discussion Number 7 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  19. Michael Brennan (October 24, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 9 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  20. Todd Kimberlain; James Franklin (October 24, 2002). Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  21. Stacy Stewart; Dave Roberts (October 25, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  22. Michael Brennan (October 25, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 14 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  23. Jack Beven (October 26, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 15 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  24. Jack Beven (October 27, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 19 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  25. Jack Beven (October 27, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Discussion Number 20 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  26. Daniel Brown (October 27, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 21 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  27. Stacy Stewart (October 29, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 25 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  28. Richard Pasch; John Cangialosi (October 29, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 28 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  29. Stacy Stewart (October 29, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 29 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  30. Richard Knabb; James Franklin (October 29, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 30 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  31. Daniel Brown; Dave Roberts (October 29, 2012). Post-Tropical Cyclone Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  32. Daniel Brown; Dave Roberts (October 30, 2012). Post-Tropical Cyclone Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  33. "WPC surface analysis valid for 11/02/2017 at 18 UTC". NOAA's National Weather Service. November 2, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  34. Vergano, Dan (October 30, 2012). "U.S. forecast's late arrival stirs weather tempest". USA Today. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  35. Trenberth, Kevin (March 2012). "Framing the way to relate climate extremes to climate change" (PDF). Climatic Change. 115 (2): 283–290. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0441-5.
  36. 1 2 Andrew C., Revkin (October 28, 2012). "The #Frankenstorm in Climate Context". The New York Times; Dot Earth.
  37. 1 2 3 Trenberth, Kevin. "Hurricane Sandy mixes super-storm conditions with climate change". The Conversation. Retrieved October 29, 2012. The sea surface temperatures along the Atlantic coast have been running at over 3°C above normal for a region extending 800 km off shore all the way from Florida to Canada. Global warming contributes 0.6°C to this. With every degree C, the water holding of the atmosphere goes up 7%, and the moisture provides fuel for the tropical storm, increases its intensity, and magnifies the rainfall by double that amount compared with normal conditions. Global climate change has contributed to the higher sea surface and ocean temperatures, and a warmer and moister atmosphere, and its effects are in the range of 5 to 10%. Natural variability and weather has provided the perhaps optimal conditions of a hurricane running into extra-tropical conditions to make for a huge intense storm, enhanced by global warming influences.
  38. 1 2 3 Masters, Jeff. "Why did Hurricane Sandy take such an unusual track into New Jersey?". Weather Underground. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  39. Fischetti, Mark (October 30, 2012). "Did Climate Change Cause Hurricane Sandy?".
  40. Velasquez-Manoff, Moises (November 9, 2006). "How to keep New York afloat". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on May 5, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  41. Boxall and Neela Banerjee, Bettina (November 4, 2012). "Sandy a galvanizing moment for climate change?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  42. Mason, Edward (November 6, 2012). "Hello again, climate change". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved November 7, 2012."He pointed out that since 2007, melted Arctic ice opened the Northwest Passage, a development that he believes could have a dramatic effect on weather patterns. Last spring's unseasonable warmth caused places like Rochester, Minn., to set record daytime highs. 'By midcentury, this will be the new normal,' Schrag predicted. 'How do you deal with extreme heat in the summer? It's going to be a challenge, but humans are adaptable. It's not going to be easy, just like a 13-foot storm surge will be the new norm on the Eastern seaboard.'"
  43. Robbie Berg; Lixion Avila (October 22, 2012). Tropical Depression Eighteen Advisory Number 1 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  44. Daniel Brown (October 23, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 4 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  45. 1 2 3 Richard Pasch (October 23, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 5 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  46. McFadden, David (October 23, 2012). "Jamaica prepares for Tropical Storm Sandy". Associated Press. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
  47. Richard Pasch (October 22, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 2 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  48. Richard Pasch (October 23, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 5A (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  49. 1 2 Richard Pasch (October 23, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 6 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  50. John Beven II (October 24, 2012). Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 7 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  51. Richard Pasch (October 26, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  52. Associated Press (October 25, 2012). "Forecasters warn East Coast about 'Frankenstorm' next week; damage could top $1 billion". FoxNews.com. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  53. Borenstein, Seth. "East Coast braces for monster 'Frankenstorm'". Associated Press. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  54. Cisco, Jim (October 25, 2012). "Extended Forecast Discussion – Issued 1342Z Oct 25, 2012". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  55. Borenstein, Seth (October 25, 2012). "Forecasters warn East Coast about 'Frankenstorm' next week; damage could top $1 billion". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  56. "Hurricane Sandy: Five Reasons It's a Superstorm". Fox News. Associated Press. October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  57. Day, Patrick Kevin (October 26, 2012). "No 'Frankenstorm' for CNN". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  58. Samenow, Jason (October 28, 2012). "Cause for concern: the 7 most alarming Hurricane Sandy images". Washington Post. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  59. Anderson, Lars (October 25, 2012). "Closely Monitoring Hurricane Sandy". FEMA. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  60. "It's watch and wait as Hurricane Sandy approaches". News.blogs.cnn.com. October 28, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  61. "Hurricane Sandy wreaks havoc on airline flights". The Wall St. Journal. Archived from the original on January 28, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  62. "Hurricane Sandy Flight Cancellations: Thousands Of Flights Canceled Due To Storm". Huffingtonpost.com. October 28, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  63. "Amtrak begins to cancel some service in advance of Hurricane Sandy". Amtrak. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  64. Sullivan, Brian K; Hart, Dan (October 28, 2012). "Hurricane Sandy Barrels Northward, May Hit New Jersey". Bloomberg. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  65. Man, Karl; Smith, Scott T.; Wright, Michele. "UPDATED: Hurricane Sandy closings and cancellations". WPEC-TV. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  66. Gertz, Bill (November 5, 2012). "Russian Sub Skirts Coast". Washington Free Beacon. Center for American Freedom. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  67. Michael Brennan (October 26, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Advisory Number 16 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  68. Richard Pasch (October 26, 2012). Hurricane Sandy Advisory Number 18 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  69. "Perdue declares state of emergency before Sandy arrives". WRAL.com. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  70. "Perdue declares state of emergency for Western NC". WRAL.com. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  71. 1 2 3 4 "Northeast in crosshairs of 'superstorm' Sandy". CNN. October 27, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  72. "National Guard soldiers activated for Hurricane Sandy". Army Times. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  73. "Hurricane Sandy scrambles campaign schedule, Romney cancels Virginia rallies". Fox News. October 27, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  74. "Obama cancels stops in Virginia, Colorado because of storm". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  75. "District Government Prepares for Hurricane Sandy". DC.gov. October 26, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  76. "Pres. Obama Signs D.C. Emergency Declaration". CBS DC . Associated Press. October 28, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  77. "Federal Government Operating Status Washington D.C. Area" . Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  78. Weil, Martin (October 28, 2012). "Metro system to shut down on Monday". Washington Post . Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  79. 1 2 3 4 5 "A state-by-state look at the East Coast superstorm". AP. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  80. "Smith Island Evacuations Under Way". WBOC. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  81. "Dorchester County Offering Shelter During Hurricane Sandy". WBOC. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  82. "O.C. Implementing Phase I of Emergency Operations Plan". WBOC. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  83. 1 2 "Eastern utilities brace for expected super storm". The Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  84. "Obama Signs Maryland Emergency Declaration". WBOC. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  85. "Worcester County Issues Mandatory Evacuations". WMDT. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  86. "Ocean City Declares Local State Of Emergency". WMDT. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  87. Fears, Darryl (October 27, 2012). "Sandy poses environmental threat to Conowingo Dam". Washington Post.
  88. "MTA Suspends Bus & Train Service On Monday; BWI Delaying & Canceling Flights Due To Hurricane Sandy". CBS News Baltimore. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  89. "Insurance Commissioner Issues Emergency Regulation Regarding Prescriptions, Pharmacy Payments". Maryland Insurance Administration. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  90. "Chesapeake Bay Bridge Now Closed". WBOC TV. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  91. 1 2 "Sussex County Update on Hurricane Sandy". WBOC-TV. October 28, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  92. "DelDOT is preparing for a possible major storm". Delaware Department of Transportation. October 26, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
  93. "Delaware roads closed to public after 5 a.m". 6 Action News. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  94. "Tolls Waived on I-95 and Route One". State of Delaware. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  95. "DART & Paratransit Service Suspended Monday". Delaware Department of Transportation. October 28, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
  96. Staff (October 27, 2012). "Ocean County towns issue voluntary evacuations". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  97. "Shore towns issue voluntary evac orders". ABC7. October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  98. Denise DiStephan (October 26, 2012). "Bay Head and Mantoloking Advising Voluntary Evacuations. Mantoloking police department urging residents to leave ahead of Sandy". Point Pleasant Patch. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  99. "Christie Declares State of Emergency; Orders Evacuations In Some Parts of N.J". CBS2. October 27, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  100. "President signs emergency declaration for NJ". Newsday. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  101. "Hoboken mayor announces evacuation of all basements and street-level residences". NewJersey.com. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  102. "Hurricane Sandy: Parts of Logan Township issued evacuation order".
  103. "Sandy makes landfall near Atlantic City; 348K N.J. homes without power". NewsWorks. October 29, 2012. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  104. Stephen Stirling (November 1, 2012). "Experts wonder why hurricane warning was never issued for N.J. as Sandy approached". The Star-Ledger (New Jersey On-Line). Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  105. "Philly Mayor Tells People in Flood-Prone Areas to Leave". NBC 10 Philadelphia. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  106. "Phila. Airport flights to be suspended Monday". 6 Action News. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  107. "Central Pennsylvania prepares for Hurricane Sandy". WITF TV. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  108. 1 2 "NYC shutting down transit, evacuating 375,000". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  109. "Obama Signs Emergency Declaration For State Of New York". CBS News New York. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  110. "Hurricane Sandy forces mass transit closure, evacuations". MyFoxNY. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  111. "3:15 p.m.: 'Tappan Zee Bridge to close at 4; 'Significant' storm surge expected to peak at midnight; Metro-North reports on tracks". lohud.com. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  112. Thomasch, Paul (October 29, 2012). "Two key New York City tunnels closing; bridges open for now: governor". Reuters. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  113. "Nassau County calls for evacuations in coastal areas". WABC TV. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  114. "Evacuations on Long Island ahead of Sandy". WABC TV. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  115. "Nassau Community, Molloy, Hofstra, Adelphi cancel classes". Valley Stream Herald. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  116. Mann, Ted (October 28, 2012). "New York City Subways to Shut Down". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  117. Navarro, Mireya (September 10, 2012). "New York Is Lagging as Seas and Risks Rise, Critics Warn". New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2012. Irene .. one foot short of paralyzing transportation
  118. Caruso, David B. (October 30, 2012). "Crippled NYC subways could hamper storm recovery". Yahoo news. Associated Press. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
  119. 1 2 "New York City schools, transit close ahead of Sandy". WABC TV. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  120. 1 2 3 "Transit Systems, Schools Plan Closings Ahead Of Sandy's Arrival". NY1. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  121. "NYC Evacuation Zones: Bloomberg Orders 'Zone A' Residents to Evacuate". AllMediaNY. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  122. Katie Moisse; Sydney Lupkin (October 30, 2012). "Superstorm Sandy Tests Hospital Preparedness". ABC News. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
  123. "Sandy keeps financial markets closed Tuesday". CBS News. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  124. "Governor Malloy to Partially Activate the State Emergency Operations Center at 8am Saturday". Hurricane Sandy News and Information. CT.gov. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  125. "Gov. Malloy Signs Declaration of Emergency". Hurricane Sandy News and Information. CT.gov. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  126. "Obama approves pre-landfall emergency declaration for Connecticut". The Hour. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  127. "All Connecticut highways closed as Sandy approaches". WABC TV. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  128. "Town-By-Town Evacuations". October 28, 2012. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  129. "Mass. Braces For Hurricane Sandy". WBUR Radio. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  130. "Boston's MBTA to shut down at 2 pm". Boston.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  131. Goswami, Neal. "Vt. in state of emergency ahead of Sandy". The Bennington Banner. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  132. Edwards, Holly. "Gov. LePage signs emergency declaration ahead of Sandy". penbaypilot.com. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  133. 1 2 "Shipping on Great Lakes, flights to East Coast stopped by storm". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  134. "Sandy's Winds And Rain Cause Flood Warnings, Flight And Train Cancellations". CBS News Chicago. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  135. 1 2 Srubas, Paul (October 30, 2012). "Sandy's reach spreads to Wisconsin". Green Bay Press Gazette. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  136. Robbins, John (November 1, 2012). "Superstorm waves cause little damage along Lake Michigan shoreline". Post-Tribune. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012.
  137. 1 2 Srubas, Paul (October 31, 2012). "Wisconsin gets a taste of Sandy's fury". Post-Crescent. Archived from the original on August 24, 2014.
  138. Greenwood, Tom (October 30, 2012). "Shipping on Great Lakes, flights to East Coast stopped by storm". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  139. Kuchera, Steve (October 30, 2012). "Storm slows shipping on Great Lakes". Duluth News Tribune. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  140. "56K without power in SE Michigan, utilities on alert for wind-related outages". Wxyz.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  141. 1 2 "High winds knock out power in parts of Michigan". Clickondetroit.com. October 24, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  142. "Hurricane's winds, rain forcing local changes". WHIO-TV. October 28, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  143. "For travelers, superstorm Sandy's aggravation spans globe". Associated Press. October 30, 2012. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  144. "West Virginia Gov. Earl Ray Tomblin declares state of emergency ahead of storm's full brunt". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  145. 1 2 "Sandy brings snow to Virginia". Washington Post. October 29, 2012. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  146. "Weather – Canadian Hurricane Information Statements". Weatheroffice.gc.ca. July 30, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  147. Thomson, Aly (October 28, 2012). "Heavy rain looms for Ontario and Quebec, plus snow possible early next week". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  148. "Weather Warnings – Environment Canada". Weatheroffice.gc.ca. July 30, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  149. "Southern Quebec – Weather Warnings – Environment Canada". Weatheroffice.gc.ca. July 30, 2012. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  150. "Yarmouth County – Weather Warnings – Environment Canada". Weatheroffice.gc.ca. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  151. "Shelburne County – Weather Warnings – Environment Canada". Weatheroffice.gc.ca. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  152. "Queens County – Weather Warnings – Environment Canada". Weatheroffice.gc.ca. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  153. "Weather Warnings – Environment Canada". Environment Canada. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  154. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "A look at Caribbean deaths and damage from Hurricane Sandy". The Washington Post. Associated Press. October 30, 2012. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  155. 1 2 "Haiti raises death toll from Hurricane Sandy to 54; regional deaths up to 71". Turnquest, Ava. Ellington. January 21, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  156. 1 2 3 "Flying debris kills woman amid Toronto storm". CBC News. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  157. "Sarnia, Ont., hydro worker dies repairing Sandy damage". CBC News. October 31, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  158. 1 2 "Preliminary estimates peg insured damages from "Superstorm" Sandy at $100 million". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013.
  159. 1 2 "'Sandy' deja daños por 2 mil 121 millones de pesos en Cuba". Notimex (in Spanish). El Universal. October 30, 2012. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  160. 1 2 "Beautiful Santiago de Cuba after Sandy". Martinez, Rosa. Havana Times. November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  161. "The Caribbean: Hurricane Sandy Situation Report No. 2 (as of 19 November 2012)" (PDF). United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. ReliefWeb. November 19, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  162. 1 2 Watts, Jonathan (October 30, 2012). "Hurricane Sandy: Haiti in emergency aid plea as disaster piles upon disaster". London: The Guardian. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  163. 1 2 "Haiti storm death toll to 54; up to 71 for region". WAVY.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  164. 1 2 "Early U.S. state government figures estimate economic loss from Sandy at USD30 billion, according to Impact Forecasting catastrophe report". Aon Plc. Sacramento Bee. November 9, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  165. "Haiti struggles to recover after Issac and Sandy". Irish Red Cross. ReliefWeb. November 13, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  166. 1 2 "Haïti : 44 décès en un mois, le choléra en hausse après Sandy". Agence France-Presse (in Spanish). ReliefWeb. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  167. "Jamaica PM says Sandy damage at J$5 billion and climbing". Stabroek News. November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  168. Strauss, Gary; Pesce, Carolyn (October 31, 2012). "Sandy's death toll rises as Northeast begins recovery". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  169. 1 2 "Sandy death toll in US rises to 109; 'there could be more,' Bloomberg warns". NBC News. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
  170. "Weakened hurricane lashes Bahamas after 21 deaths". Associated Press. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  171. "Hurricane Sandy Hits Cuba after Jamaica". Sky News. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  172. "Hurricane Sandy pounds Jamaica, heads toward Cuba". Reuters. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  173. 1 2 "Soggy Jamaica cleaning up after Hurricane Sandy". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  174. Charles and Morgan, Jacqueline and Curtis. "Sandy's death toll climbs to 44 in Haiti". The Miami Herald. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  175. "Hurricane Sandy pounds Jamaica, eyes U.S". CBS. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  176. "65 dead as Hurricane Sandy crosses Caribbean; 'the whole south is under water,' says Haitian PM (with video)". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  177. "Food Crisis, Cholera Feared in Haiti". The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  178. Castillo, Mariano; Almasy, Steve (October 26, 2012). "Sandy kills 11 in Cuba, then batters Bahamas". CNN. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  179. 1 2 Brown, Daniel P; Beven, John L; Franklin, James L; Blake, Eric S (May 1, 2010). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2008*". Monthly Weather Review. American Meteorological Society. 138 (5): 1975–2001. Bibcode:2010MWRv..138.1975B. doi:10.1175/2009MWR3174.1. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  180. "Hurricane Matthew in Cuba causes over 2.5 bln USD in damage". New China. Xinhua. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  181. Pielke, Roger A; Rubiera, Jose; Landsea, Christopher; Fernández, Mario L; Klein, Roberta (August 1, 2003). "Hurricane Vulnerability in Latin America and The Caribbean: Normalized Damage and Loss Potentials" (PDF). Natural Hazards Review. 4 (3): 101–114. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2003)4:3(101). ISSN   1527-6988. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 15, 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  182. Blake, Eric S; Kimberlain, Todd B; Berg, Robert J; Cangialosi, John P; Beven II, John L; National Hurricane Center (February 12, 2013). Hurricane Sandy: October 22 – 29, 2012 (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  183. "Lluvias intensas observadas y grandes inundaciones reportadas" [Heavy rains observed and large reported floods] (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidráulicos. 2003. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  184. 1 2 RA IV Hurricane Committee (August 12, 2005). Twenty-seventh Session (March 31 to April 5, 2005) (PDF) (Final Report). World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  185. "Hurricane Wilma exacts losses of 704 million dollars: Cuban government". ReliefWeb. November 28, 2005. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  186. (now), Alan Yuhas; Weait, Matthew; Farrer, Martin; (earlier), and Martin Pengelly (September 11, 2017). "Hurricane Irma: 10 dead in Cuba as record flooding hits northern Florida – latest updates". The Guardian.
  187. Cuba: Hurricane Irma - Three Month Report (PDF) (Report). ReliefWeb. United Nations. December 15, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  188. Prezioso, Jeanine; Allen, Jonathan. "Hurricane Sandy growing stronger as it nears Cuba". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  189. "Strengthening Hurricane Sandy slams into Cuba". Reuters. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  190. "Cuban state media say 11 deaths in Hurricane Sandy". Atlanta Journal-Constitution . Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  191. "Hurricane Sandy leaves trail of destruction in Cuba". Trust.org. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  192. "Hurricane Sandy rages through Bahamas, after killing 29 in the Caribbean, en route to US coast". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  193. Richard Pasch. Hurricane Sandy Advisory Number 18 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  194. "Btc Post Hurricane Update". The Tribune (Nassau). October 27, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  195. "Hurricane Sandy Spawns a tornado in Bermuda". Bermuda Weather. October 28, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  196. "Daily Climatology Written Summary: October 1, 2012 to October 30, 2012". Bermuda Weather Service. October 2012. Archived from the original on December 16, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  197. Costliest U.S. tropical cyclones tables update (PDF) (Report). United States National Hurricane Center. January 12, 2018. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  198. "Assessing the U.S. Climate in 2018". National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). February 6, 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  199. McCoy, Kevin; Weise, Elizabeth (October 30, 2012). "Sandy leaves millions without power; 16 dead". USA Today. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  200. "Deadliest U.S. Hurricanes of All Time | Weather Underground". Wunderground.com. April 27, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
  201. "Amtrak Northeast Corridor Services Canceled on Monday, October 29". Amtrak. October 28, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  202. "Most Amtrak Service in the Northeast remains Suspended on Tuesday, October 30". Amtrak. October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  203. "Catastrophic flooding hits Northeast as Sandy plows ashore". NBC News. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  204. Mutzabaugh, Ben (November 1, 2012). "Sandy: Flight cancellations push 20,000, but start to ease". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  205. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Hurricane Sandy Situation Report #6" (PDF). United States Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability. October 31, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  206. "Superstorm Sandy: 33 Dead and 8 Million Customers Without Power". ABC News. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  207. 1 2 "Vicious Superstorm Sandy Smashes U.S. Northeast Cities". newswire.com. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  208. "Hurricane Sandy Relief". Direct Relief. April 5, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  209. "Storm Aftermath: Live Updates". New York Times. October 28, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
  210. "Concert to Help Hurricane Sandy Victims Raises $23 Mln". RIA NOVOSTI WEBSITE GROUP. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  211. 1 2 "Is Sandy the second-most destructive U.S. hurricane ever? Or not even top 10?". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  212. "Superstorm Sandy jolted United States". 3 News NZ. April 19, 2013.
  213. 1 2 "Hurricane Sandy Overview". National Weather Service Miami, Florida. November 30, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  214. Veiga, Christina Veiga (October 25, 2012). "Hurricane Sandy forces cancellation of school athletic events in South Florida". Miami Herald . Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  215. Ocean's wrath floods neighborhoods, rips up beaches by David Fleshler and Robert Nolin, South Florida Sun-Sentinel . Published October 28, 2012; retrieved 2012-10-30.
  216. "South Florida cleans up after Sandy". WSVN-TV. October 26, 2012. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  217. "Hurricane Sandy brings rain, strong winds to Central Florida". Click Orlando. October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
  218. "2 boaters rescued near New Smyrna Beach". Central Florida News 13. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  219. "Hurricane Sandy cancels and postpones Brevard and Volusia County football on October 26. games". CFN13. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  220. Wrenn, Eddie (November 2, 2012). "Sandy sets panthers free in Florida after falling tree destroys enclosure". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
  221. "Gov. Perdue Declares State of Emergency for 24 Western Counties". State of NC. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  222. "Hatteras, Ocracoke get worst of Hurricane Sandy in NC". wral.com. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  223. "Hurricane Sandy: CT, NY, NJ And Other East Coast States Assess Region After Deadly Storm". The Huffington Post. November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  224. "Coast Guard Monitors Tall Ship in Distress off NC". ABC News. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  225. "Crew of tall ship off NC abandons ship". The Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  226. "Hurricane Sandy sinks tall ship HMS Bounty". Yahoo News. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  227. 1 2 "SUPERSTORM SANDY SLAMS INTO NEW JERSEY COAST". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  228. "Search halted for missing ship captain after 3 days scouring sea off NC; ship sank in Sandy". The Washington Post. November 1, 2012. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
  229. "Gov. McDonnell: Virginia 'Spared' in Hurricane Sandy Damage". Annandale Patch. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  230. Biskupic, Joan (October 29, 2012). "Supreme Court won't convene on Tuesday due to storm: spokeswoman". Reuters. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  231. "Federal Government Operating Status". United States Office of Personnel Management . Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  232. "Most schools, services resume after storm". Washington Post. October 31, 2012.
  233. "Sandy leaves behind outages, flooded roads". WTOP FM. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  234. "Sandy Damages Pier in Downtown Ocean City" . Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  235. "Md. governor: Bay Bridge closing to traffic". SFGate . Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  236. "Declaration of Civil Emergency" (PDF). City of Salisbury, Maryland. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  237. "Sandy picks up speed, may make landfall in Delaware or southern NJ" . Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  238. "Sandy pummels West Virginia as grueling recovery begins on East Coast". CNN. November 1, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  239. "Sandy picks up speed, may make landfall in Delaware or southern NJ". October 29, 2012. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013.
  240. "President Declares Disaster for Delaware". Archived from the original on November 17, 2012.
  241. "Thousands of people may need to be rescued from New Jersey dam break, Bergen County Police Chief of Staff says". CNN. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  242. "Levee breaks in Northern New Jersey, floods three towns". Reuters. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  243. Osterman, Cynthia (November 16, 2012). "Factbox: Storm Sandy blamed for at least 132 deaths in U.S., Canada". Reuters.
  244. "Hurricane Sandy Fast Facts". CNN. July 13, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  245. 1 2 3 "Philadelphia area highways, bridges shut down". WPVI-TV . October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  246. "Thousands still without power". The Altoona Mirror. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  247. "Death toll from Sandy now 96 in U.S". CNN. November 2, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
  248. "Storm takes a toll on area trees". Democrat and Chronicle . Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  249. "Power outages in the Rochester area". Democrat and Chronicle . Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  250. "Hurricane Sandy closures". New York Post. October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.