New York University

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Coordinates: 40°43′48″N73°59′42″W / 40.73000°N 73.99500°W / 40.73000; -73.99500

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A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Contents

New York University
New York University Seal.svg
Latin: Universitas Neo Eboracensis
MottoPerstare et praestare (Latin)
Motto in English
To persevere and to excel
Type Private [1]
Established1831 [1]
Endowment $4.266 billion (2018) [2]
Budget$11.945 billion (fiscal 2018) [3]
Chairman William R. Berkley [4]
President Andrew D. Hamilton
Provost Katherine E. Fleming [5]
Academic staff
Total: 9,835 (Fall 2018) [6]
(5,723 full-time /
4,112 part-time) [6]
Administrative staff
2,242 [7] [8]
Students51,848 (Fall 2018) [9]
Undergraduates 26,733 (Fall 2018) [9]
Postgraduates 25,115 (Fall 2018) [9]
Location, ,
United States
Campus Urban 230-acre (0.93 km2)
(Manhattan campus) [10]
Colors Purple and White [11]
         
Athletics NCAA Division IIIUAA
Nickname Violets
MascotBobcat
NYU logo.svg

New York University (NYU) is a private research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan. [12] [13] NYU also has degree-granting campuses in Abu Dhabi and Shanghai, and academic centers in Accra, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Florence, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Paris, Prague, Sydney, Tel Aviv, and Washington, D.C. [14] [15] [16]

Private universities are typically not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. This is in contrast to public universities and national universities. Many private universities are non-profit organizations.

A research university is a university that is committed to research as a central part of its mission. It does not matter whether the institution is public or private, or how the research is funded. Such universities have a strong focus on research and often have well known names. Undergraduate courses at many research universities are often academic rather than vocational and may not prepare students for particular careers, but many employers value degrees from research universities because they teach fundamental life skills such as critical thinking. Globally, research universities are predominantly public universities, with notable exceptions being the United States and Japan.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Alumni include heads of state, royalty, eminent scientists, inventors and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, and astronauts. [17] [18] [19] As of July 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, and hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.

<i>Fortune</i> 500 Annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine

The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes publicly held companies, along with privately held companies for which revenues are publicly available. The concept of the Fortune 500 was created by Edgar P. Smith, a Fortune editor, and the first list was published in 1955. The Fortune 500 is more commonly used than its subset Fortune 100 or superset Fortune 1000.

Pulitzer Prize U.S. award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism, literature, and musical composition

The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American (Hungarian-born) Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US$15,000 cash award. The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine scientific national academy for the United States

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine is the collective scientific national academy of the United States. The name is used interchangeably in two senses: (1) as an umbrella term for its three quasi-independent honorific member organizations (the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine ; and as the brand for studies and reports issued by the operating arm of the three academies, the National Research Council. The NRC was first formed in 1916 as an activity of the NAS. Now jointly governed by all three academies, it produces some 200 publications annually which are published by the National Academies Press.

History

Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) by Gilbert Stuart Albert Gallatin (by Gilbert Stuart).jpg
Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) by Gilbert Stuart

Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city ... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". [1] A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university. These New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class.

Albert Gallatin Genevan-American ethnologist, linguist, founder of New York University, politician, diplomat, congressman, Senator and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury

Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin was a Genevan-American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. He was an important leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, serving in various federal elective and appointed positions across four decades. He represented Pennsylvania in the Senate and the House of Representatives before becoming the longest-tenured United States Secretary of the Treasury and serving as a high-ranking diplomat.

Thomas Jefferson Third President of the United States

Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.

James Madison Fourth President of the United States

James Madison Jr. was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, and philosopher. A Founding Father, he served as the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). He is hailed as the Father of the Constitution for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the Constitution of the United States and the United States Bill of Rights. He co-wrote The Federalist Papers, co-founded the Democratic-Republican Party, and served as the fifth United States secretary of State 1801 to 1809.

On April 18, 1831, the institution that would become NYU was established with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants, bankers, and traders. [20] Albert Gallatin was elected as its first president. [21] On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature; older documents often refer to it by that name. The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was officially renamed New York University in 1896. [21] In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. [21] In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was partly a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, [22] NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. [21] American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU.

Merchant businessperson who trades in commodities that were produced by others

A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people. Historically, a merchant is anyone who is involved in business or trade. Merchants have operated for as long as industry, commerce, and trade have existed. In 16th-century Europe, two different terms for merchants emerged: meerseniers referred to local traders and koopman (Dutch: koopman referred to merchants who operated on a global stage, importing and exporting goods over vast distances and offering added-value services such as credit and finance.

Trader (finance) person who buys and sells financial instruments

A trader is a person or entity, in finance, who buys and sells financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities, derivatives, and mutual funds in the capacity of agent, hedger, arbitrageur, or speculator.

Charter Grant of authority or rights

A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority, and that the recipient admits a limited status within the relationship, and it is within that sense that charters were historically granted, and that sense is retained in modern usage of the term.

NYU Building in Washington Square, 1850 New York University Building in Washington Square, 1850.jpg
NYU Building in Washington Square, 1850
The University Heights campus, now home to Bronx Community College Nyuuniheights.jpg
The University Heights campus, now home to Bronx Community College

Soon after its founding it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. [23] NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding. The university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU also had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken. [21] The University Heights campus was far more spacious than its predecessor was. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. [24] In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island". This extension would later become a fully independent Hofstra University. [25]

Washington Square Park Public park in Manhattan, New York

Washington Square Park is a 9.75-acre (39,500 m2) public park in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City. One of the best known of New York City's public parks, it is an icon as well as a meeting place and center for cultural activity. It is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

University Heights, Bronx Neighborhood of the Bronx in New York City

University Heights is a neighborhood of the West Bronx in New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise, are: West Fordham Road to the north, Jerome Avenue to the east, West Burnside Avenue to the south and the Harlem River to the west. University Avenue is the primary thoroughfare in University Heights.

The Bronx Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York, coterminous with Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across the Harlem River; and north of Queens, across the East River.

In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. [26] [27]

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. [28] Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973. [29] In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, [30] which eventually merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, [31] NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign that was spent almost entirely on updating facilities. [32] The campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. [33]

In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. [34] Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents. The league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. [35]

In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent especially on faculty and financial aid resources. [36] Under Sextons leadership, NYU also began its radical transformation into a global university.

In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of labor values for Abu Dhabi campus workers. A 2014 follow-up article found that while some conditions had improved, contractors for the multibillion-endowment university were still frequently subjecting their workers to third-world labor conditions. The article documented that these conditions included confiscation of worker passports, forced overtime, recruitment fees and cockroach-filled dorms where workers had to sleep under beds. According to the article, workers who attempted to protest the NYU contractors' conditions were promptly arrested. [37] Reports also claimed that those arrested by police were later abused at the police station. Many workers who were not local were then deported to their home countries. [38] The university quickly responded to the reports with an apology to the workers. [39] In 2015, NYU compensated thousands of migrant workers on its Abu Dhabi complex. [40]

From 2007 to 2018, NYU experienced a 114% increase in applications to its university system, increasing from around 35,000 applicants to nearly 85,000 in 2019. This has also caused the acceptance rate to drop significantly, with a record-low acceptance rate of 16% in 2019. [41] In parallel to NYU's expansion in the early 1900s, the university similarly expanded vigorously in the early 2000s, becoming the largest private university in the United States with a combined undergraduate/graduate enrollment of over 59,000 students as of 2018.

In August 2018, the New York University School of Medicine announced it would be offering full-tuition scholarships to all current and future students in its MD program regardless of need or merit, making it the only top-10 medical school in the United States to do so. [42]

The university logo, the upheld torch, is derived from the Statue of Liberty, signifying NYU's service to New York City. The torch is depicted on both the NYU seal and the more abstract NYU logo, designed in 1965 by renowned graphic designer Tom Geismar of the branding and design firm Chermayeff & Geismar. There are at least two versions of the possible origin of the university color, violet. Some believe that it may have been chosen because violets are said to have grown abundantly in Washington Square and around the buttresses of the Old University Building. Others argue that the color may have been adopted because the violet was the flower associated with Athens, the center of learning in ancient Greece.

Cultural setting

Washington Square and Greenwich Village have been hubs of cultural life in New York City since the early 19th century. Much of this culture has intersected with NYU at various points in its history. Artists of the Hudson River School, the United States' first prominent school of painters, settled around Washington Square. Samuel F.B. Morse, a noted artist who also pioneered the telegraph and created the Morse Code, served as the first chair of Painting and Sculpture. He and Daniel Huntington were early tenants of the Old University Building in the mid-19th century. (The University rented out studio space and residential apartments within the "academic" building.) As a result, they had notable interaction with the cultural and academic life of the university. [28]

In the 1870s, sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens and Daniel Chester French lived and worked near the Square. By the 1920s, Washington Square Park was nationally recognized as a focal point for artistic and moral rebellion. As such, the Washington Square campus became more diverse and bustled with urban energy, contributing to academic change at NYU. [28] Famed residents of this time include Eugene O'Neill, John Sloan, and Maurice Prendergast. In the 1930s, the abstract expressionists Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, and the realists Edward Hopper and Thomas Hart Benton had studios around Washington Square. In the 1960s the area became one of the centers of the beat and folk generation, when Allen Ginsberg and Bob Dylan settled there. This led to tension with the university, which at the time was in the midst of an aggressive facilities expansion phase. [28] In 1975, the university opened The Grey Art Gallery at 100 Washington Square East, housing the NYU art collection and featuring museum quality exhibitions. [43] [44]

Budget and fundraising

NYU has successfully completed a seven-year, $2.5 billion campaign, surpassing expectations by raising more than $3 billion over the seven-year period. [45] Started in 2001, this campaign was the university's largest in its history, in which they planned to "raise $1 million per day for scholarships and financial aid, faculty building, new academic initiatives, and enhancing NYU's physical facilities". [46] The campaign included a $50 million gift from the Tisch family (after which one building and the art school are named) and a $60 million gift from six trustees called "The Partners Fund", aimed at hiring new faculty. [46] [47] On October 15, 2007 the university announced that the Silver family donated $50 million to the School of Social Work, which will be renamed as a result. [48] This is the largest donation ever to a school of social work in the United States. [49]

The 2007–2008 academic year was the most successful fundraising year to date for NYU, with the school raising $698 million in only the first 11 months of the year, representing a 70% increase in donations from the prior year. [50] The University also recently announced plans for NYU's Call to Action, a new initiative to ask alumni and donors to support financial aid for students at NYU. [51]

The university has announced a 25-year strategic development plan, scheduled to coincide with its bicentennial in 2031. Included in the "NYU 200" plans are increasing resident and academic space, hiring additional faculty, and involving the New York City community in a transparent planning process. Additionally, NYU hopes to make their buildings more environmentally friendly, which will be facilitated by an evaluation of all campus spaces. [52] As a part of this plan, NYU purchased 118 million kilowatt-hours of wind power during the 2006–2007 academic year – the largest purchase of wind power by any university in the country and any institution in New York City. [53] For 2007, the university expanded its purchase of wind power to 132 million kilowatt-hours. [54] As a result, the EPA ranked NYU as one of the greenest colleges in the country in its annual College & University Green Power Challenge. [55]

NYU consistently ranks as one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, raising $506.4 million in 2015 and $648 million in 2016. [56] NYU is also the 19th wealthiest university in America with $5.3 billion in cash and investments in fiscal year 2014. [57]

Campus

The Silver Center c. 1900 Main buildingNYU.JPG
The Silver Center c. 1900

NYU's New York City campus includes more than 171 buildings spread between Manhattan and Brooklyn. [58] [59] Most of the school's buildings in Manhattan are located across a roughly 230-acre (930,000 m2) area bounded by Houston Street to the south, Broadway to the east, 14th Street to the north, and Sixth Avenue (Avenue of the Americas) to the west. The core of NYU consists of buildings that surround Washington Square Park. [60] [61] [62] In addition to its New York campus, NYU has 49 additional buildings overseas located throughout two 'portal' campuses and 12 Global Academic Centers.

With approximately 12,000 undergraduate and graduate residents, [63] NYU had the seventh-largest university housing system in the U.S. as of 2007, and one of the largest among private schools. [64]

Washington Square campus

Washington Square Park, with its gateway arch, is surrounded largely by NYU buildings and plays an integral role in the University's campus life. Central Park Nueva York017.jpg
Washington Square Park, with its gateway arch, is surrounded largely by NYU buildings and plays an integral role in the University's campus life.

Since the late 1970s, the central part of NYU has been its Washington Square campus in the heart of Greenwich Village. The Washington Square Arch is an unofficial symbol of NYU. Until 2007, NYU had held its commencement ceremonies in Washington Square Park, but moved the ceremonies to Yankee Stadium in 2008 because of renovations to Washington Square. [65]

In the 1990s, NYU became a "two square" university by building a second community around Union Square, in close proximity to Washington Square. NYU's Union Square community primarily consists of the priority residence halls of Carlyle Court, Palladium Residence Hall, Alumni Hall, Coral Tower, Thirteenth Street Hall, University Hall, Third North Residence Hall, and Founders Hall. [60]

NYU operates theaters and performance facilities that are often used by the university's music conservatory and Tisch School of the Arts. External productions are also occasionally held in NYU's facilities. The largest performance accommodations at NYU are the Skirball Center for Performing Arts (850 seats) at 566 LaGuardia Place, just south of Washington Square South, and the Eisner-Lubin Auditorium (560 seats) in the Kimmel Center. Recently, the Skirball Center hosted important speeches on foreign policy by John Kerry [66] and Al Gore. [67] The Skirball Center is the largest performing arts facility south of 42nd Street. [68] [69]

Bobst Library

A view of the interior of Bobst NYU's Bobst library-2.jpg
A view of the interior of Bobst

The Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, built between 1967 and 1972, is the largest library at NYU and one of the largest academic libraries in the United States. Designed by Philip Johnson and Richard Foster, the 12-story, 425,000-square-foot (39,500 m2) structure sits on the southern edge of Washington Square Park (at 70 Washington Square South) and is the flagship of an eight-library, 4.5 million-volume system. Bobst Library offers one Multidisciplinary Reference Center, a Research Commons, 28 miles (45 km) of open-stacks shelving, and approximately 2,000 seats for student study. The library is visited by more than 6,800 users each day, and circulates more than one million books annually. [70]

Bobst's Avery Fisher Center for Music and Media is one of the world's largest academic media centers, where students and researchers use more than 95,000 audio and video recordings per year. [71] The Digital Studio offers a constantly evolving, leading-edge resource for faculty and student projects and promotes and supports access to digital resources for teaching, learning, research and arts events. [72]

Bobst Library is also home to many special collections. The Fales Collection houses collections of English and American fiction in the United States, the unique Downtown Collection, documenting the New York literary avante-garde arts scene from the 1970s to the present, and the Food and Cookery Collection, which documents American food history with a focus on New York City. Bobst Library also houses the Tamiment Library, which holds collections in labor history, socialism, anarchism, communism, and American radicalism for scholarly research. Tamiment includes the Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, the Archives of Irish America, the Center for the Cold War and the U.S., and the Frederic Ewen Academic Freedom Center. [73]

Brooklyn campus

Bern Dibner Library of Science and Technology on the Brooklyn campus NYU Poly - Brooklyn, NY - DSC07632.JPG
Bern Dibner Library of Science and Technology on the Brooklyn campus

NYU's Brooklyn campus is located at MetroTech Center, an urban academic-industrial research park. [30] It sits on top of the Jay Street–MetroTech station, is only a few blocks from the Brooklyn Bridge, and is connected to NYU's Manhattan campus via the NYU Shuttle Bus System. [74] [75] It houses the School of Engineering, the Center for Urban Science and Progress and also several of Tisch School of the Arts [76] and Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development's degree programs. [77] The Brooklyn campus also houses NYU's Game Center Open Library, which is the largest collection of games held by any university in the world. [76] In 2014, NYU Langone Medical Center acquired a 125,000 square feet (11,600 m2) healthcare facility in Brooklyn. [78] Quickly following this announcement, NYU announced in 2017 that it would invest over $500 million in the coming years to renovate and expand its Brooklyn campus, including 370 Jay Street, which opened in December 2017. [79]

Other NYC facilities

11 West 42nd Street 11 W42 calendar jeh.JPG
11 West 42nd Street
La Maison Francaise NYU Maison francaise.gif
La Maison Française

The New York University School of Medicine is situated near the East River waterfront at 550 First Avenue between East 30th and 34th Streets. The campus hosts the medical school, Tisch Hospital, and the Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine. [80] Other NYU Centers across the city include NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases and the Bellevue Hospital Center. [81] [82] NYU's Silver School of Social Work (formerly Ehrenkranz School of Social Work) manages branch campus programs in Westchester County at Sarah Lawrence College and in Rockland County at St. Thomas Aquinas College. [83]

In Sterling Forest, near Tuxedo, NYU has a research facility that contains institutes, in particular the Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine. [84] The Midtown Center at 11 West 42nd Street is home to the NYU Schack Institute of Real Estate. The Woolworth Building in the financial district is home to NYU's professional studies and education programs. [85]

NYU has two units located on the Upper East Side. The Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, a discrete entity within NYU, independent of any other school or department of the university, is located on East 84th Street, [86] while the New York University Institute of Fine Arts, a graduate school of art history and fine arts, is located at the James B. Duke Building at 1 East 78th Street. [87]

NYU has international houses on its Manhattan campus, including the Deutsches Haus, La Maison Française, Casa Italiana Zerilli Marimò, the Glucksman Ireland House, the King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center, the Hagop Kevorkian Center, an Africa House and a China House. [88]

Global campuses and sites

Tisch School of the Arts, Asia was NYU's first branch campus abroad. The result of a partnership between Tisch School of the Arts and the Singapore Government, it offered Master of Fine Arts degrees in animation and digital arts, dramatic writing, film and international media producing. The campus opened in fall 2007 with the intention to enroll approximately 250 students. [89] Anticipated enrolment figures were not achieved, financial irregularities were alleged and President Pari Sara Shirazi was dismissed from her post by NYU in November 2011. [90] She subsequently announced her intention to commence legal proceedings against NYU alleging wrongful termination and defamation. [91] In a letter to the Tisch Asia community dated November 8, 2012, Dean Mary Schmidt Campbell announced that the campus would close after 2014 with recruitment and admission of new students suspended with immediate effect. [92] In 2016, three former students of the now defunct Tisch Asia sued NYU. [93] [94]

NYU has a host of foreign facilities used for study away programs, referred to as Global Academic Centers. As of 2012, NYU operates 12 academic sites in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America, including undergraduate academic-year and summer study abroad programs in Accra, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Florence, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Paris, Prague, Sydney, Tel Aviv, and Washington, D.C. [95] [96] One of the most noteworthy is the 57-acre (230,000 m2) campus of NYU Florence Villa LaPietra in Italy, bequeathed by the late Sir Harold Acton to NYU in 1994, that at the time was the largest donation to a university in history. [97]

In spring 2014, NYU opened a new campus in Paris, in the student area of the Quartier Latin, where NYU Law set up an EU Regulatory Policy Clinic taught by Alberto Alemanno and Vincent Chauvet. [98]

Abu Dhabi campus

In fall 2010, NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) opened as the university's first overseas "Portal Campus" with an inaugural class of 150 students. [99] Unlike NYU's other study abroad centers, NYUAD functions as a separate liberal arts college within a university, offering complete degree programs to students admitted directly to NYUAD. NYUAD recruits students from all over the world and describes itself as the "World's Honor College". The main campus for NYUAD is under construction on Saadiyat Island and is scheduled to open in 2014. Until then the school operates from a campus located in downtown Abu Dhabi. [100] The campus construction and operational costs are entirely funded by the Abu Dhabi government. [101]

Shanghai campus

In 2011, NYU announced plans to open another portal campus, New York University Shanghai, for the fall semester of 2013. It was set to have about 3,000 undergraduate students, the majority of whom would be Chinese. It was approved by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China in January 2011. [102] NYU's local partner will be East China Normal University (ECNU). ECNU's president Yu Lizhong will be the chancellor and play a major role in government relations while Jeffrey S. Lehman, former president of Cornell amongst other positions, will serve as vice chancellor and have "free rein in academic affairs". [103]

Residence halls

Washington Square Village, home to NYU faculty and graduate students Washington Square Village Jul 2007.jpg
Washington Square Village, home to NYU faculty and graduate students

NYU houses approximately 12,000 undergraduate and graduate residents, [63] and had the seventh-largest university housing system in the U.S. as of 2007, and one of the largest among private schools. [64] NYU's undergraduate housing system consists of more than 20 residence halls and is governed by the Inter-Residence Hall Council (IRHC), an umbrella student council organization. [63] [104]

Uniquely, many of NYU's residence halls are converted apartment complexes or old hotels. In general, NYU residence halls receive favorable ratings, and some are opulent. Many rooms are spacious and contain amenities considered rare for individual college residence hall rooms, such as kitchens, lavatories, living rooms and common areas. [105] The university operates its own transit system to transport its students by bus to its campus. [106] A few of the Residence Halls are considered to be amongst the nicest in the nation[ citation needed ], being furnished with granite counter-tops, stainless-steel appliances, in-hall gyms, wood flooring, marble bathroom fixtures, large floor lounges, floor to ceiling windows and extensive views of lower and midtown Manhattan.

Undergraduate students are guaranteed housing during their enrollment at NYU and are split into two categories, FYRE (First-Year Residential Experience) and TRUE (The Residential Upperclassmen Experience). Most FYRE halls are located near the Washington Square area. While nearly all TRUE halls are located near the Union Square area, two former residence halls were located in the Financial District and one is still in use in Chinatown. [107] [108] Two residence halls are located in and around the MetroTech Commons, intended to serve NYU's Brooklyn Campus.

In 2007, the National Association of College and University Residence Halls (NACURH) named NYU the National School of the Year for IRHC and NRHH's strong efforts over the past year. In addition, NYU was named the National Program of the Year for UltraViolet Live, the annual inter-hall competition that raises funds for Relay For Life. [109]

Sustainability

NYU has made the greening of its campus a large priority. For example, NYU has been the largest university purchaser of wind energy in the U.S. since 2009. [110] With this switch to renewable power, NYU is achieving benefits equivalent to removing 12,000 cars from the road or planting 72,000 trees. In May 2008, the NYU Sustainability Task Force awarded $150,000 in grants to 23 projects that would focus research and efforts toward energy, food, landscape, outreach, procurement, transportation and waste. [111] These projects include a student-led bike-sharing program modeled after Paris' Velib program with 30 bikes free to students, staff, and faculty. NYU received a grade of "B" on the College Sustainability Report Card 2010 from the Sustainable Endowments Institute. [112]

NYU purchased 118 million kilowatt-hours of wind power during the 2006–2007 academic year – the largest purchase of wind power by any university in the country and any institution in New York City. [53] For 2007, the university expanded its purchase of wind power to 132 million kilowatt-hours. [54]

The EPA ranked NYU as one of the greenest colleges in the country in its annual College & University Green Power Challenge. [55]

NYU 2031

In 2007, NYU created a strategic plan for a six billion dollar 25 year, 6,000,000-square-foot (560,000 m2) expansion scheduled to conclude by the universities bicentennial in 2031. [113] Details of the plan include 2,000,000 sq ft (190,000 m2) of additional on-campus housing and 3,500,000 sq ft (330,000 m2) of modern academic spaces spread between NYU's New York City campuses.

The expansion started in earnest in 2017 with the groundbreaking of 181 Mercer Street, a new multi-purpose building that will act as the flagship athletic facility for NYU, while also accompanying a 350-bed Residence Hall, 58 general purpose classrooms and a 350-seat theater. [114] The roughly 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2), $1.1 billion building is directly adjacent to the south eastern corner of the Washington Square campus and represents a significant focus on the university owner super blocks. Work on the plans second project, 370 Jay Street, a 500,000-square-foot (46,000 m2) addition to the Brooklyn campus is scheduled to conclude in 2019. The building will house 'the digital arts and sciences' such as the Tandon School of Engineering departments of Computer Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering; the Tisch School of the Arts Clive Davis Institute for Recorded Music and Game Center and various other NYU initiatives such as the Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP) and NYU Wireless (5G research). [115]

To date, NYU has confirmed specific construction details for its NYU 2031 plan to the tune of 1,300,000 sq ft (120,000 m2) at a cost of $1.6 Billion with roughly 12 years to go until the universities bicentennial. In order to meet the plans outlined goals on time, the university would have to significantly increase spending, fundraising and construction over the next decade.

Academics

Admissions and financial aid

Global Admission Statistics [116]
Class of20172018201920202021
Applicants56,51666,69472,76076,74680,605
Admits17,96018,70819,54320,41819,233
% Admitted3228272724
Enrolled6,1266,4616,5006,7316,721
Note: Statistics include NYU's global university network.

Admission to NYU is highly selective. For the undergraduate first-year class of 2023, 16% were admitted from an applicant pool of 84,481. Of those admitted, about 6,500 made up the total enrollment for the class, representing 88 countries and all 50 states. Most freshmen have a typical unweighted GPA of 3.7/A (90–95%) and are in the top 10% of their high school graduating class. The median SAT score was 1480 (out of 1600). [41] The student-to-faculty ratio at the New York campus is 10:1, and less than that at the Abu Dhabi and Shanghai campuses. The average scholarship amount awarded to freshmen is over $35,000, and 20% of freshmen received Pell Grants. [117]

As of 2016, NYU's graduate schools have acceptance rates of 1.8% to the School of Medicine, 23% to the School of Business, [118] 28% to the School of Engineering, [119] 29% to the Graduate School of Arts and Science, [120] and 34% to the School of Law. [121]

Average MCAT score of students at the School of Medicine is 36/45, [122] average GMAT score of graduate students at the School of Business is 710/800, [118] and average LSAT score of students at the School of Law is 171/180. [123]

Structure and leadership

NYU Graduate/Professional Schools
College/SchoolEstablished
School of Law 1835
School of Medicine 1841
Tandon School of Engineering 1854
College of Dentistry 1865
Graduate School of Arts and Science 1886
Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development 1890
Stern School of Business 1900
School of Professional Studies 1934
Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service 1938
Rory Meyers College of Nursing 1944
Silver School of Social Work 1960
Tisch School of the Arts 1965
Gallatin School of Individualized Study 1972
Center for Urban Science and Progress 2013
College of Global Public Health 2015
NYU Undergraduate Schools
College/schoolEstablished
College of Arts and Science 1832
Tandon School of Engineering 1854
Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development 1890
Stern School of Business 1900
School of Professional Studies 1934
Rory Meyers College of Nursing 1944
Silver School of Social Work 1960
Tisch School of the Arts 1965
Gallatin School of Individualized Study 1972
Global Liberal Studies 2009
Flags identify NYU buildings around the city. This flag is for the Gallatin School of Individualized Study. NYU-Gallatin School.jpg
Flags identify NYU buildings around the city. This flag is for the Gallatin School of Individualized Study.

NYU is a private, global, non-sectarian and not-for-profit institution of higher education organized into 10 undergraduate schools and 15 graduate/professional schools, with a roughly even split of students between the divisions. [124] Arts and Science is currently NYU's largest academic division. It has three subdivisions: the College of Arts and Science, the Graduate School of Arts and Science, and the Liberal Studies program. [12] The College of Arts and Science and Liberal Studies program are undergraduate divisions, and the former has existed since the founding of NYU. [125]

According to NYU, it has created a 'global network university' with its primary campus, two 'portal' campuses, and 12 academic sites. The 'portal' campuses at NYU Shanghai and NYU Abu Dhabi function as full-fledged colleges, allowing students to study all four years of their undergraduate studies and receive a degree, never having stepped foot on what would be considered NYU's traditional campus in New York. [126] The academic sites at Accra, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Florence, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Paris, Prague, Sydney, Tel Aviv, and Washington, D.C. function as study away sites, allowing students to spend up to a year away from their home campus. NYU, citing a report by the Institute of International Education, asserts that it has sent more students abroad and brought more international students in than any other university for five continuous years. [127]

The President of New York University, is selected by the Board of Trustees and serves as the primary executive officer of the university for an unspecified term length. On March 18, 2015, Andrew D. Hamilton became the 16th and current President of NYU. [128] His administration's current objectives include measures of strengthening NYU's science and engineering departments, expanding diversity and inclusionary practices, maintaining its status as a global university and attempting to make the university broadly more affordable. [129]

Research

NYU manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. In 2017, NYU received $917 million in research grants from the National Science Foundation alone. [130] NYU School of Medicine received $305 million in external research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2014. NYU was granted 90 patents in 2014, the 19th most of any institution in the world. [131] NYU owns the fastest supercomputer in New York City. [132] As of 2016, NYU hardware researchers and their collaborators enjoy the largest outside funding level for hardware security of any institution in the United States, including grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Naval Research, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the United States Army Research Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the Semiconductor Research Corporation, and companies including Boeing, Microsoft, and Google. [133]

Rankings

University rankings
National
ARWU [134] 22
Forbes [135] 35
Times/WSJ [136] 31 [137]
U.S. News & World Report [138] 29
Washington Monthly [139] 107
Global
ARWU [140] 30
QS [141] 39
Times [142] 27
U.S. News & World Report [143] 28
School rankings
2019 U.S. News & World Report Rank [144]

Business12
Education7
Engineering40
Law6
Medicine: Primary Care44
Medicine: Research9
Nursing: Doctorate22
Nursing: Master's12

Nationally, NYU is ranked 20th in the Center for World University Rankings, [145] 17th by QS World University Rankings , [146] 22nd in the Academic Ranking of World Universities , 27th by Business Insider , [147] and 29th by U.S. News & World Report .

Globally, NYU is ranked 25th in the Center for World University Rankings, [145] 16th in International Colleges and Universities, [148] 32nd in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 27th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings , [149] and 39th in the QS World University Rankings. Additionally, NYU is ranked 26th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings Reputation Rankings. [150]

U.S. News & World Report ranks NYU's graduate schools 6th for law, 6th for public policy, 9th for math (1st for applied math [151] ), 10th for Occupational therapy under Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, 10th for business, 11th for economics, 12th for political science, 12th for medical school research, 13th for education, 12th for nursing, 27th for physical therapy, 29th for computer science, 30th for psychology, and 45th for engineering. [152]

Globally, NYU's social sciences are ranked 8th by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, [153] 15th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, [154] and 16th by the QS World University Rankings. [155] NYU is globally ranked 11th for psychology by the QS World University Ranking. [156] The Social Psychology Network ranks NYU 5th for industrial/organizational psychology, 14th for clinical psychology, [157] and U.S. News & World Report ranks NYU 9th for social psychology and 9th for behavioral neuroscience. [158]

U.S. News & World Report ranks the New York University School of Law 1st for tax law and 1st for international law. The publication also ranks The Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service 6th in public policy. [159] The NYU Department of Philosophy is globally ranked 1st by The Philosophical Gourmet Report [160] and the QS World University Rankings. [161] NYU is ranked 1st for New Ivies by college resource guide Unigo. [162] In 2006, NYU was named by Kaplan as one of the "New Ivies". [163] The annual Global Employability Survey in The New York Times ranks NYU 11th nationally and 29th globally for employability. [164] [165] For four consecutive years NYU has been ranked as America's "#1 dream school" by the Princeton Review. [166] NYU is consistently ranked as a "Top 10 Dream College" for both parents and students according to The Princeton Review. Alongside Stanford University, Harvard College, Princeton University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, NYU is one of few universities to regularly appear in the top 10 list for both parents and students. [167] NYU ranks 19th in the world based on the number of patents generated. [168]

Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 5th among universities with the highest number of alumni worth $30 million or more, and 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. [169] [170] [171] [172]

Student life

Student government

The Student Government Assembly (SGA) is the governing student body at NYU. The SGA has been involved in controversial debates on campus, including a campus-wide ban on the sale of Coca-Cola products in 2005, and the Graduate Student Organizing Committee unionization in 2001 and subsequent strike in 2005. [173] [174] [175] [176] This ban was lifted by the University Senate on February 5, 2009. [177] SGA consists of 75 voting members from subsidiary student government organs including the Student Senators Council (SSC) and the Presidents Council, which are elected from their respective individual undergraduate and graduate colleges.

In 2018, the structure of the universities student government was called into question by numerous students through school newspapers and social media pages calling for "sweeping changes to its byzantine structure." Advocates claimed the structure of SGA failed to represent all students, wasted university funds and operated in an undemocratic manner. Opponents claimed that advocates were merely motivated by legislation supporting the BDS movement that was likely to pass. [178]

Student organizations

A bus system transports students to and from the far ends of campus. AcademyBus2145NYU.jpg
A bus system transports students to and from the far ends of campus.

NYU has over 450 student clubs and organizations on campus. [179] In addition to the sports teams, fraternities, sororities, and study clubs, there are many organizations on campus that focus on entertainment, arts, and culture. These organizations include various student media clubs: for instance, the daily student newspaper the Washington Square News , the NYU Local daily blog, The Plague comedy magazine, "Washington Square Local web-based satire news source, and the literary journals Washington Square Review and The Minetta Review, as well as student-run event producers such as the NYU Program Board and the Inter-Residence Hall Council. It also operates radio station WNYU-FM 89.1 with a diverse college radio format, transmitting to the entire New York metropolitan area from the original campus, and via booster station WNYU-FM1 which fills in the signal in lower Manhattan from atop one of the Silver Towers, next to the football field at the Washington Square campus. [180] [181]

The New York University Mock Trial team is consistently ranked as one of the best collegiate mock trial teams in the country. NYU has qualified for the National Championship Tournament for 10 consecutive seasons and placed in the top 10 during each of those years. In the 2009–2010 season, NYU won the 26th National Championship Tournament in Memphis over rival Harvard. [182] The following season, they qualified for the final round once more only to be the runners-up to UCLA. [183] In the American Mock Trial Association's 2015–2016 power rankings, NYU ranks third, behind Harvard and Yale. [184]

During the University Heights era, an apparent rift evolved with some organizations distancing themselves from students from the downtown schools. The exclusive Philomathean Society operated from 1832 to 1888 (formally giving way in 1907 and reconstituted into the Andiron Club). Included among the Andiron's regulations was "Rule No.11: Have no relations save the most casual and informal kind with the downtown schools". [185] The Eucleian Society, rival to the Philomathean Society, was founded in 1832. The Knights of the Lamp was a social organization founded in 1914 at the School of Commerce. This organization met every full moon and had a glowworm as its mascot. [186] The Red Dragon Society, founded in 1898, is thought to be the most selective society at NYU. In addition, NYU's first yearbook was formed by fraternities and "secret societies" at the university. [187]

NYU has traditions which have persisted across campuses. Since the beginning of the 20th century initiation ceremonies have welcomed incoming NYU freshmen. At the Bronx University Heights Campus, seniors used to grab unsuspecting freshmen, take them to a horse-watering trough, and then dunk them head-first into what was known colloquially as "the Fountain of Knowledge". This underground initiation took place until the 1970s. [188] Today freshmen take part in university-sponsored activities during what is called "Welcome Week". [189] In addition, throughout the year the university traditionally holds Apple Fest (an apple-themed country fest that began at the University Heights campus), the Violet Ball (a dance in the atrium of Bobst Library), Strawberry Fest (featuring New York City's longest Strawberry Shortcake), and the semi-annual midnight breakfast where Student Affairs administrators serve free breakfast to students before finals. [190]

Students publish a campus comedy magazine, The Plague. Like many college humor magazines, this often pokes fun at popular culture as well as campus life and the idiosyncrasies of New York University. [191] The Plague was founded in 1978 [192] by Howard Ostrowsky along with Amy Burns, John Rawlins, Joe Pinto and Dan Fiorella, [193] and is currently published once per semester. [194] It is not NYU's first humor magazine, as The Medley was a humor magazine published by the Eucleian Society from 1913 to 1950. [191]

Greek life

Some of the first fraternities in the country were formed at NYU. [195] [196] Greek life first formed on the NYU campus in 1837 when Psi Upsilon chartered its Delta Chapter. [195] The first fraternities at NYU were social ones. With their athletic, professional, intellectual, and service activities, later groups sought to attract students who also formed other groups. Since then, Greek letter organizations have proliferated to include 25 social fraternities and sororities. As of 2014, approximately 13% of NYU students are members of fraternities or sororities. [197]

Four governing boards oversee Greek life at the university. The Interfraternity Council (IFC) has jurisdiction over all twelve recognized fraternities on campus. Eight sororities are under the jurisdiction of the Panhellenic Council (PhC), which features seven national sororities (ΔΦΕ, ΑΕΦ, ΑΣΤ, ΠΒΦ, ΚΚΓ, ΖΤΑ, ΔΓ) and two local sororities (ΑΦΖ and ΘΦΒ). Five multicultural organizations maintain membership in the Multicultural Greek Council (MGC), including two fraternities and three sororities. All three of the aforementioned boards are managed under the auspices of the Inter-Greek Council. [198]

Greek organizations have historical significance at NYU. Delta Phi Epsilon, Zeta Psi, Alpha Epsilon Pi, Tau Delta Phi, [199] Alpha Kappa Psi and Delta Sigma Pi were founded at NYU. Zeta Psi was chartered in 1847, [196] Delta Sigma Pi in 1907, [200] Alpha Epsilon Pi in 1913, [201] and Alpha Phi Omega in 1938. [202] Delta Phi Epsilon was founded in 1917. [203] The NYU Gamma chapter of Delta Phi, founded in 1841, is the longest continuously active fraternity chapter in the world, having never gone inactive since its establishment. Delta Phi is also the oldest continuously active fraternity in the United States, being the only organization in the original Union Triad to remain active since its institute. [204] The NYU Gamma chapter of Zeta Beta Tau is the oldest active ΖΒΤ chapter in the country. [205]

ROTC

NYU does not have an ROTC program on campus. However, NYU students may participate in the U.S. Army ROTC program through NYC Army ROTC, headquartered at Fordham University. [206]

Athletics

NYU's sports teams are referred to as the NYU Violets, the colors being the trademarked hue "NYU Violet" and white. Since 1981, the school mascot has been a bobcat, whose origin can be traced back to the abbreviation then being used by the Bobst Library computerized catalog—short: Bobcat. [207] NYU's sports teams include baseball, men's and women's varsity basketball, cross country, fencing, golf, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, volleyball, and wrestling. [208] Most of NYU's sports teams participate in the NCAA's Division III and the University Athletic Association, while fencing and ice hockey participate in Division I. [209] [210] [211] While NYU has had All-American football players, the school has not had a varsity football team since 1952. [212]

NYU students also compete in club and intramural sports, including badminton, baseball, basketball, crew, cycling, equestrianism, ice hockey, lacrosse, martial arts, rugby, softball, squash, tennis, triathlon, and ultimate. The Palladium Athletic Facility serves as the home base of NYU's Varsity and Club intercollegiate athletic teams, while NYU's 404 and Brooklyn athletic facilities offer additional space for the NYU fitness community. Many of NYU's varsity teams play their games at various facilities and fields throughout Manhattan because of the scarcity of space for playing fields near campus. NYU is currently in the process of building a new billion dollar flagship athletic facility known as 181 Mercer Street. When complete, the new home of NYU Athletics will host a six-lane swimming pool, four full basketball courts, a complete in-door running track and other sports related offerings.

Faculty and alumni

NYU has 470,000 living alumni as of 2015. [213] At least 37 Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with NYU. NYU is associated with a great number of important inventions and discoveries. For example, cardiac defibrillator and artificial cardiac pacemaker (Barouh Berkovits), closed-chest cardiac defibrillator (William B. Kouwenhoven), laser (Gordon Gould), atom bomb (Frederick Reines), polio vaccine (Albert Sabin), RFID (Mario Cardullo), telephone handset (Robert G. Brown), wireless microphone (Hung-Chang Lin), first digital image scanner (Russell A. Kirsch), television (Benjamin Adler), light beer (Joseph Owades), non-stick cookware (John Gilbert), [214] black hole thermodynamics (Jacob Bekenstein), polymer science (Herman Francis Mark), microwave (Ernst Weber), X-ray crystallography (Paul Peter Ewald), barcode (Jerome Swartz), structure of the DNA (Francis Crick), tau lepton (Martin Lewis Perl), processes for creating food coloring, decaffeination and sugar substitute (Torunn Atteraas Garin), processes for the mass production of penicillin (Jasper H. Kane), X-ray generator and rotational radiation therapy (John G. Trump), nuclear reactor and hydrogen bomb (John Archibald Wheeler), and contact lenses (Norman Gaylord), among many others. Alumnus Fred Waller who invented Cinerama and the Waller Gunnery Trainer, also obtained the first patent for a water ski. The first patents for touch screen cash machine (Richard J. Orford), [215] [216] and zoom lens (Leonard Bergstein), [217] were also obtained by NYU alumni.

Some of the most prolific inventors in American history are NYU alumni, for example Jerome H. Lemelson whose 605 patents involved the cordless telephone, fax machine, videocassette recorder and camcorder, among others; Samuel Ruben whose inventions include electric battery; James Wood who invented cable-lift elevator, fabricated the steel cables for the Brooklyn Bridge and contributed to the development of lockmaking, submarine, electric generator, electric motor, transformer and the design of the refrigerator; and Albert Macovski whose innovations include the single-tube color camera and real-time phased array imaging for ultrasound. NYU is the birthplace of the tractor beam and 5G. [218] Before and during World War II, NYU's Tandon School of Engineering worked on problems whose solution led to the development of radar, and later broke ground in electromagnetic theory, electronics in general, and solved re-entry problems of the manned space capsules, [219] as well as helped develop and design the NASDAQ Automated Quote System and trading floors. [220] Developer of the early telephone systems in the United States Bancroft Gherardi Jr., developer of the submarine communications facilities Jack M. Sipress, inventor of Italy's first computer Mario Tchou, designer of the Panama Canal locks Henry C. Goldmark, designer of the Pentagon Hugh John Casey, designer of the Apollo Lunar Module Thomas J. Kelly, as well as the designer of virtually every major bridge in New York City from the George Washington to the Verrazano, Leopold Just, [221] are also NYU alumni.

Many of the world's most renowned companies, such as IBM (Charles Ranlett Flint), Twitter (Jack Dorsey), Bloomberg L.P. (Charles Zegar), Jacobs Engineering Group (Joseph J. Jacobs), Hudson Group (Robert B. Cohen), MTV (Tom Freston), Barnes & Noble (Leonard Riggio), Northrop Grumman (William T. Schwendler), Automatic Data Processing (Henry Taub), Duracell (Samuel Ruben), Bugle Boy (William C. W. Mow), Virgin Mobile USA (Dan Schulman), among many others, were founded or co-founded by NYU alumni. Likewise, many of the world's most famous companies were either owned or led by NYU alumni. For example, Lockheed Martin (Robert J. Stevens), Xerox (Ursula Burns), Yahoo! (Alfred Amoroso), TPV Technology (Jason Hsuan), 20th Century Fox (Marvin Davis), BAE Systems Inc (Mark Ronald), AECOM (John Dionisio), Pfizer (John Elmer McKeen), Ingersoll Rand (Herbert L. Henkel), General Motors (Alfred P. Sloan), Sears (Arthur C. Martinez), The New York Times (Spencer Trask), Stanley Black & Decker (John Trani), American International Group (Harvey Golub), American Express (Edward P. Gilligan), Qwest (Joseph Nacchio), Chase Bank (Walter V. Shipley), CBS (Laurence Alan Tisch), Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (Charles A. Heimbold, Jr.), Citigroup (Robert I. Lipp), Morgan Stanley (Robert A. Kindler), Marvel Entertainment (John Turitzin), ConocoPhillips (John Carrig), Deloitte (Barry Salzberg), Sony Pictures Entertainment (Peter Guber), GQ (Steven Florio), Viacom (Thomas E. Dooley), Liberty Media (John C. Malone), Verizon (Lawrence Babbio Jr.) and Chemtura (Vincent A. Calarco). Pioneer of Silicon Valley, Eugene Kleiner, [222] and World Trade Center site owner, Larry Silverstein, are also alumni of NYU.

The following are examples of some of the many notable members of some of the many notable graduating classes: class of 1941, which graduated three later Nobel Prize laureates (Julius Axelrod, Gertrude B. Elion and Clifford Shull), Olympic Gold Medalist John Woodruff, sportscaster Howard Cosell, former dean of Duke University's School of Engineering Walter J. Seeley and sociologist Morris Janowitz; 1951 included professor emeritus at MIT and former DARPA director Jack Ruina, former chair of the Computer Science Department at University of California, Berkeley Martin H. Graham and Cathleen Synge Morawetz, first woman recipient of National Medal of Science; 1957 included Pulitzer Prize winning author Frank McCourt, former dean of Northwestern University's School of Engineering and Applied Science Bruno A. Boley and former president of Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Josef Singer; 1964 included former Chief Engineer of NASA Johnson Space Center Jay Greene, Turing Award winner Judea Pearl, former Cooper Union Engineering School Dean and the first female dean of an engineering school in the United States Eleanor K. Baum, former chair of the Division of Engineering and Applied Science at California Institute of Technology K. Mani Chandy, former Vice Provost and Dean of Research at Stanford University Arthur Bienenstock, former head of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Jeffrey P. Freidberg, former scientist of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the first space tourist to fund his own trip into space Dennis Tito, former Commissioner of the National Football League (NFL) Paul Tagliabue, and film director Martin Scorsese; 1974 included astronaut and Senior Advisor for Engineering Development at NASA Langley Research Center Charles Camarda, chairman of the chemical engineering department at Johns Hopkins University Jerome Gavis, United States Navy Captain and astronaut Lee Morin and astronaut and NASA Space Flight Medalist Paolo Nespoli; and 1977 included: former Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan; IRS Commissioner Mark Everson; former INSEAD Dean Gabriel Hawawini; [223] Pulitzer, Oscar and Tony Award winner John Patrick Shanley; NHL Commissioner Gary Bettman; NASDAQ CEO Robert Greifeld; Ma Ying-jeou president of Taiwan; Guillermo Endara president of Panama, Clive Davis music industry executive, and Cathy Minehan, Federal Reserve Chairman Boston.

NYU has been portrayed in books, movies and television shows, and the campus of NYU has been the backdrop for a number of different books and movies.

See also

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City College of New York senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY) in New York City

The City College of the City University of New York is a public senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY) in New York City. Founded in 1847, City College was the first free public institution of higher education in the United States. It is the oldest of CUNY's 24 institutions of higher learning, and is considered its flagship college.

The New York University Leonard N. Stern School of Business is the business school of New York University. It is also a founding member of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Established as the School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance in 1900, the school changed its name in 1988 in honor of Leonard N. Stern, an alumnus and benefactor of the school. One of the most prestigious business schools in the world, it is also one of the oldest. The school is located on NYU's Greenwich Village campus next to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Its alumni include some of the wealthiest in the world, as well as top business leaders and executives.

History of New York University

The history of New York University begins in the early 19th century. A group of prominent New York City residents from the city's landed class of merchants, bankers, and traders established NYU on April 18, 1831. These New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based on merit, not birthright or social class. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury under Thomas Jefferson, described his motivation in a letter to a friend: "It appeared to me impossible to preserve our democratic institutions and the right of universal suffrage unless we could raise the standard of general education and the mind of the laboring classes nearer to a level with those born under more favorable circumstances." To the school's founders, the classical curriculum offered at American colonial colleges needed to be combined with a more modern and practical education. Educators in Paris, Vienna, and London were beginning to consider a new form of higher learning, where students began to focus not only on the classics and religion, but also modern languages, philosophy, history, political economy, mathematics, and physical science; so students might become merchants, bankers, lawyers, physicians, architects, and engineers. Although the new school would be non-denominational – unlike many American colonial colleges, which at the time offered classical educations centered on theology – the founding of NYU was also a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College.

The urban campus of New York University (NYU) is located in Manhattan, and is around Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village, and also is in MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn. NYU is one of the top three largest landowners in New York City.

New York University Abu Dhabi is a portal campus of New York University serving as a fully integrated liberal arts and science college, located in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Together with New York University in New York City and New York University Shanghai, the portal campus is part of NYU's Global Network University. It opened in 2008 at a temporary site for conferences and cultural events. The academic program opened in September 2010 at the university's provisional downtown site and was later moved in 2014 to the permanent campus built on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi.

New York University Shanghai college jointly established by NYU and East China Normal University

New York University Shanghai is jointly established by New York University and East China Normal University of Shanghai. It is the first American college to receive independent registration status from China's Ministry of Education. While classes are in English, some proficiency in Chinese is required for graduation.

New York University Libraries library system serving New York University

New York University Division of Libraries is the library system of New York University (NYU), located on the university's global campus, but primarily in the United States. It is one of the largest university libraries in the United States. The NYU Libraries hold nearly 10 million volumes and comprises five main libraries in Manhattan and one each in Brooklyn, Abu Dhabi and Shanghai. Its flagship, the Elmer Holmes Bobst Library on Washington Square, receives 2.6 million visits annually. Around the world the Libraries offers access to about 10 million electronic journals, books, and databases. NYU's Game Center Open Library in Brooklyn is the largest collection of games held by any university in the world.

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Further reading