American Chemical Society

Last updated

American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society logo.svg
FormationApril 6, 1876;145 years ago (1876-04-06)
Type Scientific society
Legal status 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization
HeadquartersWashington, D.C.
  • United States
more than 155,000
H. N. Cheng
Key people
Thomas M. Connelly (Executive Director & CEO) [1]
Budget (2016 [2] )
US$528 million

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. Founded in 1876 at New York University, the ACS currently has more than 155,000 members at all degree levels and in all fields of chemistry, chemical engineering, and related fields. It is one of the world's largest scientific societies by membership. [3] The ACS is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization and holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., and it has a large concentration of staff in Columbus, Ohio.


The ACS is a leading source of scientific information through its peer-reviewed scientific journals, national conferences, and the Chemical Abstracts Service. Its publications division produces over 60 scholarly journals including the prestigious Journal of the American Chemical Society , as well as the weekly trade magazine Chemical & Engineering News . The ACS holds national meetings twice a year covering the complete field of chemistry and also holds smaller conferences concentrating on specific chemical fields or geographic regions. The primary source of income of the ACS is the Chemical Abstracts Service, a provider of chemical databases worldwide.

The ACS has student chapters in virtually every major university in the United States and outside the United States as well. [4] These student chapters mainly focus on volunteering opportunities, career development, and the discussion of student and faculty research. [5]

The organization also publishes textbooks, administers several national chemistry awards, provides grants for scientific research, and supports various educational and outreach activities.


American Chemical Society headquarters in Washington, D.C. American Chemical Society Building.JPG
American Chemical Society headquarters in Washington, D.C.


In 1874, a group of American chemists gathered at the Joseph Priestley House to mark the 100th anniversary of Priestley's discovery of oxygen. Although there was an American scientific society at that time (the American Association for the Advancement of Science, founded in 1848), the growth of chemistry in the U.S. prompted those assembled to consider founding a new society that would focus more directly on theoretical and applied chemistry. Two years later, on April 6, 1876, during a meeting of chemists at the University of the City of New York (now New York University) the American Chemical Society was founded. [6] The society received its charter of incorporation from the State of New York in 1877. [7]

Charles F. Chandler, a professor of chemistry at Columbia University who was instrumental in organizing the society said that such a body would "prove a powerful and healthy stimulus to original research, … would awaken and develop much talent now wasting in isolation, … [bring] members of the association into closer union, and ensure a better appreciation of our science and its students on the part of the general public." [6]

Although Chandler was a likely choice to become the society's first president because of his role in organizing the society, New York University chemistry professor John William Draper was elected as the first president of the society because of his national reputation. Draper was a photochemist and pioneering photographer who had produced one of the first photographic portraits in 1840. [6] Chandler would later serve as president in 1881 and 1889. [8]

In the ACS logo, originally designed in the early 20th century by Tiffany's Jewelers and used since 1909, [9] a stylized symbol of a kaliapparat is used. [10]


The Journal of the American Chemical Society was founded in 1879 to publish original chemical research. It was the first journal published by ACS and is still the society's flagship peer-reviewed publication. In 1907, Chemical Abstracts was established as a separate journal (it previously appeared within JACS), which later became the Chemical Abstracts Service, a division of ACS that provides chemical information to researchers and others worldwide. Chemical & Engineering News is a weekly trade magazine that has been published by ACS since 1923. [7]

The society adopted a new constitution aimed at nationalizing the organization in 1890. [7] In 1905, the American Chemical Society moved from New York City to Washington, D.C. ACS was reincorporated under a congressional charter in 1937. It was granted by the U.S. Congress and signed by president Franklin D. Roosevelt. [7] [11] ACS's headquarters moved to its current location in downtown Washington in 1941. [7]



ACS first established technical divisions in 1908 to foster the exchange of information among scientists who work in particular fields of chemistry or professional interests. Divisional activities include organizing technical sessions at ACS meetings, publishing books and resources, administering awards and lectureships, and conducting other events. The original five divisions were 1) organic chemistry, 2) industrial chemists and chemical engineers, 3) agricultural and food chemistry, 4) fertilizer chemistry, and 5) physical and inorganic chemistry. [7]

As of 2016, there are 32 technical divisions of ACS. [12]

Division of Organic Chemistry

This is the largest division of the Society. It marked its 100th Anniversary in 2008. [45] [46] The first Chair of the Division was Edward Curtis Franklin. [47] The Organic Division played a part in establishing Organic Syntheses, Inc. and Organic Reactions, Inc. and it maintains close ties to both organizations.

The Division's best known activities include organizing symposia (talks and poster sessions) at the biannual ACS National Meetings, for the purpose of recognizing promising Assistant Professors, talented young researchers, outstanding technical contributions from junior-level chemists, [48] in the field of organic chemistry. The symposia also honor national award winners, including the Arthur C. Cope Award, Cope Scholar Award, James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry, Herbert C. Brown Award for Creative Research in Synthetic Methods.

The Division helps to organize symposia at the international meeting called Pacifichem [49] [50] and it organizes the biennial National Organic Chemistry Symposium (NOS) which highlights recent advances in organic chemistry [51] and hosts the Roger Adams Award address. The Division also organizes corporate sponsorships to provide fellowships for PhD students [52] [53] and undergraduates. [54] It also organizes the Graduate Research Symposium [55] and manages award and travel grant programs for undergraduates.

Local sections

Local sections were authorized in 1890 and are autonomous units of the American Chemical Society. They elect their own officers and select representatives to the national ACS organization. Local sections also provide professional development opportunities for members, organize community outreach events, offer awards, and conduct other business. [7] The Rhode Island Section was the first local section of ACS, organized in 1891. [56] There are currently 186 local sections of the American Chemical Society in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. [57]

International Chemical Sciences Chapters

International Chemical Sciences Chapters allow ACS members outside of the U.S. to organize locally for professional and scientific exchange. [58] There are currently 24 International Chemical Sciences Chapters. [59]

Educational activities and programs

Chemical education and outreach

ACS states that it offers teacher training to support the professional development of science teachers so they can better present chemistry in the classroom, foster the scientific curiosity of our nation's youth and encourage future generations to pursue scientific careers. As of 2009, Clifford and Kathryn Hach donated $33 million to ACS, to continue the work of the Hach Scientific Foundation in supporting high school chemistry teaching. [72]

The Society sponsors the United States National Chemistry Olympiad (USNCO), a contest used to select the four-member team that represents the United States at the International Chemistry Olympiad (IChO). [73] [74]

The ACS Division of Chemical Education provides standardized tests for various subfields of chemistry. [75] [76] The two most commonly used tests are the undergraduate-level tests for general and organic chemistry. Each of these tests consists of 70 multiple-choice questions, and gives students 110 minutes to complete the exam.

The ACS also approves certified undergraduate programs in chemistry. A student who completes the required laboratory and course work—sometimes in excess of what a particular college may require for its Bachelor's degree—is considered by the Society to be well trained for professional work. [77]

The ACS coordinates two annual public awareness campaigns, National Chemistry Week and Chemists Celebrate Earth Week, as part of its educational outreach. Since 1978 and 2003 respectively, the campaigns have been celebrated with a yearly theme, such as "Chemistry Colors Our World" (2015) and "Energy: Now and Forever!" (2013). [78]

Green Chemistry Institute

The Green Chemistry Institute (GCI) supports the "implementation of green chemistry and engineering throughout the global chemistry enterprise." [79] The GCI organizes an annual conference, the Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference, provides research grants, administers awards, and provides information and support for green chemistry practices to educators, researchers, and industry. [80]

The GCI was founded in 1997 as an independent non-profit organization, by chemists Joe Breen and Dennis Hjeresen in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency. [81] In 2001, the GCI became a part of the American Chemical Society.

Petroleum Research Fund

The Petroleum Research Fund (PRF) is an endowment fund administered by the ACS that supports advanced education and fundamental research in the petroleum and fossil fuel fields at non-profit institutions. [82] Several categories of grants are offered for various career levels and institutions. [83] The fund awarded more than $25 million in grants in 2007. [84]

The PRF traces its origins to the acquisition of the Universal Oil Products laboratory by a consortium of oil companies in 1931. [85] The companies established a trust fund, The Petroleum Research Fund, in 1944 to prevent antitrust litigation tied to their UOP assets. The ACS was named the beneficiary of the trust. The first grants from the PRF were awarded in 1954. In 2000, the trust was transferred to the ACS. The ACS established The American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund and the previous trust was dissolved. [84] The PRF trust was valued at $144.7 million in December 2014. [86]

Other programs

The ACS International Activities is the birthplace of the ACS International Center, an online resource for scientists and engineers looking to study abroad or explore an international career or internship. The site houses information on hundreds of scholarships and grants related to all levels of experience to promote scientific mobility of researchers and practitioners in STEM fields.

The Society grants membership to undergraduates as student members provided they can pay the $25 yearly dues. Any university may start its own ACS Student Chapter and receive benefits of undergraduate participation in regional conferences and discounts on ACS publications.


National awards

The American Chemical Society administers 64 national awards, medals and prizes based on scientific contributions at various career levels that promote achievement across the chemical sciences. [87] The ACS national awards program began in 1922 with the establishment of the Priestley Medal, the highest award offered by the ACS, which is given for distinguished services to chemistry. [88] The 2019 recipient of the Priestley Medal is K. Barry Sharpless. [89]

Other awards

Additional awards are offered by divisions, local sections and other bodies of ACS. The William H. Nichols Medal Award was the first ACS award to honor outstanding researchers in the field of chemistry. It was established in 1903 by the ACS New York Section and is named for William H. Nichols, an American chemist and businessman and one of the original founders of ACS. [90] Of the over 100 Nichols Medalists, 16 have subsequently been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Willard Gibbs Award, granted by the ACS Chicago Section, was established in 1910 in honor of Josiah Willard Gibbs, the Yale University professor who formulated the phase rule. [91]

The Georgia Local Section of ACS has awarded the Herty Medal since 1933 recognizing outstanding chemists who have significantly contributed to their chosen fields. [92] All chemists in academic, government, or industrial laboratories who have been residing in the southeastern United States for at least 10 years are eligible.

The New York Section of ACS also gives Leadership Awards. [93] The Leadership Awards are the highest honors given by the Chemical Marketing and Economic Group of ACS NY since December 6, 2012. They are presented to leaders of industry, investments, and other sectors, for their contributions to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) initiatives. Honorees include Andrew N. Liveris (Dow Chemical), [94] P. Roy Vagelos (Regeneron, Merck), [95] Thomas M. Connelly (DuPont) [94] and Juan Pablo del Valle (Mexichem). [96]

The ACS also administers regional awards presented annually at regional meetings. This includes the E. Ann Nalley Regional Award for Volunteer Service to the American Chemical Society, Regional Awards for Excellence in High School Teaching, and the Stanley C. Israel Regional Award for Advancing Diversity in the Chemical Sciences.

Journals and magazines

ACS Publications is the publishing division of the ACS. It is a nonprofit academic publisher of scientific journals covering various fields of chemistry and related sciences. As of 2021, ACS Publications published the following 70 peer-reviewed journals: [97]

In addition to academic journals, ACS Publications also publishes Chemical & Engineering News , a weekly trade magazine covering news in the chemical profession, [98] inChemistry, a magazine for undergraduate students, [99] and ChemMatters, a magazine for high school students and teachers. [100]

ACS also created ChemRxiv, which is an open access preprint repository for the chemical sciences, co-owned, and collaboratively managed by the American Chemical Society (ACS), German Chemical Society (GDCh), Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), the chemistry community, other societies, funders, and non-profits; open for submissions and available for all readers at ChemRxiv.


Open access

In debates about free access to scientific information, the ACS has been described as "in an interesting dilemma, with some of its representatives pushing for open access and others hating the very thought." [101] The ACS has generally opposed legislation that would mandate free access to scientific journal articles and chemical information. However it has recently launched new open access journals and provided authors with open access publishing options.


The mid-2000s saw a debate between some research funders (including the federal government), which argued that research they funded should be presented freely to the public, [102] and some publishers (including the ACS), which argued that the costs of peer-review and publishing justified their subscription prices. [103] In 2006, Congress debated legislation that would have instructed the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to require all investigators it funded to submit copies of final, peer-reviewed journal articles to PubMed Central, a free-access digital repository it operates, within 12 months of publication. [104] [105] At the time the American Association of Publishers (of which ACS is a member) hired a public relations firm to counter the open access movement. [106] In spite of publishers' opposition, the PubMed Central legislation was passed in December 2007 and became effective in 2008. [105] [107]

As the open access issue has continued to evolve, so too has the ACS's position. In response to a 2013 White House Office of Science and Technology Policy directive that instructed federal agencies to provide greater access to federally funded research, the ACS joined other scholarly publishers in establishing the Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States (Chorus) to allow free access to published articles. [108] The ACS has also introduced several open access publishing options for its journals, including providing authors the option to pay an upfront fee to enable free online access to their articles. [109] In 2015 the ACS launched the first fully open access journal in the society's history, ACS Central Science. [109] The ACS states that the journal offers the same peer-review standards as its subscription journals, but without publishing charges to either authors or readers. [110] A second open access title, ACS Omega, an interdisciplinary mega journal, launched in 2016. [111] [112] In December 2020, the ACS launched a series of 9 open access journals under the name ACS Au (chemical symbol for gold) which include ACS Bio & Med Chem Au, ACS Engineering Au, ACS Environmental Au, ACS Materials Au, ACS Measurement Science Au, ACS Nanoscience Au, ACS Organic & Inorganic Au, ACS Physical Chem Au and ACS Polymers Au. [113]


In 2005, the ACS was criticized for opposing the creation of PubChem, which is an open access chemical database developed by the NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information. The ACS raised concerns that the publicly supported PubChem database would duplicate and unfairly compete with their existing fee-based Chemical Abstracts Service and argued that the database should only present data created by the Molecular Libraries Screening Center initiative of the NIH. [114] [115]

The ACS lobbied members of the United States Congress to rein in PubChem [116] [117] and hired outside lobbying firms to try to persuade congressional members, the NIH, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) against establishing a publicly funded database. [118] The ACS was unsuccessful, and as of 2012 PubChem is the world's largest free chemical database. [119]


As a major provider of chemistry related information, ACS has been involved with several legal cases over the past few decades that involve access to its databases, trademark rights, and intellectual property. These include Dialog v. American Chemical Society, a suit claiming antitrust violations in access to ACS databases, settled out of court in 1993; [120] [121] American Chemical Society v. Google, a suit claiming trademark violation, settled out of court in 2006; [122] [123] and American Chemical Society v. Leadscope, a suit alleging stolen trade secrets, concluded in 2012 with ACS losing its trade secrets claim and Leadscope losing its counterclaim of defamation. [124] [125]

Executive compensation

In 2004, a group of ACS members criticized the compensation of former executive director and chief executive officer John Crum, whose total salary, expenses, and bonuses for 2002 was reported to be $767,834. [126] The ACS defended the figure, saying that it was in line with that of comparable organizations, including for-profit publishers. [127]

As of 2016, two employees were reported to have a total compensation exceeding $900,000, while 694 had a compensation exceeding $100,000. [128]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>The Journal of Organic Chemistry</i> Academic journal

The Journal of Organic Chemistry, colloquially known as JOC, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in all branches of theory and practice in organic and bioorganic chemistry. It is published by the publishing arm of the American Chemical Society, with 24 issues per year. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal had a 2017 impact factor of 4.805 and it is the journal that received the most cites in the field of organic chemistry. According to Web of Knowledge, eleven papers from the journal have received more than 1,000 citations, with the most cited paper having received 7,967 citations. The current Editor-in-Chief is Scott J. Miller from Yale University.

Robert H. Grubbs American chemist and Nobel Laureate (born 1942)

Robert Howard GrubbsForMemRS is an American chemist and the Victor and Elizabeth Atkins Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. He was a co-recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on olefin metathesis.

Roger Adams American organic chemist

Roger Adams was an American organic chemist who developed the eponymous Adams' catalyst, and helped determine the composition of natural substances such as complex vegetable oils and plant alkaloids. He isolated and identified CBD in 1940. As head of the Department Chemistry at the University of Illinois from 1926 to 1954, he influenced graduate education in America, taught over 250 Ph.D. students and postgraduate students, and served in military science during World War I and World War II.

Donna Nelson American chemist

Donna J. Nelson is an American chemist and professor of chemistry at the University of Oklahoma. Nelson specializes in organic chemistry, which she both researches and teaches. Nelson served as a science advisor to the AMC television show Breaking Bad. She was the 2016 President of the American Chemical Society (ACS) with her presidential activities focusing on and guided by communities in chemistry. Nelson's research focused on five primary topics, generally categorized in two areas, Scientific Research and America's Scientific Readiness. Within Scientific Research, Nelson's topics have been on mechanistic patterns in alkene addition reactions and on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) functionalization and analysis, yielding the first COSY NMR spectrum of covalently functionalized SWCNTs in solution. Under America's Scientific Readiness, she focuses on science education and impacting science by considering its communities; this includes classroom innovations and correcting organic chemistry textbook inaccuracies, on ethnic and gender diversity among highly ranked science departments of research universities, and on improving the image and presentation of science and scientists to the public.

Peter Dervan

Peter B. Dervan is the Bren Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology. The primary focus of his research is the development and study of small organic molecules that can sequence-specifically recognize DNA, a field in which he is an internationally recognized authority. The most important of these small molecules are pyrrole–imidazole polyamides. Dervan is credited with influencing "the course of research in organic chemistry through his studies at the interface of chemistry and biology" as a result of his work on "the chemical principles involved in sequence-specific recognition of double helical DNA". He is the recipient of many awards, including the National Medal of Science (2006).

Bruce Eliot Maryanoff FRSC is an American medicinal and organic chemist.

Richard F. Heck American chemist

Richard Frederick Heck was an American chemist noted for the discovery and development of the Heck reaction, which uses palladium to catalyze organic chemical reactions that couple aryl halides with alkenes. The analgesic naproxen is an example of a compound that is prepared industrially using the Heck reaction.

William Gould Young

William Gould Young was an American physical organic chemist and professor at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). He served as Vice Chancellor at UCLA for 13 years, was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. The chemistry building at UCLA bears his name.

Peter John Stang is a German American chemist and Distinguished Professor of chemistry at the University of Utah. He was the editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Chemical Society from 2002 to 2020.

Angela K. Wilson is an American physical, theoretical, and computational chemist. She is currently the John A. Hannah Distinguished Professor of Chemistry in the department of chemistry of Michigan State University. At Michigan State University, she also serves as the Associate Dean for Strategic Initiatives in the College of Natural Sciences, and as Director of the MSU Center for Quantum Computing, Science, and Engineering (MSU-Q), a newly formed center at MSU, stemming from MSU's long history in quantum computing research.

Laura Lee Kiessling is an American chemist and the Novartis Professor of Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kiessling's research focuses on elucidating and exploiting interactions on the cell surface, especially those mediated by proteins binding to carbohydrates. Multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions play roles in cell-cell recognition and signal transduction. Understanding and manipulating these interactions provides tools to study biological processes and design therapeutic treatments. Kiessling's interdisciplinary research combines organic synthesis, polymer chemistry, structural biology, and molecular and cell biology.

Younan Xia is a Chinese-American chemist, materials scientist, and bioengineer. He is the Brock Family Chair and Georgia Research Alliance (GRA) Eminent Scholar in Nanomedicine in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, with joint appointments in the School of Chemistry & Biochemistry, the School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, and Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering & Bioscience at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Melanie Sarah Sanford is an American chemist, currently the Moses Gomberg Distinguished University Professor of Chemistry and Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Chemistry at the University of Michigan. She is a Fellow for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2016. She has served as an executive editor of the Journal of the American Chemical Society since 2021, having been an associate editor of the since 2014.

Zafra M. Lerman American chemist and humanitarian

Zafra M. Lerman is an American chemist, educator, and humanitarian. She is the President of the Malta Conferences Foundation, which aims to promote peace by bringing together scientists from otherwise hostile countries to discuss science and foster international scientific and technical collaboration. From 1986 to 2010, she chaired the American Chemical Society's Subcommittee on Scientific Freedom and Human Rights. She has been successful in preventing executions, releasing prisoners of conscience from jail and bringing dissidents to freedom. She is the recipient of many awards for education and science diplomacy, including the 1999 Presidential Award from U.S. President Clinton, the 2005 Nyholm Prize for Education from the Royal Society of Chemistry (England), the 2015 Science Diplomacy Award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the 2016 Andrei Sakharov Award for human rights from the American Physical Society (APS), and the 2016 United Nations NOVUS Award for the 16th Sustainable Development Goal: Peace and Justice.

Rigoberto Hernandez American chemist and academic (born 1967)

Rigoberto Hernandez is an American chemist and academic. He is The Gompf Family Professor at the Johns Hopkins University and a board member of the American Chemical Society (ACS). Before his appointment at Johns Hopkins, Hernandez spent 20 years as a faculty member at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he became a full professor. In addition to his work as a professor, Hernandez is also the director of the Open Chemistry Collaborative in Diversity Equity, a program dedicated to creating more diversity in academia.

Jeffrey I. Seeman is a historian of science, chemist, and Visiting Senior Research Scholar in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Richmond in Richmond, Virginia. He is the editor of 20+ volumes in the series Profiles, pathways and dreams : autobiographies of eminent chemists. In addition to writing extensively as both a scientist and historian, he has produced short films for historical and educational use.

Vicki Grassian American chemist

Vicki Helene Grassian is the Chair of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California, San Diego. She is also a Distinguished Professor in the Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NanoEngineering, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography and holds the Distinguished Chair in Physical Chemistry.

Malika Jeffries-EL American chemist

Malika Jeffries-EL is an associate professor of chemistry at Boston University studying organic semiconductors. Specifically, her research focuses on developing organic semiconductors that take advantage of the processing power of polymers and the electronic properties of semiconductors to create innovative electronic devices. She was elected as a Fellow of the American Chemical Society in 2018.

Nina Matheny Roscher (1938—2001) was an American chemist and advocate for women and minorities in science. She also researched the history of women in chemistry, publishing the book Women Chemists (1995). She served as professor and chair of the chemistry department at American University in Washington, D.C. She received the ACS Award for Encouraging Women into Careers in the Chemical Sciences (1996) and the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring (1998).

Ingrid Montes, also known as Ingrid del Carmen Montes González is a full professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras campus. She attained tenure in 1998. Her research focus is on chemical education and organometallic chemistry. Montes has been Director-at-large at the American Chemical Society (ACS) since 2013. Montes founded the "Festival de Química" in 2005, this program was then adopted by the ACS in 2010.


  1. Susan J. Ainsworth (December 3, 2014). "Thomas M. Connelly Jr. Named New Executive Director And CEO Of The American Chemical Society" . Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  2. "2016 audited financial statements" (PDF).
  3. "Fast Facts about ACS". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
  4. "Find an ACS Student Chapter". American Chemical Society. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  5. "ACS Student Chapters". American Chemical Society. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  6. 1 2 3 Bohning, James J. (2001). "John W. Draper and the Founding of the American Chemical Society". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Reese, Kenneth M., ed. (2002). The American Chemical Society at 125: A recent history 1976–2001. American Chemical Society. ISBN   978-0-8412-3851-0.
  8. "ACS Presidents, A Chronological List". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  9. "ACS". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  10. Everts, Sarah (September 7, 2015). "A Most Important Artifact". Chemical & Engineering News . 93 (35). pp. 46–47.
  11. "ACS Governing Documents Bulletin 5" (PDF). American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
  12. "Technical Division Websites". American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on November 24, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
  13. "Home". Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  14. "AGRO Division – Chemistry for and from Agriculture". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  15. "Analytical Sciences -ANYL". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  16. "ACS BIOT : Home". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  17. "ACS Division of Biological Chemistry Website". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  18. "Home". Division of Business Development & Management. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  19. "Home". Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  20. "Home". Catalysis Science & Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  21. "Home". Cellulose and Renewable Materials Division. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  22. "Division of Chemical Education". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  23. "American Chemical Society Division of Chemical Health & Safety". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  24. "Our Mission | ACS Division of Chemical Information (CINF)". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  25. "American Chemical Society Division of Chemical Toxicology". Archived from the original on January 6, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  26. "Chemistry and the Law". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  27. "ACS Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  28. "ACS COMP Division". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  29. "ACS Energy & Fuels Division". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  30. "ACS Envr". ACS Envr. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  31. "Home". Division of Fluorine Chemistry. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  32. "Home". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  33. "Division of History, American Chemical Society". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  34. "Home". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Division. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  35. "Division of Inorganic Chemistry". Division of Inorganic Chemistry. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  36. "ACS Division of Medicinal Chemistry". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  37. "NUCL-ACS". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  38. "American Chemical Society Division of Organic Chemistry". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  39. "The Physical Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  40. "Division of Polymer Chemistry – American Chemical Society". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  41. "Home". Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering Division. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  42. "Home". Division of Professional Relations. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  43. "Rubber Division". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  44. "SCHB". SCHB. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  45. Wang, Linda (September 29, 2008). "A Centennial Stimulus". Chem. Eng. News. 86 (39): 47–48. doi: 10.1021/cen-v086n039.p047 .
  46. Seeman, J. I. (January 2, 2009). "Happy 101st Birthday to the Division of Organic Chemistry of the American Chemical Society (ORGN)". J. Org. Chem. 74 (1): 1. doi: 10.1021/jo8022846 .
  47. Fisher, H. L. (February 1951). "Organic Chemistry". Ind. Eng. Chem. 43 (2): 289–94. doi:10.1021/ie50494a017.
  48. Raber, Linda; Wang, Linda (October 26, 2009). "ORGN Honors Technical Achievement, Calls for Nominations". Chemical & Engineering News. 87 (43): 34. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  49. Reese, K. M. (February 9, 2012). "Pacifichem returning to Honolulu in 2015". Pacific Business News. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  50. "Pacifichem 2015". The International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  51. Fenlon, Edward; Myers, Brian (May 30, 2013). "Profiles in Chemistry: A Historical Perspective on the National Organic Symposium". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 78 (12): 5817–31. doi:10.1021/jo302475j. PMID   23721508.
  52. "Pharma Supports 15 Organic Chemistry Students". Chem. Eng. News. 85 (48): 54–56. November 26, 2007. doi: 10.1021/cen-v085n048.p054 .
  53. "2001 Division of Organic Chemistry Fellowship Awards". Organic Letters. 3 (25): 13–17. December 6, 2001. doi:10.1021/ol0102491.
  54. Wang, Linda (May 11, 2009). "Undergraduate Organic Fellowships Announced". Chemical & Engineering News. 87 (19): 35. doi: 10.1021/cen-v087n048.p035 . Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  55. Yarnell, Amanda (August 2, 2010). "Organic Division Launches Graduate Research Symposium". Chem. Eng. News. 88 (31): 59. doi: 10.1021/cen-v088n031.p058 .
  56. "The Presidency". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  57. "Local Sections". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  58. "International Chemical Sciences Chapters". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  59. "American Chemical Society Expanded Its Global Reach | C&EN 2015 Chemistry Year in Review". C&EN 2015 Chemistry Year in Review. December 21, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  60. 1 2 3 4 5 "American Chemical Society Expanded Its Global Reach | C&EN 2015 Chemistry Year in Review". C&EN 2015 Chemistry Year in Review. December 21, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  61. "Chapter in Hong Kong". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  62. "ACS Hungary". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  63. "Chapter in India". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  64. "Chapter in Malaysia". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  65. "Chapter in Taiwan". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  66. "Chapter in Romania". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  67. "SAICSC-ACS |". Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  68. "Chapter in Shanghai". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  69. "Chapter in South Africa". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  70. "ACS S. Korea Chapter". Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  71. "Chapter in Thailand". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  72. Raber, Linda (January 26, 2009). "ACS Receives Hach Funds Multi-million-dollar gift is largest in society's history". Chemical & Engineering News. 87 (4): 7. doi:10.1021/cen-v087n004.p007 . Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  73. "U.S. National Chemistry Olympiad". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  74. "ICHO 2015". ICHO History. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  75. Khine, Myint Swe (2012). Perspectives on scientific argumentation theory, practice and research. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V. p. 50. ISBN   978-94-007-2470-9 . Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  76. Haney, Walter M.; Madaus, George F.; Lyons, Robert (2012). The Fractured Marketplace for Standardized Testing. Springer Verlag. ISBN   978-9401049733 . Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  77. Undergraduate Professional Education in Chemistry (PDF). New York: American Chemical Society. Spring 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
  78. "National Chemistry Week Themes". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  79. "About the ACS Green Chemistry Institute". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  80. "ACS Green Chemistry Institute". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  81. "A Historical Perspective". Warner Babcock Institute. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  82. "ACS Petroleum Research Fund". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  83. "Grant Programs". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  84. 1 2 "History of the ACS Petroleum Research Fund". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  85. "Universal Oil Products (UOP) Riverside Laboratory – National Historic Chemical Landmarks". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  86. "Financial Highlights – 2014 Annual Report". ACS. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  87. "National Awards Administered by the ACS". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  88. "Priestley Medal". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  89. "K. Barry Sharpless named 2019 Priestley Medalist". Chemical & Engineering News. June 20, 2018. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  90. "NY-ACS Nichols Award Nominations". Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  91. "Willard Gibbs Award". Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  92. "Charles H. Herty Award" . Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  93. "CME ACS NY Leadership Awards(TM)". CME ACS. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  94. 1 2 "2014 Leadership Awards – CME ACS NY Diamond Jubilee". CME ACS. December 4, 2014.
  95. "2015 Leadership Awards – 61 Years of Service". CME ACS. December 8, 2015.
  96. "2012 Leadership Awards". CME ACS. December 6, 2014.
  97. "ACS Publications Home Page". Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  98. "Chemical & Engineering News | Serving the chemical, life sciences and laboratory worlds". Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  99. "inChemistry Magazine". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  100. "ChemMatters Magazine". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  101. Rovner, Sophie L. (May 16, 2005). "OPENING ACCESS Publishers weigh the risks and benefits of free online journal access". Chemical & Engineering News. 83 (20): 40–44. doi:10.1021/cen-v083n020.p040 . Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  102. Ledford, Heidi (October 26, 2006). "Funding agencies toughen stance on open access". Nature. 443 (7114): 894–95. Bibcode:2006Natur.443..894L. doi: 10.1038/443894b . ISSN   0028-0836. PMID   17065998.
  103. Howard, Jennifer (July 29, 2010). "Lawmakers Hear Arguments for and Against Open Access to Research". The Chronicle of Higher Education. ISSN   0009-5982 . Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  104. Russo, Gene (June 22, 2006). "Congress pushes plan to make papers free". Nature. 441 (7096): 915–15. Bibcode:2006Natur.441..915R. doi: 10.1038/441915a . ISSN   0028-0836. PMID   16791162.
  105. 1 2 Suber, Peter (April 17, 2008). "An open access mandate for the National Institutes of Health". Open Medicine. 2 (2): e39–e41. PMC   3090178 . PMID   21602938.
  106. Giles, Jim (January 25, 2007). "PR's 'pit bull' takes on open access". Nature. 445 (347): 347. Bibcode:2007Natur.445..347G. doi: 10.1038/445347a . ISSN   0028-0836. PMID   17251943.
  107. "New Open-Access Requirement Starts Today at NIH". The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 7, 2008. ISSN   0009-5982 . Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  108. Howard, Jennifer (June 4, 2013). "Publishers Propose Public-Private Partnership to Support Access to Research". The Chronicle of Higher Education Blogs: Wired Campus. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  109. 1 2 "RSC, ACS offer new open access options for authors | MIT Libraries News". Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  110. "American Chemical Society extends new open access program designed to assist authors". American Chemical Society. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  111. Basken, Paul (January 13, 2016). "As an Open-Access Megajournal Cedes Some Ground, a Movement Gathers Steam". The Chronicle of Higher Education. ISSN   0009-5982 . Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  112. Bohne, Cornelia; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Ganesh, Krishna N.; Zhang, Deqing (July 31, 2016). "Chemistry, From Alpha to Omega, Open to All". ACS Omega. 1 (1): 1. doi:10.1021/acsomega.6b00103. ISSN   2470-1343. PMC   6640727 . PMID   31457111.
  113. "Announcing ACS Au, a Suite of Global Open Access Journals". December 7, 2020.
  114. Kaiser, Jocelyn (May 6, 2005). "Chemists Want NIH to Curtail Database". Science. 308 (5723): 774. doi:10.1126/science.308.5723.774a. ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   15879180. S2CID   166918466 . Retrieved June 12, 2010.
  115. "American Chemical Society (ACS) and PubChem" (PDF). American Chemical Society. May 23, 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  116. David Kestenbaum, "Chemical Society: NIH Database Hurts Business", All Things Considered, June 12, 2005.
  117. Marris, Emma (June 9, 2005). "Chemistry Society goes head to head with NIH in fight over public database". Nature. 435 (7043): 718–19. Bibcode:2005Natur.435..718M. doi: 10.1038/435718a . PMID   15944657 . Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  118. Biello, David (January 26, 2007). "Open Access to Science Under Attack". Scientific American. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  119. Noorden, Richard Van (March 27, 2012). "Chemistry's web of data expands". Nature. 483 (7391): 524. Bibcode:2012Natur.483..524V. doi: 10.1038/483524a . PMID   22460877.
  120. ""DIALOG and the American Chemical Society Play a High Stakes Game" by O'Leary, Mick – Online, Vol. 15, Issue 1, January 1991".[ dead link ]
  121. "Lawsuits Threaten ACS' Nonprofit Status, Financial Health | The Scientist Magazine". The Scientist. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  122. "ACS sues Google over Scholar | The Scientist Magazine". The Scientist. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  123. McCullagh, Declan (July 19, 2006). "Google Scholar trademark case ends". CNET News. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
  124. DeMartini, Alayna (March 28, 2008). "Chemical Society loses lawsuit Scientists awarded $27 million in trade dispute". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  125. Reich, Eugenie Samuel (September 26, 2012). "Chemical society tried to block business competitor". Nature. 489 (7417): 482–483. Bibcode:2012Natur.489..482S. doi: 10.1038/489482a . PMID   23018941. S2CID   205074110.
  126. Jacobson, Jennifer (September 3, 2004). "Chemical Society Draws Fire for Leader's High Pay". The Chronicle of Higher Education. ISSN   0009-5982 . Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  127. Brumfiel, Geoff (August 26, 2004). "Director's salary makes chemists see red". Nature. 430 (7003): 957–57. Bibcode:2004Natur.430..957B. doi: 10.1038/430957a . ISSN   0028-0836. PMID   15329687.
  128. ACS (November 13, 2017). "2016 IRS Form 990" (PDF). p. 8.


Further reading