Nobel Prize in Chemistry

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i kemi)
Nobel Prize.png
Awarded forOutstanding contributions in chemistry
Location Stockholm, Sweden
Presented by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Reward(s)9 million SEK (2017) [1]
First awarded1901
Last awarded2022
Currently held by Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten P. Meldal and Karl Barry Sharpless (2022)
Most awards Frederick Sanger and Karl Barry Sharpless (2)
Website nobelprize.org

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by the Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

Contents

The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, of the Netherlands, "for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions". From 1901 to 2022, the award has been bestowed on a total of 189 individuals. [2] The 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten P. Meldal, and Karl Barry Sharpless for the development of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry. Only eight women have received the prize, including Marie Curie, her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie, Dorothy Hodgkin (1964), Ada Yonath (2009), Frances Arnold (2018), Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna (2020) and Carolyn R. Bertozzi (2022). [3]

Background

Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature. [4] [5] Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. [6] [7] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor (US$198 million, 176 million in 2016), to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. [8] Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting (Norwegian Parliament). [9] [10] The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes.

The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. [11] [12] The Nobel Foundation then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II. [10] [13] [14] According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences were to award the Prize in Chemistry. [14]

Award ceremony

The committee and institution serving as the selection board for the prize typically announce the names of the laureates in October. The prize is then awarded at formal ceremonies held annually on 10 December, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. "The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm is when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden. The Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount" ("What the Nobel Laureates Receive"). Later the Nobel Banquet is held in Stockholm City Hall.

A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected. The award can be given to a maximum of three recipients per year. It consists of a gold medal, a diploma, and a cash grant.[ citation needed ]

Nomination and selection

In 1901, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (1852-1911) received the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Vant Hoff.jpg
In 1901, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (1852–1911) received the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

The Nobel Laureates in chemistry are selected by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In its first stage, several thousand people are asked to nominate candidates. These names are scrutinized and discussed by experts until only the laureates remain. This slow and thorough process, is arguably what gives the prize its importance.

Forms, which amount to a personal and exclusive invitation, are sent to about three thousand selected individuals to invite them to submit nominations. The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, and neither are they told that they have been considered for the Prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. In practice, some nominees do become known. It is also common for publicists to make such a claim – founded or not.

The nominations are screened by committee, and a list is produced of approximately two hundred preliminary candidates. This list is forwarded to selected experts in the field. They remove all but approximately fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations to the appropriate institution.

While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can occur if the individual died in the months between the nomination and the decision of the prize committee.

The award in chemistry requires the significance of achievements being recognized is "tested by time". In practice it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is typically on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. As a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized. Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a Prize, as the discoverers may have died by the time the impact of their work is realized.

Prizes

A Chemistry Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money. [15]

Nobel Prize medals

The Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket [16] in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal feature an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse (front side of the medal). The Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death (1833–1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a slightly different design. [17] [18] The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design. [19]

Nobel Prize diplomas

Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureate that receives it. The diploma contains a picture and text which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize. [20]

Award money

At the awards ceremony, the laureate is given a document indicating the award sum. The amount of the cash award may differ from year to year, based on the funding available from the Nobel Foundation. For example, in 2009 the total cash awarded was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million), [21] but in 2012, the amount was 8 million Swedish Krona, or US$1.1 million. [22] If there are two laureates in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients, but if there are three, the awarding committee may opt to divide the grant equally, or award half to one recipient and a quarter to each of the two others. [23] [24] [25] [26]

Nobel laureates in chemistry by nationality

CountryLaureates [A]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 79
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 34
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of France.svg  France 10
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 8
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg  Switzerland 7
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 6
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 5
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 4
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 3
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 2
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Flag of India.svg  India
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan

Scope of award

In recent years, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has drawn criticism from chemists who feel that the prize is more frequently awarded to non-chemists than to chemists. [27] In the 30 years leading up to 2012, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded ten times for work classified as biochemistry or molecular biology, and once to a materials scientist. In the ten years leading up to 2012, only four prizes were awarded for work strictly in chemistry. [27] Commenting on the scope of the award, The Economist explained that the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is bound by Nobel's bequest, which specifies awards only in physics, chemistry, literature, medicine, and peace. Biology was in its infancy in Nobel's day and no award was established. The Economist argued there is no Nobel Prize for mathematics either, another major discipline, and added that Nobel's stipulation of no more than three winners is not readily applicable to modern physics, where progress is typically made through huge collaborations rather than by individuals alone. [28]

In 2020, Ioannidis et al. reported that half of the Nobel Prizes for science awarded between 1995–2017 were clustered in just a few disciplines within their broader fields. Atomic physics, particle physics, cell biology, and neuroscience dominated the two subjects outside chemistry, while molecular chemistry was the chief prize-winning discipline in its domain. Molecular chemists won 5.3% of all science Nobel Prizes during this period. [29]

See also

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References

Notes

^ A. Until 2022

Specific

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  6. Ragnar Sohlman: 1983, Page 7
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  10. 1 2 Agneta Wallin Levinovitz: 2001, Page 13
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    After Nobel's death, the Nobel Foundation was set up to carry out the provisions of his will and to administer his funds. In his will, he had stipulated that four different institutions—three Swedish and one Norwegian—should award the prizes. From Stockholm, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences confers the prizes for physics, chemistry, and economics, the Karolinska Institute confers the prize for physiology or medicine, and the Swedish Academy confers the prize for literature. The Norwegian Nobel Committee based in Oslo confers the prize for peace. The Nobel Foundation is the legal owner and functional administrator of the funds and serves as the joint administrative body of the prize-awarding institutions, but it is not concerned with the prize deliberations or decisions, which rest exclusively with the four institutions.
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  27. 1 2 Hoffmann, Roald (9 February 2012). "What, Another Nobel Prize in Chemistry to a Nonchemist?". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 51 (8): 1734–1735. doi:10.1002/anie.201108514. PMID   22323188.
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  29. Ioannidis, John; Cristea, Ioana-Alina; Boyack, Kevin (29 July 2020). "Work honored by Nobel prizes clusters heavily in a few scientific fields". PLOS ONE . 15 (7): e0234612. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1534612I. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234612 . PMC   7390258 . PMID   32726312.

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