List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

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Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physiology or Medicine NobelPrize1.jpg
Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Swedish : Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. [1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members and an executive secretary elected by the Karolinska Institute. [2] [3] While commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel specifically stated that the prize be awarded for "physiology or medicine" in his will. Because of this, the prize can be awarded in a broader range of fields. [3] The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil Adolf von Behring, of Germany. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years. [4] In 1901, von Behring received 150,782 SEK, which was equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2008. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. [5]

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine One of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries. The Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature. The reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, and has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.

Swedish language North Germanic language spoken in Sweden

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.

Physiology science of the function of living systems

Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system.

Contents

Laureates have won the Nobel Prize in a wide range of fields that relate to physiology or medicine. As of 2009, 8 Prizes have been awarded for contributions in the field of signal transduction by G proteins and second messengers, 13 have been awarded for contributions in the field of neurobiology and 13 have been awarded for contributions in intermediary metabolism. [3] In 1939 Gerhard Domagk, a German, was not allowed by his government to accept the prize. He later received a medal and diploma, but not the money. [6] As of 2018, the prize has been awarded to 216 individuals, twelve of them were women: Gerty Cori (1947), Rosalyn Yalow (1977), Barbara McClintock (1983), Rita Levi-Montalcini (1986), Gertrude B. Elion (1988), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1995), Linda B. Buck (2004), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008), Elizabeth H. Blackburn (2009), Carol W. Greider (2009), May-Britt Moser (2014) [7] and Tu Youyou (2015). There have been nine years in which the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was not awarded (1915–1918, 1921, 1925, 1940–1942).

Signal transduction The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light),

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used. The changes elicited by ligand binding in a receptor give rise to a biochemical cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events as a signaling pathway.

Metabolism The set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms

Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments..

Gerhard Domagk German bacteriologist

Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk was a German pathologist and bacteriologist. He is credited with the discovery of Sulfonamidochrysoidine (KI-730), the first commercially available antibiotic and marketed under the brand name Prontosil, for which he received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Laureates

YearImageLaureate [A] Country [B] Rationale [C] Ref
1901 EmilVonBehring.jpg Emil Adolf von Behring Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths" [8]
1902 Ronald Ross.jpg Sir Ronald Ross Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
British Raj Red Ensign.svg  India
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it" [9]
1903 Niels ryberg.jpg Niels Ryberg Finsen Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
(Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg  Faroe Islands)
"[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science" [10]
1904 Ivan Pavlov nobel.jpg Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russia "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged" [11]
1905 RobertKoch cropped.jpg Robert Koch Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis" [12]
1906 Camillo Golgi nobel.jpg Camillo Golgi Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system" [13]
Cajal-Restored.jpg Santiago Ramón y Cajal Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg  Spain
1907 Charles Laveran nobel.jpg Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases" [14]
1908 Ilya Mechnikov nobel.jpg Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russia "in recognition of their work on immunity" [15]
Paul Ehrlich (1926-27 Microbe Hunters).jpg Paul Ehrlich Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher nobel.jpg Emil Theodor Kocher Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland" [16]
1910 Kossel, Albrecht (1853-1927).jpg Albrecht Kossel Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances" [17]
1911 Allvar Gullstrand.jpg Allvar Gullstrand Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye" [18]
1912 Alexis Carrel 02.jpg Alexis Carrel Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs" [19]
1913 Charles Robert Richet nobel.jpg Charles Richet Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "[for] his work on anaphylaxis" [20]
1914 Robert Barany.jpg Robert Bárány Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus" [21]
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919 Jules Bordet nobel.jpg Jules Bordet Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "for his discoveries relating to immunity" [22]
1920 August Krogh Bain 32006.jpg Schack August Steenberg Krogh Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism" [23]
1921
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill.jpg Archibald Vivian Hill Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle" [24]
Otto Fritz Meyerhof.jpg Otto Fritz Meyerhof Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle" [24]
1923 Fredrick banting.jpg Sir Frederick Grant Banting Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada "for the discovery of insulin" [25]
J.J.R. Macleod ca. 1928.png John James Rickard Macleod Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1924 Willem Einthoven.jpg Willem Einthoven Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram" [26]
1925
1926 J Fibiger.jpg Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma" [27]
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg.jpg Julius Wagner-Jauregg Flag of Austria.svg  Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica" [28]
1928 Jules Nicole.jpg Charles Jules Henri Nicolle Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "for his work on typhus" [29]
1929 Christiaan Eijkman.jpg Christiaan Eijkman Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin" [30]
Frederick Gowland Hopkins nobel.jpg Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins" [30]
1930 Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg Karl Landsteiner Flag of Austria.svg  Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups" [31]
1931 Otto Warburg.jpg Otto Heinrich Warburg Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme" [32]
1932 Prof. Charles Scott Sherrington.jpg Sir Charles Scott Sherrington Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons" [33]
Edgar Douglas Adrian nobel.jpg Edgar Douglas Adrian Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg Thomas Hunt Morgan Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity" [34]
1934 George Whipple nobel.jpg George Hoyt Whipple Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia" [35]
George Minot nobel.jpg George Richards Minot Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
William P Murphy.jpg William Parry Murphy Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
1935 Hans Spemann nobel.jpg Hans Spemann Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development" [36]
1936 Henry Dale nobel.jpg Sir Henry Hallett Dale Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses" [37]
Otto Loewi nobel.jpg Otto Loewi Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany
1937 Albert Szent-Gyorgyi cropped.jpg Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid" [38]
1938 Corneille Heymans nobel.jpg Corneille Jean François Heymans Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration" [39]
1939 Gerhard Domagk nobel.jpg Gerhard Domagk Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil" [40]
1940
1941
1942
1943 Henrik Dam nobel.jpg Carl Peter Henrik Dam Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K" [41]
Edward A Doisy.jpg Edward Adelbert Doisy Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K" [41]
1944 Joseph Erlanger nobel.jpg Joseph Erlanger Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres" [42]
Herbert Spencer Gasser nobel.jpg Herbert Spencer Gasser Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
1945 Alexander Fleming 1945.jpg Sir Alexander Fleming Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases" [43]
Ernst Boris Chain 1945.jpg Sir Ernst Boris Chain Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Howard Walter Florey 1945.jpg Howard Walter Florey Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
1946 HJ Muller 1952.jpg Hermann Joseph Muller Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation" [44]
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori.jpg Carl Ferdinand Cori Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen" [45]
Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Bernado Houssay.JPG Bernardo Alberto Houssay Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar" [45]
1948 Paul Hermann Muller nobel.jpg Paul Hermann Müller Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods" [46]
1949 Walter Hess.jpg Walter Rudolf Hess Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs" [47]
Moniz.jpg António Caetano Egas Moniz Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses" [47]
1950 Philip Showalter Hench.jpg Philip Showalter Hench Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects" [48]
Edward Calvin Kendall nobel.jpg Edward Calvin Kendall Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Thadeus Reichstein ETH-Bib Portr 10137.jpg Tadeusz Reichstein Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
1951 Max Theiler nobel.jpg Max Theiler Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg  South Africa "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it" [49]
1952 Selman Waksman NYWTScrop.jpg Selman Abraham Waksman Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis" [50]
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs.jpg Sir Hans Adolf Krebs Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle" [51]
Portrait of Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986), Biochemist (2551001689).jpg Fritz Albert Lipmann Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism" [51]
1954 John Franklin Enders Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue" [52]
Frederick Chapman Robbins nobel.jpg Frederick Chapman Robbins Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Thomas Huckle Weller.jpg Thomas Huckle Weller Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
1955 Hugo Theorell nobel.jpg Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes" [53]
1956 Andre Frederic Cournand nobel.jpg André Frédéric Cournand Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system" [54]
Werner Forssmann nobel.jpg Werner Forssmann Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Dickinson W. Richards nobel.jpg Dickinson W. Richards Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
1957 Daniel Bovet nobel.jpg Daniel Bovet Flag of Italy.svg  Italy "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles" [55]
1958 George Wells Beadle.jpg George Wells Beadle Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events" [56]
Edward Lawrie Tatum nobel.jpg Edward Lawrie Tatum Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Joshua Lederberg crop.jpg Joshua Lederberg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria" [56]
1959 Arthur Kornberg.jpg Arthur Kornberg Flag of the United States (1959-1960).svg  United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid" [57]
Severo Ochoa nobel.jpg Severo Ochoa Flag of the United States (1959-1960).svg  United States
Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  Spain
1960 Frank Macfarlane Burnet nobel.jpg Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance" [58]
Peter Brian Medawar.jpg Sir Peter Brian Medawar Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg  Brazil
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1961 Georg von Bekesy nobel.jpg Georg von Békésy Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea" [59]
1962 Francis Crick crop.jpg Francis Harry Compton Crick Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material" [60]
JamesWatson.png James Dewey Watson Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Maurice Wilkins nobel.jpg Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1963 Eccles lab.jpg Sir John Carew Eccles Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane" [61]
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin nobel.jpg Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Andrew Fielding Huxley nobel.jpg Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1964 Konrad Bloch.JPG Konrad Bloch Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism" [62]
Feodor Lynen with pipette.jpg Feodor Lynen Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
1965 Francois Jacob nobel.jpg François Jacob Flag of France.svg  France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis" [63]
Andre Lwoff nobel.jpg André Lwoff Flag of France.svg  France
Jacques Monod nobel.jpg Jacques Monod Flag of France.svg  France
1966 Peyton Rous nobel.jpg Peyton Rous Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses" [64]
Charles Brenton Huggins nobel.jpg Charles Brenton Huggins Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer" [64]
1967 Ragnar Granit2.jpg Ragnar Granit Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye" [65]
Haldan Keffer Hartline nobel.jpg Haldan Keffer Hartline Flag of the United States.svg  United States
George Wald nobel.jpg George Wald Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1968 Robert W. Holley nobel.jpg Robert W. Holley Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis" [66]
Har Gobind Khorana nobel.jpg Har Gobind Khorana Flag of India.svg  India
Flag of the United States.svg  United States [67]
Marshall Nirenberg 2003.jpg Marshall W. Nirenberg Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1969 Max Delbruck.jpg Max Delbrück Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses" [68]
Alfred Hershey.jpg Alfred D. Hershey Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Salvador E. Luria ca.1969 (cropped).jpg Salvador E. Luria Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1970 Axelrod01.jpg Julius Axelrod Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation" [69]
Ulf von Euler.jpg Ulf von Euler Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Sir Bernard Katz Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1971 Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr.jpg Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones" [70]
1972 Professor Gerald M. Edelman (cropped).jpg Rodney Robert Porter.jpg Gerald M. Edelman Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies" [71]
Rodney R. Porter Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1973 Karl von Frisch Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns" [72]
Konrad Lorenz.JPG Konrad Lorenz Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Nikolaas Tinbergen 1978.jpg Nikolaas Tinbergen Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
1974 Albert Claude 1974.jpg Albert Claude Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell" [73]
Christian de Duve cropped.jpg Christian de Duve Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
RO033-16.jpg George E. Palade Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania
1975 Dr. David Baltimore2.jpg David Baltimore Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell" [74]
Renato Dulbecco crop.jpg Renato Dulbecco Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Howard Martin Temin 1975.jpg Howard Martin Temin Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1976 Baruch Samuel Blumberg by Tom Trower (NASA).jpg Baruch S. Blumberg Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases" [75]
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek 2bw cropped.jpg D. Carleton Gajdusek Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1977 Roger Guillemin.jpg Roger Guillemin Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain" [76]
Schally portrait.jpg Andrew V. Schally Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Rosalyn Yalow.jpg Rosalyn Yalow Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones" [76]
1978 Werner Arber 2008.jpg Werner Arber Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics" [77]
Daniel Nathans Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Hamilton Smith.jpg Hamilton O. Smith Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1979 Allan M. Cormack Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg  South Africa "for the development of computer assisted tomography" [78]
Godfrey Hounsfield.jpg Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1980 Baruj Benacerraf 1969.jpg Baruj Benacerraf Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg  Venezuela "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions" [79]
Jean Dausset 1968.jpg Jean Dausset Flag of France.svg  France
George D. Snell Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1981 Roger Wolcott Sperry.jpg Roger W. Sperry Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres" [80]
David H. Hubel Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system" [80]
Torsten Wiesel-7Nov2006.jpg Torsten N. Wiesel Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
1982 Sune Bergstrom 3.jpg Sune K. Bergström Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances" [81]
Bengt I. Samuelsson Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
John Robert Vane.jpg Sir John R. Vane Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1983 Barbara McClintock (1902-1992).jpg Barbara McClintock Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements" [82]
1984 Niels Kaj Jerne 1950 crop.jpg Niels K. Jerne Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies" [83]
Georges J.F. Köhler Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Milstein lnp.jpg César Milstein Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1985 Mike Brown 2003.jpg Michael S. Brown Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism" [84]
Joe Goldstein.JPG Joseph L. Goldstein Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1986 Stanley Cohen-Biochemist.jpg Stanley Cohen Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries of growth factors" [85]
Rita Levi Montalcini.jpg Rita Levi-Montalcini Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Photo.jpg Susumu Tonegawa Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity" [86]
1988 James Black (pharmacologist).jpg Sir James W. Black Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment" [87]
Gertrude Elion.jpg Gertrude B. Elion Flag of the United States.svg  United States
George H. Hitchings 1988.jpg George H. Hitchings Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1989 Nci-vol-8172-300 j michael bishop.jpg J. Michael Bishop Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes" [88]
HEVarmus.jpg Harold E. Varmus Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1990 Joseph E. Murray Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease" [89]
Edward Donnall "Don" Thomas.jpg E. Donnall Thomas Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1991 Erwin neher 2007 lindau.jpg Erwin Neher Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells" [90]
Sakmann.jpg Bert Sakmann Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
1992 Edmond Fischer Nobel Laureate 1992.jpg Edmond H. Fischer Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism" [91]
Edwin G. Krebs Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1993 Roberts, Richard John (1943).jpg Sir Richard J. Roberts Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their discoveries of split genes" [92]
Phillip A Sharp NIH.jpg Phillip A. Sharp Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1994 Alfred Goodman Gilman (cropped).jpg Alfred G. Gilman Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells" [93]
Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998).jpg Martin Rodbell Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1995 Edward B. Lewis Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development" [94]
Christiane Nusslein-Volhard mg 4383.jpg Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Eric F. Wieschaus.jpg Eric F. Wieschaus Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1996 Peter C. Doherty 2017.jpg Peter C. Doherty Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence" [95]
Rolf Zinkernagel Erudite Conclave medical college trivandrum.jpg Rolf M. Zinkernagel Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
1997 Prusiner 1.JPG Stanley B. Prusiner Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection" [96]
1998 Drfurchgott.jpg Robert F. Furchgott Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system" [97]
Loius Ignarro.jpg Louis J. Ignarro Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Ferid Murad.jpg Ferid Murad Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1999 Gunter Blobel 2008 1.JPG Günter Blobel Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell" [98]
2000 Arvid Carlsson 2011a.jpg Arvid Carlsson Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system" [99]
Paul Greengard.jpg Paul Greengard Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Eric Richard Kandel.jpg Eric R. Kandel Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2001 Leland H. Hartwell Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle" [100]
Tim hunt.jpg Sir Tim Hunt Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Paul Nurse 2007.jpg Sir Paul M. Nurse Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
2002 Sydney Brenner 1965 cropped.jpg Sydney Brenner Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'" [101]
H. Robert Horvitz Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Sulston, John Edward (1942).jpg Sir John E. Sulston Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
2003 PaulLauterbur.jpg Paul Lauterbur Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging" [102]
Peter Mansfield Leipzig.jpg Sir Peter Mansfield Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
2004 Richard Axel.jpg Richard Axel Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system" [103]
LindaBuck cropped 1.jpg Linda B. Buck Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2005 Marshall 2008.JPG Barry J. Marshall Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease" [104]
Robin Warren.jpg J. Robin Warren Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
2006 Andrew Fire, Stanford University.jpg Andrew Z. Fire Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA" [105]
Craig Mello 01.JPG Craig C. Mello Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2007 MarioCapecchiFotoThalerTamas2.JPG Mario R. Capecchi Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells." [106]
Martin Evans Nobel Prize.jpg Sir Martin J. Evans Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Oliver-smithies.jpg Oliver Smithies Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2008 Harald zur Hausen-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-6.jpg Harald zur Hausen Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer" [107]
Francoise Barre-Sinoussi-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-1.jpg Françoise Barré-Sinoussi Flag of France.svg  France "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus" [107]
LucMontagnier1995 065.jpg Luc Montagnier Flag of France.svg  France
2009 Elizabeth Blackburn 2009-01.JPG Elizabeth H. Blackburn Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase" [108]
GREIDER Carol 2014 - Less vignetting.jpg Carol W. Greider Flag of the United States.svg  United States
JSzostak.jpg Jack W. Szostak Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2010Sir Robert G. Edwards Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for the development of in vitro fertilization" [109]
2011 Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KI-DSC 7512.jpg Bruce A. Beutler Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" [110]
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KI-DSC 7584.jpg Jules A. Hoffmann Flag of France.svg  France
Ralph M. Steinman Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity" (awarded posthumously) [111] [112] [110]
2012 John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG Sir John B. Gurdon Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent" [113]
Shinya yamanaka10.jpg Shinya Yamanaka Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
2013 James E. Rothman Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells" [114]
Randy Schekman 8 February 2012.jpg Randy W. Schekman Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Thomas c sudhof.jpg Thomas C. Südhof Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
2014 John O'Keefe (neuroscientist) 2014b.jpg John O'Keefe Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain" [115]
May-Britt Moser 2014.jpg May-Britt Moser Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Edvard Moser.jpg Edvard I. Moser Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
2015 William C. Campbell 4983-1-2015.jpg William C. Campbell Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites" [116]
Satoshi Omura 5086-1-2015.jpg Satoshi Ōmura Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Tu Youyou 5012-1-2015.jpg Tu Youyou Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against malaria" [116]
2016 Nobel Laureates 1042 (30647248184).jpg Yoshinori Ohsumi Flag of Japan.svg  Japan "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy" [117]
2017 Jeffrey C. Hall EM1B8737 (38162359274).jpg Jeffrey C. Hall Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm" [118]
Michael Rosbash EM1B8756 (38847326642).jpg Michael Rosbash Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Michael W. Young D81 4345 (38162439194).jpg Michael W. Young Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2018 James P. Allison (2015).JPG James P. Allison Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation" [119]
Tasuku Honjo 201311.jpg Tasuku Honjo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan

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References

Notes

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physiology and medicine for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

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<i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i> General knowledge English-language encyclopaedia

The Encyclopædia Britannica, formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition.