List of Indian Nobel laureates

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Rabindranath Tagore was the first person of Indian origin and also first Asian to be awarded with the Nobel Prize. He received the prize for Literature in 1913. Rabindranath Tagore in 1909.jpg
Rabindranath Tagore was the first person of Indian origin and also first Asian to be awarded with the Nobel Prize. He received the prize for Literature in 1913.

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed on "those who conferred the greatest benefit on humankind" in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace and Economic Sciences, [upper-alpha 1] [2] instituted by Alfred Nobel's last will, which specified that a part of his fortune be used to create the prizes. Each laureate (recipient) receives a gold medal, a diploma and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation. [3] The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy awards the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize. They are widely recognized as one of the most prestigious honours awarded in the aforementioned fields. [4]

Nobel Prize Set of annual international awards, primarily 5 established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

Contents

First instituted in 1901, a total of 904 individuals (852 men and 52 women) and 24 organizations were awarded the Nobel Prize between 1901 and 2018. [5] Among the total recipients, 12 are Indians (five Indian citizens and seven of Indian origin or residency). Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian citizen to be awarded and Mother Teresa is the only woman among the list of recipients. [6] Notably, Sri Aurobindo, the Indian poet, philosopher, nationalist and developer of integral yoga, was nominated unsuccessfully for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1943 and for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950. [7] [8]

Indian people Ethnic group

Indians are the nationals or citizens of India, the second most populous nation in the world, containing 17.50% of the world's population. "Indian" refers to nationality, rather than a particular ethnicity or language; the Indian nationality consists of dozens of regional ethno-linguistic groups, reflecting the rich and complex history of the country. Due to emigration, the Indian diaspora is present throughout the world, notably in other parts of Asia, North America, the Caribbean, Oceania, and Africa.

Rabindranath Tagore Bengali poet and philosopher

Rabindranath Tagore, also known by his sobriquets Gurudev, Kabiguru, and Biswakabi, was a Bengali polymath, poet, musician, and artist from the Indian subcontinent. He reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of the "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse" of Gitanjali, he became in 1913 the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore's poetic songs were viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. He is sometimes referred to as "the Bard of Bengal".

Mother Teresa Roman Catholic saint of Albanian origin

Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu, commonly known as Mother Teresa and honoured in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta, was an Albanian-Indian Roman Catholic nun and missionary. She was born in Skopje, then part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After living in North Macedonia for eighteen years, she moved to Ireland and then to India, where she lived for most of her life.

On 1 December 1999, the Norwegian Nobel Committee confirmed that Mahatma Gandhi was nominated unsuccessfully for the Peace Prize five times (from 1937 to 1939, in 1947 and a few days before he was assassinated in January 1948). [9] In 2006, Geir Lundestad, the Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee, cited it as "the greatest omission in our 106-year history". [10] [11] [12]

Mahatma Gandhi Pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism during British-ruled India

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā was applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa – is now used worldwide. In India, he was also called Bapu, a term that he preferred and Gandhi ji, and is known as the Father of the Nation.

Geir Lundestad Norwegian historian and director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute

Geir Lundestad is a Norwegian historian, who until 2014 served as the director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute when Olav Njølstad took over. In this capacity, he also served as the secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. However, he is not a member of the committee itself.

Laureates

Indian citizens

The following are the Nobel laureates who were residing in India at the time they were awarded the Nobel Prize. [13] [upper-alpha 2]
YearLaureateFieldRationaleRef
1913Rabindranath Tagore in 1909.jpg Rabindranath Tagore Literature"Because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West." [15]
1930Sir CV Raman.JPG C. V. Raman Physics"For his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him." [16]
1979MotherTeresa 094.jpg Saint Teresa
[upper-alpha 3]
Peace"in recognition of [her] work in bringing help to suffering humanity" [17] [18]
1998Amartya Sen , c2000 (4379246038).jpg Amartya Sen Economic Sciences"For his contributions to welfare economics." [19]
2014Kailash Satyarthi March 2015.jpg Kailash Satyarthi
[upper-alpha 4]
Peace"For their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education." [20]

Overseas citizens of Indian origin

The following are not Indians, but rather Nobel laureates born in British India or laureates who are of Indian origin but subsequently non-citizens of India; however, they are still often included in lists of Indian Nobel laureates.
YearLaureateCountry of residenceFieldRationaleRef
1968Har Gobind Khorana nobel.jpg Har Gobind Khorana [upper-alpha 5] Flag of the United States.svg  United States
(born in Raipur, British India, now Pakistan)
Physiology or Medicine"For their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis." [21]
1983Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.gif Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Flag of the United States.svg  United States
(born in Lahore, British India, now Pakistan)
Physics"For his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars." [22]
2009Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-08.jpg Venkatraman Ramakrishnan Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom / Flag of the United States.svg  United States
(born in Chidambaram, India)
Chemistry"For studies of the structure and function of the ribosome." [23]

Other

The following are Nobel laureates with Indian linkages – foreigners who were born in India, those who are of Indian ancestry and those who were residents in India when they became recipients of the Nobel Prize.
YearLaureateCountry of residenceFieldRationaleRef
1902Ronald Ross.jpg Ronald Ross Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
(born in Almora, British India)
Physiology or Medicine"For his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it." [24]
1907Rudyard Kipling, by Elliott & Fry (cropped).jpg Rudyard Kipling Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
(born in Bombay, British India)
Literature"In consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author." [25]
1989Dalailama1 20121014 4639.jpg 14th Dalai Lama Flag of India.svg  India
(born in Taktser, Tibet)
Peace"For his consistent resistance to the use of violence in his people’s struggle to regain their liberty." [26] [27]
2001VS Naipal 2016 Dhaka.jpg V. S. Naipaul Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
(born in Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago)
Literature"For having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories." [28]

See also

The following lists of people from India by state organise people from India by state and territory.

Notes

  1. The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences is an addditional prize that was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969. Although not technically a Nobel Prize, it is identified with the award and the winners are announced with the Nobel Prize recipients, and the Prize in Economic Sciences is presented at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. [2]
  2. Per Indian nationality law, Article 9 of the Indian Constitution says that a person who voluntarily acquires citizenship of any other country is no longer an Indian citizen. Also, according to The Passports Act, a person has to surrender his Indian passport; it is a punishable offense under the act if he fails to surrender the passport. Hence, citizenship exclusively includes jus sanguinis (citizenship by right of blood). [14]
  3. Born in Skopje, Ottoman Empire
  4. shared with Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan
  5. Awarded along with Robert W. Holley and Marshall W. Nirenberg

Related Research Articles

Right Livelihood Award international award to honour and support those offering practical and exemplary answers to the most urgent challenges facing us today

The Right Livelihood Award is an international award to "honour and support those offering practical and exemplary answers to the most urgent challenges facing us today." The prize was established in 1980 by German-Swedish philanthropist Jakob von Uexkull, and is presented annually in early December. An international jury, invited by the five regular Right Livelihood Award board members, decides the awards in such fields as environmental protection, human rights, sustainable development, health, education, and peace. The prize money is shared among the winners, usually numbering four, and is EUR 200,000. Very often one of the four laureates receives an honorary award, which means that the other three share the prize money.

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field. The award's official name is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

Nobel Peace Prize One of five Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

References

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  6. "From 1913 to 2014: Indian Nobel Prize winners". The Hindu . 10 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  7. Rajinder Singh (Sep 2012). "Aurobindo Gosh's Nobel nomination". Science and Culture. p. 442. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  8. Media, Nobel (22 November 2018). "Aurobindo Ghosh Nomination archive". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  9. Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin (2001). The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years. London: Imperial College Press, London. pp. 181–186. ISBN   9789810246655.
  10. Tønnesson, Øyvind (1 December 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  11. Ghosh, Avijit (17 October 2006). "We missed Mahatma Gandhi". The Times of India . Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  12. Wolchover, Natalie (10 May 2011). "No Peace for Gandhi". NBCNews. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  13. George, P J (10 October 2014). "List of laureates". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  14. "Indian Citizenship". indiacode.nic.in. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  15. "Rabindranath Tagore". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  16. "C V Raman". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 September 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  17. "Mother Teresa Agnes". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  18. "Press Release 1979 Peace". Nobel Foundation. 27 October 1979. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  19. "Amartya Sen". Nobel Foundation . Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  20. "The Nobel Peace Prize 2014". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  21. "H. Gobind Khorana". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  22. "Subramanyan Chandrasekhar". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  23. "Venkatraman Ramakrishnan". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  24. "Ronald Ross". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  25. "Rudyard Kipling". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  26. "Dalai Lama 14th". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  27. Aarvik, Egil. "Award ceremony speech". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  28. "Nobel Prize in Literature 2001". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2008.