List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry

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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel. AlfredNobel adjusted.jpg
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Swedish: Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, who died in 1896. These prizes are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. [1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. [2] The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, of the Netherlands. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years. [3] In 1901, van 't Hoff received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. [4]

Nobel Prize in Chemistry One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is one of the royal academies of Sweden. Founded on June 2, 1739, it is an independent, non-governmental scientific organization which takes special responsibility for ptomoting the natural sciences and mathematics and strengthen their influence in society, whilst endeavouring to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.

Contents

At least 25 laureates have received the Nobel Prize for contributions in the field of organic chemistry, more than any other field of chemistry. [5] Two Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry, Germans Richard Kuhn (1938) and Adolf Butenandt (1939), were not allowed by their government to accept the prize. They would later receive a medal and diploma, but not the money. Frederick Sanger is one out of two laureates to be awarded the Nobel prize twice in the same subject, in 1958 and 1980. John Bardeen is the other and was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956 and 1972. Two others have won Nobel Prizes twice, one in chemistry and one in another subject: Maria Skłodowska-Curie (physics in 1903, chemistry in 1911) and Linus Pauling (chemistry in 1954, peace in 1962). [6] As of 2018, the prize has been awarded to 180 individuals, including five women: Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie (1935), Dorothy Hodgkin (1964), Ada Yonath (2009), and Frances Arnold (2018). [7] [8]

Organic chemistry subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives

Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding. Study of structure determines their chemical composition and formula. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties, and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior. The study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and polymers, and study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical study.

Richard Kuhn Austrian-German biochemist

Richard Johann Kuhn was an Austrian-German biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938 "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins".

Adolf Butenandt German biochemist (1939 Nobel Prize)

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt was a German biochemist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his "work on sex hormones." He initially rejected the award in accordance with government policy, but accepted it in 1949 after World War II. He was President of the Max Planck Society from 1960 to 1972.

There have been eight years in which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was not awarded. There were also nine years for which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was delayed for one year. The Prize was not awarded in 1914, as the Nobel Committee for Chemistry decided that none of that year's nominations met the necessary criteria, but was awarded to Theodore William Richards in 1915 and counted as the 1914 prize. [9] This precedent was followed for the 1918 prize awarded to Fritz Haber in 1919, [10] , the 1920 prize awarded to Walther Nernst in 1921 [11] , the 1921 prize awarded to Frederick Soddy in 1922, [12] , the 1925 prize awarded to Richard Zsigmondy in 1926, [13] the 1927 prize awarded to Heinrich Otto Wieland in 1928, [14] the 1938 prize awarded to Richard Kuhn in 1939, [15] the 1943 prize awarded to George de Hevesy in 1944, [16] and the 1944 prize awarded to Otto Hahn in 1945. [17]

Theodore William Richards United States chemist

Theodore William Richards was the first American scientist to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, earning the award "in recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements."

Fritz Haber German-Jewish chemist and receiver of the Nobel prize

Fritz Haber was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives. The food production for half the world's current population involves this method for producing nitrogen fertilizers. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid.

Walther Nernst German physical chemist and physicist

Walther Hermann Nernst, was a German chemist known for his work in thermodynamics, physical chemistry, electrochemistry, and solid state physics. His formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is also known for developing the Nernst equation in 1887.

Laureates

YearImageLaureate [A] Country [B] Rationale [C] Ref
1901 Vant Hoff.jpg Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions" [18]
1902 Ubenshvuanshvysh'.jpg Hermann Emil Fischer Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses" [19]
1903 Arrhenius2.jpg Svante August Arrhenius Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation" [20]
1904 William Ramsay.jpg Sir William Ramsay Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system" [21]
1905 Adolf von Baeyer (1905).jpg Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds" [22]
1906 Henri Moissan.jpg Henri Moissan Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him" [23]
1907 Eduard Buchner (Nobel 1907).jpg Eduard Buchner Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation" [24]
1908 Ernest Rutherford (Nobel).jpg Ernest Rutherford Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances" [25]
1909 Ostwald.jpg Wilhelm Ostwald Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction" [26]
1910 Otto Wallach.jpg Otto Wallach Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds" [27]
1911 Marie Curie (Nobel-Chem).jpg Maria Skłodowska-Curie Flag of the Congress of Poland.svg  Poland "[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element" [28]
1912 Viktor-grignard.jpg Victor Grignard Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent" [29]
Paul Sabatier.jpg Paul Sabatier Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals" [29]
1913 Alfred Werner.jpg Alfred Werner Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry" [30]
1914 Theodore william richards.jpg Theodore William Richards Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements" [9]
1915 Richard Willstatter ETH-Bib PI 55-BO-0022.jpg Richard Martin Willstätter Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll" [31]
1916
1917
1918 Fritz Haber.png Fritz Haber Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements" [10]
1919
1920 Walther Nernst.jpg Walther Hermann Nernst Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "[for] his work in thermochemistry" [11]
1921 Frederick Soddy.jpg Frederick Soddy Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes" [12]
1922 Francis William Aston.jpg Francis William Aston Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule" [32]
1923 Fritz Pregl.jpg Fritz Pregl Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1943).svg  Kingdom of Yugoslavia
"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances" [33]
1924
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy.jpg Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary
"for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used" [13]
1926 The-svedberg-1.jpg The (Theodor) Svedberg Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for his work on disperse systems" [34]
1927 Heinrich Wieland.jpg Heinrich Otto Wieland Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances" [14]
1928 Windaus.jpg Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins" [35]
1929 ArthurHarden.jpg Arthur Harden Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes" [36]
Euler-chelpin.jpg Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
1930 Hans Fischer (Nobel).jpg Hans Fischer Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin" [37]
1931 Carl Bosch.jpg Carl Bosch Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods" [38]
Bergius.jpg Friedrich Bergius Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
1932 Langmuir.jpg Irving Langmuir Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry" [39]
1933
1934 Urey.jpg Harold Clayton Urey Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen" [40]
1935 Joliot-fred.jpg Frédéric Joliot Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements" [41]
Joliot-curie.jpg Irène Joliot-Curie Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France
1936 Debye100.jpg Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases" [42]
1937 Norman Haworth.jpg Walter Norman Haworth Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C" [43]
Paul Karrer.jpg Paul Karrer Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn ETH-Bib Dia 248-065.jpg Richard Kuhn Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins" [15]
1939 A. Butenandt 07-1935.jpg Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany "for his work on sex hormones" [44]
Leopold Ruzicka ETH-Bib Portr 00239.jpg Leopold Ruzicka Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1943).svg  Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes" [44]
1940
1941
1942
1943 George de Hevesy.jpg George de Hevesy Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes" [16]
1944 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-46019-0001, Otto Hahn.jpg Otto Hahn Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei" [17]
1945 Virtanen.jpg Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Flag of Finland.svg  Finland "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method" [45]
1946 James Batcheller Sumner.jpg James Batcheller Sumner Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized" [46]
John Howard Northrop.jpg John Howard Northrop Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form" [46]
Wendell Meredith Stanley.jpg Wendell Meredith Stanley Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
1947 Robert Robinson organic chemist.jpg Sir Robert Robinson Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids" [47]
1948 Arne Tiselius.jpg Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins" [48]
1949 William Giauque Nobel.jpg William Francis Giauque Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures" [49]
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels.jpg Otto Paul Hermann Diels Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis" [50]
Kurt Alder Nobel.jpg Kurt Alder Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
1951 Edwin McMillan Nobel.jpg Edwin Mattison McMillan Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements" [51]
Glenn Seaborg 1964.jpg Glenn Theodore Seaborg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
1952 Archer John Porter Martin Nobel.jpg Archer John Porter Martin Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their invention of partition chromatography" [52]
Richard Laurence Millington Synge.jpg Richard Laurence Millington Synge Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1953 Hermann Staudinger.jpg Hermann Staudinger Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry" [53]
1954 Pauling.jpg Linus Pauling Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances" [54]
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud.jpg Vincent du Vigneaud Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone" [55]
1956 Cyril Norman Hinshelwood Nobel.jpg Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions" [56]
Nikolay Semyonov Nobel.jpg Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1957 Alexander Todd Nobel.jpg Lord (Alexander R.) Todd Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes" [57]
1958 Frederick Sanger2.jpg Frederick Sanger Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin" [58]
1959 Heyrovsky Jaroslav crop.jpg Jaroslav Heyrovský Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis" [59]
1960 Willard Frank Libby Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science" [60]
1961 Melvin Calvin 1960s.jpg Melvin Calvin Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants" [61]
1962 Max Perutz.jpg Max Ferdinand Perutz Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins" [62]
John Kendrew Nobel.jpg John Cowdery Kendrew Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1963 Karl Ziegler Nobel.jpg Karl Ziegler Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers" [63]
Giulio Natta 1960s.jpg Giulio Natta Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1964 Dorothy Hodgkin Nobel.jpg Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances" [64]
1965 Robert Woodward Nobel.jpg Robert Burns Woodward Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis" [65]
1966 Mulliken,Robert 1929 Chicago.jpg Robert S. Mulliken Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method" [66]
1967 Eigen,Manfred 1996 Gottingen.jpg Manfred Eigen Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy" [67]
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish.jpg Ronald George Wreyford Norrish Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
George Porter Nobel.jpg George Porter Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1968 Onsager 1968.jpg Lars Onsager Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes" [68]
1969 Derek H. R. Barton Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry" [69]
Odd Hassel.jpg Odd Hassel Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
1970 Luis Federico Leloir - young.jpg Luis F. Leloir Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates" [70]
1971 Herzberg,Gerhard 1952 London.jpg Gerhard Herzberg Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals" [71]
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen, NIH portrait, 1969.jpg Christian B. Anfinsen Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation" [72]
Stanford Moore Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule" [72]
William H. Stein Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds" [73]
Geoffrey Wilkinson (ca. 1976).jpg Geoffrey Wilkinson Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1974 Paul Flory 1973.jpg Paul J. Flory Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules" [74]
1975 John Cornforth 1975.jpg John Warcup Cornforth Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions" [75]
Vladimir Prelog ETH-Bib Portr 00214.jpg Vladimir Prelog Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions" [75]
1976 William n lipscomb jr.jpg William N. Lipscomb Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding" [76]
1977 Ilya Prigogine 1977c.jpg Ilya Prigogine Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures" [77]
1978 Peter D. Mitchell Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory" [78]
1979 Herbert C. Brown Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis" [79]
Georg Wittig Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
1980 Paul Berg in 1980.jpg Paul Berg Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA" [80]
WalterGilbert2.jpg Walter Gilbert Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids" [80]
Frederick Sanger2.jpg Frederick Sanger Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1981 Kenichi Fukui.jpg Kenichi Fukui Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions" [81]
Roald Hoffmann.jpg Roald Hoffmann Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
1982 Aaron Klug 1979.jpg Aaron Klug Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes" [82]
1983 HD.3F.005 (11086397086).jpg Henry Taube Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes" [83]
1984 R. B. Merrifield.jpg Robert Bruce Merrifield Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix" [84]
1985 Herbert Hauptman - UB 2009.jpg Herbert A. Hauptman Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures" [85]
Jerome Karle.jpg Jerome Karle Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1986 Herschbach cropped.JPG Dudley R. Herschbach Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes" [86]
Yuan T. Lee 1-1.jpg Yuan T. Lee Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan
John C. Polanyi Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
1987 Donald J. Cram Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity" [87]
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F088117-0003, Jean-Marie Lehn.jpg Jean-Marie Lehn Flag of France.svg  France
Charles J. Pedersen Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre" [88]
Robert Huber.JPG Robert Huber Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Michel, Hartmut (1948).jpg Hartmut Michel Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
1989 Sidney Altman crop.jpg Sidney Altman Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA" [89]
Thomas r. cech.jpg Thomas Cech Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1990 E.J.Coreyx240.jpg Elias James Corey Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis" [90]
1991 Richard R Ernst.jpg Richard R. Ernst Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy" [91]
1992 Prof. Dr. Rudolph A. Marcus.jpg Rudolph A. Marcus Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems" [92]
1993 Kary Mullis.jpg Kary B. Mullis Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method" [93]
Michael Smith Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies" [93]
1994 Olah Gyorgy eloadasa 8299.jpg George A. Olah Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" [94]
1995 Paul Jozef Crutzen 128.jpg Paul J. Crutzen Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone" [95]
Mario Molina 1c389 8387.jpg Mario J. Molina Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
F. Sherwood Rowland.jpg F. Sherwood Rowland Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1996 Robert Curl crop 2009 CHAO.jpg Robert F. Curl Jr. Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of fullerenes" [96]
Harold Kroto 1c389 8471.sweden.jpg Sir Harold W. Kroto Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Richard Smalley.jpg Richard E. Smalley Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1997 Paul D. Boyer.jpg Paul D. Boyer Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)" [97]
John Ernest Walker.jpg John E. Walker Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Skou2008crop.jpg Jens C. Skou Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase" [97]
1998 WalterKohnGraz21042006 1.jpg Walter Kohn Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his development of the density-functional theory" [98]
John Anthony Pople.png John A. Pople Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry" [98]
1999 Ahmed Zewail.jpg Ahmed Zewail Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy" [99]
2000 Heeger, Alan J. (1936).jpg Alan J. Heeger Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers" [100]
Alan MacDiarmid 2005.017.004e crop.tif Alan G. MacDiarmid Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa 20011212.jpg Hideki Shirakawa Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
2001 William S. Knowles Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions" [101]
Rioji Noyori.jpg Ryōji Noyori Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
K. Barry Sharpless Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions" [101]
2002 John B Fenn01.jpg John B. Fenn Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules" [102]
Koichi Tanaka 2003.jpg Koichi Tanaka Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Kurt-Wuethrich.jpg Kurt Wüthrich Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution" [102]
2003 Peter Agre.jpg Peter Agre Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels" [103]
Roderick MacKinnon, M.D..jpg Roderick MacKinnon Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels" [103]
2004 Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Ciehanover.jpg Aaron Ciechanover Flag of Israel.svg  Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation" [104]
Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Hershko.jpg Avram Hershko Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Rose.jpg Irwin Rose Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2005 Yves Chauvin Flag of France.svg  France "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis" [105]
Robert Grubbs.jpg Robert H. Grubbs Flag of the United States.svg  United States
R. Schrock 2012b.jpg Richard R. Schrock Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2006 Roger.Kornberg.JPG Roger D. Kornberg Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription" [106]
2007 Prof Ertl-Portrait.jpg Gerhard Ertl Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces" [107]
2008 Osamu Shimomura-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-2.jpg Osamu Shimomura Flag of Japan.svg  Japan [108] "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP" [109]
Martin Chalfie-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-4.jpg Martin Chalfie Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Roger Tsien-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-2.jpg Roger Y. Tsien Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2009 Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-04.jpg Venkatraman Ramakrishnan Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of India.svg  India
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome" [110]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-10.jpg Thomas A. Steitz Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-15.jpg Ada E. Yonath Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
2010 Richard F. Heck2010.jpg Richard F. Heck Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis" [111]
Nobel Prize 2010-Press Conference KVA-DSC 7398.jpg Ei-ichi Negishi Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Nobel Prize 2010-Press Conference KVA-DSC 7383.jpg Akira Suzuki Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
2011 Nobel Prize 2011-Nobel interviews KVA-DSC 8039.jpg Dan Shechtman Flag of Israel.svg  Israel "for the discovery of quasicrystals" [112]
2012 Lefkowitz3.jpg Robert Lefkowitz Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors" [113]
Brian Kobilka (649437151).jpg Brian Kobilka Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2013 Nobel Prize 22 2013.jpg Martin Karplus Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems" [114]
Michael Levitt.jpg Michael Levitt Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel [115]
AW TW PS.jpg Arieh Warshel Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
2014 Eric Betzig.jpg Eric Betzig Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy" [116]
Stefan W Hell.jpg Stefan W. Hell Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania [117]
WE Moerner.jpg William E. Moerner Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2015 Tomas Lindahl 0209.jpg Tomas Lindahl Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair" [118]
Paul L. Modrich 0151.jpg Paul L. Modrich Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Aziz Sancar 0176.jpg Aziz Sancar Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
2016 Nobel Laureates 0828 (30679373053).jpg Jean-Pierre Sauvage Flag of France.svg  France "for the design and synthesis of molecular machines" [119]
Nobel Laureates 0953 (31117136180).jpg Fraser Stoddart Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
FeringaWiki.jpg Ben Feringa Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
2017 Jacques Dubochet D81 4506 (38005029785).jpg Jacques Dubochet Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution" [120]
Joachim Frank EM1B8792 (27115577469).jpg Joachim Frank Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of the United States.svg  United States [121]
Richard Henderson D81 4486 (38005042695).jpg Richard Henderson Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
2018 Frances Arnold 2012.png Frances Arnold Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the directed evolution of enzymes" [122]
George Smith EM1B5849 (31295409687).jpg George Smith Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the phage display of peptides and antibodies"
Gregory Winter in the Master's Garden at Trinity College by Aga Machaj .jpg Gregory Winter Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom

See also

Related Research Articles

Marie Curie Polish-French physicist and chemist

Marie Skłodowska Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. She was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine One of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries. The Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature. The reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, and has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field. The award's official name is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

References

Notes

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of chemistry for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

Citations

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Sources