Particle physics

Last updated

Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour.

Contents

In current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions, e.g. to the newest "known" particle, the Higgs boson, or even to the oldest known force field, gravity. [1] [2]

Subatomic particles

The particle content of the Standard Model of Physics Standard Model of Elementary Particles Anti.svg
The particle content of the Standard Model of Physics

Modern particle physics research is focused on subatomic particles, including atomic constituents such as electrons, protons, and neutrons (protons and neutrons are composite particles called baryons, made of quarks), produced by radioactive and scattering processes, such as photons, neutrinos, and muons, as well as a wide range of exotic particles.

Dynamics of particles are also governed by quantum mechanics; they exhibit wave–particle duality, displaying particle-like behaviour under certain experimental conditions and wave-like behaviour in others. In more technical terms, they are described by quantum state vectors in a Hilbert space, which is also treated in quantum field theory. Following the convention of particle physicists, the term elementary particles is applied to those particles that are, according to current understanding, presumed to be indivisible and not composed of other particles. [3]

Elementary Particles
Types Generations Antiparticle Colours Total
Quarks 23Pair336
Leptons PairNone12
Gluons 1NoneOwn 8 8
Photon OwnNone1
Z Boson Own1
W Boson Pair2
Higgs Own1
Total number of (known) elementary particles:61

All particles and their interactions observed to date can be described almost entirely by a quantum field theory called the Standard Model. [4] The Standard Model, as currently formulated, has 61 elementary particles. [3] Those elementary particles can combine to form composite particles, accounting for the hundreds of other species of particles that have been discovered since the 1960s.

The Standard Model has been found to agree with almost all the experimental tests conducted to date. However, most particle physicists believe that it is an incomplete description of nature and that a more fundamental theory awaits discovery (See Theory of Everything). In recent years, measurements of neutrino mass have provided the first experimental deviations from the Standard Model, since neutrinos are massless in the Standard Model. [5]

History

The idea that all matter is fundamentally composed of elementary particles dates from at least the 6th century BC. [6] In the 19th century, John Dalton, through his work on stoichiometry, concluded that each element of nature was composed of a single, unique type of particle. [7] The word atom , after the Greek word atomos meaning "indivisible", has since then denoted the smallest particle of a chemical element, but physicists soon discovered that atoms are not, in fact, the fundamental particles of nature, but are conglomerates of even smaller particles, such as the electron. The early 20th century explorations of nuclear physics and quantum physics led to proofs of nuclear fission in 1939 by Lise Meitner (based on experiments by Otto Hahn), and nuclear fusion by Hans Bethe in that same year; both discoveries also led to the development of nuclear weapons. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, a bewildering variety of particles were found in collisions of particles from beams of increasingly high energy. It was referred to informally as the "particle zoo". Important discoveries such as the CP violation by Chien-Shiung Wu brought new questions to matter-antimatter imbalance. [8] The term particle zoo was modified[ citation needed ] after the formulation of the Standard Model during the 1970s, in which the large number of particles was explained as combinations of a (relatively) small number of more fundamental particles, which marked the beginning of modern particle physics.[ citation needed ]

Standard Model

The current state of the classification of all elementary particles is explained by the Standard Model, which gained widespread acceptance in the mid-1970s after experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. It describes the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental interactions, using mediating gauge bosons. The species of gauge bosons are eight gluons,
W
,
W+
and
Z
bosons
, and the photon. [4] The Standard Model also contains 24 fundamental fermions (12 particles and their associated anti-particles), which are the constituents of all matter. [9] Finally, the Standard Model also predicted the existence of a type of boson known as the Higgs boson. On 4 July 2012, physicists with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN announced they had found a new particle that behaves similarly to what is expected from the Higgs boson. [10]

Experimental laboratories

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA 02 Fermilab - Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory - American particle accelerator Fermilab near Chicago Illinois.jpg
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA

The world's major particle physics laboratories are:

Many other particle accelerators also exist.

The techniques required for modern experimental particle physics are quite varied and complex, constituting a sub-specialty nearly completely distinct[ citation needed ] from the theoretical side of the field.

Theory

Theoretical particle physics attempts to develop the models, theoretical framework, and mathematical tools to understand current experiments and make predictions for future experiments (see also theoretical physics). There are several major interrelated efforts being made in theoretical particle physics today.

One important branch attempts to better understand the Standard Model and its tests. Theorists make quantitative predictions of observables at collider and astronomical experiments, which along with experimental measurements is used to extract the parameters of the Standard Model with less uncertainty. This work probes the limits of the Standard Model and therefore expands scientific understanding of nature's building blocks. Those efforts are made challenging by the difficulty of calculating high precision quantities in quantum chromodynamics. Some theorists working in this area use the tools of perturbative quantum field theory and effective field theory, referring to themselves as phenomenologists .[ citation needed ] Others make use of lattice field theory and call themselves lattice theorists.

Another major effort is in model building where model builders develop ideas for what physics may lie beyond the Standard Model (at higher energies or smaller distances). This work is often motivated by the hierarchy problem and is constrained by existing experimental data.[ citation needed ] It may involve work on supersymmetry, alternatives to the Higgs mechanism, extra spatial dimensions (such as the Randall–Sundrum models), Preon theory, combinations of these, or other ideas.

A third major effort in theoretical particle physics is string theory. String theorists attempt to construct a unified description of quantum mechanics and general relativity by building a theory based on small strings, and branes rather than particles. If the theory is successful, it may be considered a "Theory of Everything", or "TOE".

There are also other areas of work in theoretical particle physics ranging from particle cosmology to loop quantum gravity.[ citation needed ]

This division of efforts in particle physics is reflected in the names of categories on the arXiv, a preprint archive: [23] hep-th (theory), hep-ph (phenomenology), hep-ex (experiments), hep-lat (lattice gauge theory).

Practical applications

In principle, all physics (and practical applications developed therefrom) can be derived from the study of fundamental particles. In practice, even if "particle physics" is taken to mean only "high-energy atom smashers", many technologies have been developed during these pioneering investigations that later find wide uses in society. Particle accelerators are used to produce medical isotopes for research and treatment (for example, isotopes used in PET imaging), or used directly in external beam radiotherapy. The development of superconductors has been pushed forward by their use in particle physics. The World Wide Web and touchscreen technology were initially developed at CERN. Additional applications are found in medicine, national security, industry, computing, science, and workforce development, illustrating a long and growing list of beneficial practical applications with contributions from particle physics. [24]

Future

The primary goal, which is pursued in several distinct ways, is to find and understand what physics may lie beyond the standard model. There are several powerful experimental reasons to expect new physics, including dark matter and neutrino mass. There are also theoretical hints that this new physics should be found at accessible energy scales.

Much of the effort to find this new physics are focused on new collider experiments. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was completed in 2008 to help continue the search for the Higgs boson, supersymmetric particles, and other new physics. An intermediate goal is the construction of the International Linear Collider (ILC), which will complement the LHC by allowing more precise measurements of the properties of newly found particles. In August 2004, a decision for the technology of the ILC was taken but the site has still to be agreed upon.

In addition, there are important non-collider experiments that also attempt to find and understand physics beyond the Standard Model. One important non-collider effort is the determination of the neutrino masses, since these masses may arise from neutrinos mixing with very heavy particles. In addition, cosmological observations provide many useful constraints on the dark matter, although it may be impossible to determine the exact nature of the dark matter without the colliders. Finally, lower bounds on the very long lifetime of the proton put constraints on Grand Unified Theories at energy scales much higher than collider experiments will be able to probe any time soon.

In May 2014, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel released its report on particle physics funding priorities for the United States over the next decade. This report emphasized continued U.S. participation in the LHC and ILC, and expansion of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, among other recommendations.

See also

Related Research Articles

Elementary particle Subatomic particle having no known substructure

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle with no substructure, i.e. it is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions, which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons, which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is called a composite particle.

CERN European particle physics research organisation

The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 23 member states. Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership. CERN is an official United Nations Observer.

Standard Model Theory of particle physics

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles. It was developed in stages throughout the latter half of the 20th century, through the work of many scientists around the world, with the current formulation being finalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. Since then, confirmation of the top quark (1995), the tau neutrino (2000), and the Higgs boson (2012) have added further credence to the Standard Model. In addition, the Standard Model has predicted various properties of weak neutral currents and the W and Z bosons with great accuracy.

Tevatron Particle accelerator

The Tevatron was a circular particle accelerator in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, east of Batavia, Illinois, and is the second highest energy particle collider ever built, after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland. The Tevatron was a synchrotron that accelerated protons and antiprotons in a 6.28 km (3.90 mi) ring to energies of up to 1 TeV, hence its name. The Tevatron was completed in 1983 at a cost of $120 million and significant upgrade investments were made during its active years of 1983–2011.

Compact Muon Solenoid One of the two general-purposes experiment at the CERNs Large Hadron Collider

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors built on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland and France. The goal of CMS experiment is to investigate a wide range of physics, including the search for the Higgs boson, extra dimensions, and particles that could make up dark matter.

Annihilation

In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons. The total energy and momentum of the initial pair are conserved in the process and distributed among a set of other particles in the final state. Antiparticles have exactly opposite additive quantum numbers from particles, so the sums of all quantum numbers of such an original pair are zero. Hence, any set of particles may be produced whose total quantum numbers are also zero as long as conservation of energy and conservation of momentum are obeyed.

Large Hadron Collider Particle collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider and the largest machine in the world. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries. It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.

ATLAS experiment CERN LHC experiment

ATLAS is the largest, general-purpose particle detector experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland. The experiment is designed to take advantage of the unprecedented energy available at the LHC and observe phenomena that involve highly massive particles which were not observable using earlier lower-energy accelerators. ATLAS was one of the two LHC experiments involved in the discovery of the Higgs boson in July 2012. It was also designed to search for evidence of theories of particle physics beyond the Standard Model.

Large Electron–Positron Collider

The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.

Super Proton Synchrotron Particle accelerator at CERN

The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN. It is housed in a circular tunnel, 6.9 kilometres (4.3 mi) in circumference, straddling the border of France and Switzerland near Geneva, Switzerland.

In particle physics, preons are point particles, conceived of as sub-components of quarks and leptons. The word was coined by Jogesh Pati and Abdus Salam, in 1974. Interest in preon models peaked in the 1980s but has slowed, as the Standard Model of particle physics continues to describe the physics, mostly successfully, and no direct experimental evidence for lepton and quark compositeness has been found. Preons come in four varieties, plus, anti-plus, zero and anti-zero. W bosons have 6 preons and quarks have only 3.

In particle physics, a generation or family is a division of the elementary particles. Between generations, particles differ by their flavour quantum number and mass, but their electric and strong interactions are identical.

Leptoquarks (LQs) are hypothetical particles that would interact with quarks and leptons. Leptoquarks are color-triplet bosons that carry both lepton and baryon numbers. Their other quantum numbers, like spin, (fractional) electric charge and weak isospin vary among theories. Leptoquarks are encountered in various extensions of the Standard Model, such as technicolor theories, theories of quark-lepton unification (e.g., Pati–Salam model), or GUTs based on SU(5), SO(10), E6, etc. Leptoquarks are currently searched for in experiments ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN.

Physics beyond the Standard Model Theories attempting to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, Quantum field theory and general relativity

Physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) refers to the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, such as the inability to explain the fundamental parameters of the standard model, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillations, matter–antimatter asymmetry, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Another problem lies within the mathematical framework of the Standard Model itself: the Standard Model is inconsistent with that of general relativity, and one or both theories break down under certain conditions, such as spacetime singularities like the Big Bang and black hole event horizons.

The timeline of particle physics lists the sequence of particle physics theories and discoveries in chronological order. The most modern developments follow the scientific development of the discipline of particle physics.

Marcela Carena

Marcela Carena is a theoretical physicist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a professor at the University of Chicago and the Enrico Fermi Institute. She is the Director of International Relations at Fermilab, as well as the head of the Theoretical Physics Department. As of January 1, 2016 she is the Chair Elect of the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society.

Search for the Higgs boson

The search for the Higgs boson was a 40-year effort by physicists to prove the existence or non-existence of the Higgs boson, first theorised in the 1960s. The Higgs boson was the last unobserved fundamental particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, and its discovery was described as being the "ultimate verification" of the Standard Model. In March 2013, the Higgs boson was officially confirmed to exist.

History of subatomic physics

The idea that matter consists of smaller particles and that there exists a limited number of sorts of primary, smallest particles in nature has existed in natural philosophy at least since the 6th century BC. Such ideas gained physical credibility beginning in the 19th century, but the concept of "elementary particle" underwent some changes in its meaning: notably, modern physics no longer deems elementary particles indestructible. Even elementary particles can decay or collide destructively; they can cease to exist and create (other) particles in result.

The Circular Electron Positron Collider is an electron positron collider first proposed by the Chinese high-energy physics community in 2012. This machine could later be upgraded to a high-energy proton-proton collider, with potential far beyond the current production of the Higgs boson. The low Higgs mass of ~125 GeV makes possible a Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs Factory, which has the advantage of higher luminosity to cost ratio and the potential to be upgraded to a proton-proton collider to reach unprecedented high energy and discover new physics. The underground particle-smashing ring aims to be at least twice the size of the globe's current leading collider - the Large Hadron Collider (CERN) outside Geneva. With a circumference of 80 kilometres, the Chinese accelerator complex would encircle the entire island of Manhattan.

David B. Cline American particle physicist

]

References

  1. "The Higgs Boson". CERN.
  2. "The BEH-Mechanism, Interactions with Short Range Forces and Scalar Particles" (PDF). 8 October 2013.
  3. 1 2 Braibant, S.; Giacomelli, G.; Spurio, M. (2009). Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics. Springer. pp. 313–314. ISBN   978-94-007-2463-1.
  4. 1 2 "Particle Physics and Astrophysics Research". The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  5. "Neutrinos in the Standard Model". The T2K Collaboration. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  6. "Fundamentals of Physics and Nuclear Physics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  7. "Scientific Explorer: Quasiparticles". Sciexplorer.blogspot.com. 22 May 2012. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  8. "Antimatter". 1 March 2021.
  9. Nakamura, K (1 July 2010). "Review of Particle Physics". Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. 37 (7A): 075021. Bibcode:2010JPhG...37g5021N. doi: 10.1088/0954-3899/37/7A/075021 . PMID   10020536.
  10. Mann, Adam (28 March 2013). "Newly Discovered Particle Appears to Be Long-Awaited Higgs Boson". Wired Science. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  11. Harrison, M.; Ludlam, T.; Ozaki, S. (March 2003). "RHIC project overview". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 499 (2–3): 235–244. Bibcode:2003NIMPA.499..235H. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(02)01937-X.
  12. Courant, Ernest D. (December 2003). "Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes". Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science . 53 (1): 1–37. Bibcode:2003ARNPS..53....1C. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nucl.53.041002.110450 . ISSN   0163-8998.
  13. "index". Vepp2k.inp.nsk.su. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  14. "The VEPP-4 accelerating-storage complex". V4.inp.nsk.su. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  15. "VEPP-2M collider complex" (in Russian). Inp.nsk.su. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  16. "The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics". English Russia. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  17. "Welcome to". Info.cern.ch. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  18. "Germany's largest accelerator centre". Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  19. "Fermilab | Home". Fnal.gov. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  20. "IHEP | Home". ihep.ac.cn. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  21. "Kek | High Energy Accelerator Research Organization". Legacy.kek.jp. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  22. "SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Home Page" . Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  23. "arXiv.org e-Print archive".
  24. "Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Benefits to Society". Fnal.gov. Retrieved 23 June 2012.

Further reading

Introductory reading
Advanced reading