WikiMili The Free Encyclopedia

This article needs attention from an expert in physics. The specific problem is: Unclear phrasing in #Tracker behavior and #Quintom scenario.(April 2009) |

In physics, **quintessence** is a hypothetical form of dark energy, more precisely a scalar field, postulated as an explanation of the observation of an accelerating rate of expansion of the universe. The first example of this scenario was proposed by Ratra and Peebles (1988).^{ [1] } The concept was expanded to more general types of time-varying dark energy and the term "quintessence" was first introduced in a paper by Robert R. Caldwell, Rahul Dave and Paul Steinhardt.^{ [2] } It has been proposed by some physicists to be a fifth fundamental force.^{ [3] }^{ [4] }^{ [5] } Quintessence differs from the cosmological constant explanation of dark energy in that it is dynamic; that is, it changes over time, unlike the cosmological constant which, by definition, does not change. Quintessence can be either attractive or repulsive depending on the ratio of its kinetic and potential energy. Those working with this postulate believe that quintessence became repulsive about ten billion years ago, about 3.5 billion years after the Big Bang.^{ [6] }

**Physics** is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.

A **hypothesis** is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research, in a process beginning with an educated guess or thought.

In physical cosmology and astronomy, **dark energy** is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.

Quintessence (*Q*) is a scalar field with an equation of state where *w*_{q}, the ratio of pressure *p*_{q} and density _{q}, is given by the potential energy and a kinetic term:

In mathematics and physics, a **scalar field** associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. In a physical context, scalar fields are required to be independent of the choice of reference frame, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space regardless of their respective points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields are the subject of scalar field theory.

In cosmology, the **equation of state** of a perfect fluid is characterized by a dimensionless number , equal to the ratio of its pressure to its energy density :

Hence, quintessence is dynamic, and generally has a density and *w*_{q} parameter that varies with time. By contrast, a cosmological constant is static, with a fixed energy density and *w*_{q} = −1.

**Energy density** is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume. Colloquially it may also be used for energy per unit mass, though the accurate term for this is specific energy. Often only the *useful* or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that inaccessible energy is ignored. In cosmological and other general relativistic contexts, however, the energy densities considered are those that correspond to the elements of the stress–energy tensor and therefore do include mass energy as well as energy densities associated with the pressures described in the next paragraph.

Many models of quintessence have a *tracker* behavior, which according to Ratra and Peebles (1988) and Paul Steinhardt *et al.* (1999) partly solves the cosmological constant problem.^{ [7] } In these models, the quintessence field has a density which closely tracks (but is less than) the radiation density until matter-radiation equality, which triggers quintessence to start having characteristics similar to dark energy, eventually dominating the universe. This naturally sets the low scale of the dark energy.^{ [8] } When comparing the predicted expansion rate of the universe as given by the tracker solutions with cosmological data, a main feature of tracker solutions is that one needs four parameters to properly describe the behavior of their equation of state,^{ [9] }^{ [10] } whereas it has been shown that at most a two-parameter model can optimally be constrained by mid-term future data (horizon 2015–2020).^{ [11] }

**Paul Joseph Steinhardt** is an American theoretical physicist whose principal research is in cosmology and condensed matter physics. He is currently the Albert Einstein Professor in Science at Princeton University where he is on the faculty of the Departments of Physics and Astrophysical Sciences.

In cosmology, the **cosmological constant problem** or **vacuum catastrophe** is the disagreement between the observed values of vacuum energy density and theoretical large value of zero-point energy suggested by quantum field theory.

Some special cases of quintessence are phantom energy, in which *w*_{q} < −1,^{ [12] } and k-essence (short for kinetic quintessence), which has a non-standard form of kinetic energy. If this type of energy were to exist, it would cause a big rip ^{ [13] } in the universe due to the growing energy density of dark energy which would cause the expansion of the universe to increase at a faster-than-exponential rate.

**Phantom energy** is a hypothetical form of dark energy satisfying the equation of state with . It possesses negative kinetic energy, and predicts expansion of the universe in excess of that predicted by a cosmological constant, which leads to a Big Rip. The idea of phantom energy is often dismissed, as it would suggest that the vacuum is unstable with negative mass particles bursting into existence. The concept is hence tied to emerging theories of a continuously-created negative mass dark fluid, in which the cosmological constant can vary as a function of time.

In physics, the **kinetic energy** (**KE**) of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body when decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest.

Holographic dark energy models compared with cosmological constant models, imply a high degeneracy.^{[ clarification needed ]}^{ [14] } It has been suggested that dark energy might originate from quantum fluctuations of spacetime, and are limited by the event horizon of the universe.^{ [15] }

In mathematics, a **degenerate case** is a limiting case in which an element of a class of objects is qualitatively different from the rest of the class and hence belongs to another, usually simpler, class. **Degeneracy** is the condition of being a degenerate case.

In physics, **spacetime** is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects such as why different observers perceive *where* and *when* events occur differently.

Studies with quintessence dark energy found that it dominates gravitational collapse in a spacetime simulation, based on the holographic thermalization. These results show that the smaller the state parameter of quintessence is, the harder it is for the plasma to thermalize.^{ [16] }

In 2004, when scientists fitted the evolution of dark energy with the cosmological data, they found that the equation of state had possibly crossed the cosmological constant boundary (w = –1) from above to below. A proven no-go theorem indicates this situation, called the Quintom scenario, requires at least two degrees of freedom for dark energy models.^{ [17] }

The name comes from *quinta essentia* (fifth element) so called in Latin starting from the Middle Ages, was the element added by Aristotle to the other four ancient classical elements, because he thought it was the essence of the celestial world. Aristotle called this element aether, that had to be a pure, fine and primigenial element. Similarly, modern quintessence would be the fifth known "dynamical, time-dependent and spatially inhomogeneous" contribution to the overall mass–energy content of the universe. The other four components are not the classical elements, but rather "baryons, neutrinos, dark matter, [and] radiation." Although neutrinos are sometimes considered radiation, the term "radiation" here refers only to photons. Spatial curvature (which has not been detected) is excluded because it is non-dynamical and homogeneous; the cosmological constant would not be considered a fifth component in this sense because it is non-dynamical, homogeneous, and time-independent.^{ [2] }

**Physical cosmology** is a branch of cosmology concerned with the studies of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed those physical laws to be understood. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the development in 1915 of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, followed by major observational discoveries in the 1920s: first, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe contains a huge number of external galaxies beyond the Milky Way; then, work by Vesto Slipher and others showed that the universe is expanding. These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed the establishment of the Big Bang theory, by Georges Lemaître, as the leading cosmological model. A few researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, most cosmologists agree that the Big Bang theory explains the observations better.

In physical cosmology, **cosmic inflation**, **cosmological inflation**, or just **inflation**, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10^{−36} seconds after the conjectured Big Bang singularity to some time between 10^{−33} and 10^{−32} seconds after the singularity. Following the inflationary period, the universe continued to expand, but the expansion was no longer accelerating.

A **wormhole ** is a speculative structure linking disparate points in spacetime, and is based on a special solution of the Einstein field equations solved using a Jacobian matrix and determinant. A wormhole can be visualized as a tunnel with two ends, each at separate points in spacetime. More precisely it is a transcendental bijection of the spacetime continuum, an asymptotic projection of the Calabi–Yau manifold manifesting itself in Anti-de Sitter space.

The **accelerating expansion of the universe** is the observation that the expansion of the universe is such that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.

The **ultimate fate of the universe** is a topic in physical cosmology, whose theoretical restrictions allow possible scenarios for the evolution and ultimate fate of the universe to be described and evaluated. Based on available observational evidence, deciding the fate and evolution of the universe have now become valid cosmological questions, being beyond the mostly untestable constraints of mythological or theological beliefs. Many possible futures have been predicted by different scientific hypotheses, including that the universe might have existed for a finite and infinite duration, or towards explaining the manner and circumstances of its beginning.

The **Sachs–Wolfe effect**, named after Rainer K. Sachs and Arthur M. Wolfe, is a property of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), in which photons from the CMB are gravitationally redshifted, causing the CMB spectrum to appear uneven. This effect is the predominant source of fluctuations in the CMB for angular scales above about ten degrees.

A **cyclic model** is any of several cosmological models in which the universe follows infinite, or indefinite, self-sustaining cycles. For example, the oscillating universe theory briefly considered by Albert Einstein in 1930 theorized a universe following an eternal series of oscillations, each beginning with a Big Bang and ending with a Big Crunch; in the interim, the universe would expand for a period of time before the gravitational attraction of matter causes it to collapse back in and undergo a bounce.

The **horizon problem** is a cosmological fine-tuning problem within the Big Bang model of the universe. It arises due to the difficulty in explaining the observed homogeneity of causally disconnected regions of space in the absence of a mechanism that sets the same initial conditions everywhere. It was first pointed out by Wolfgang Rindler in 1956.

**Strongly interacting massive particles** (**SIMPs**) are hypothetical particles that interact strongly between themselves [looks like they scatter off each other - observation of colliding galaxies in the Abell 3827 cluster, where it seemed that dark matter lagged behind the ordinary matter] and weakly with ordinary matter, but could form the inferred dark matter despite this. However, this finding has since been discounted based on further observations and modelling of the cluster.

An **exotic star** is a hypothetical compact star composed of something other than electrons, protons, neutrons, or muons, and balanced against gravitational collapse by degeneracy pressure or other quantum properties. Exotic stars include quark stars and perhaps strange stars, as well as speculative preon stars. Of the various types of exotic star proposed, the most well evidenced and understood is the quark star.

In astronomy and cosmology, **dark fluid** is an alternative theory to both dark matter and dark energy and attempts to explain both phenomena in a single framework.

The **chameleon** is a hypothetical scalar particle that couples to matter more weakly than gravity, postulated as a dark energy candidate. Due to a non-linear self-interaction, it has a variable effective mass which is an increasing function of the ambient energy density—as a result, the range of the force mediated by the particle is predicted to be very small in regions of high density but much larger in low-density intergalactic regions: out in the cosmos chameleon models permit a range of up to several thousand parsecs. As a result of this variable mass, the hypothetical fifth force mediated by the chameleon is able to evade current constraints on equivalence principle violation derived from terrestrial experiments even if it couples to matter with a strength equal or greater than that of gravity. Although this property would allow the chameleon to drive the currently observed acceleration of the universe's expansion, it also makes it very difficult to test for experimentally.

In astronomy and cosmology, **light dark matter** are dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS) candidates with masses less than 1 GeV. These particles are heavier than warm dark matter and hot dark matter, but are lighter than the traditional forms of cold dark matter. The Lee-Weinberg bound limits the mass of the favored dark matter candidate, WIMPs, that interact via the weak interaction to GeV. This bound arises as follows. The lower the mass of WIMPs is, the lower the annihilation cross section, which is of the order , where *m* is the WIMP mass and *M* the mass of the Z-boson. This means that low mass WIMPs, which would be abundantly produced in the early universe, freeze out much earlier and thus at a higher temperature, than higher mass WIMPs. This leads to a higher relic WIMP density. If the mass is lower than GeV the WIMP relic density would overclose the universe.

The **Quintom scenario** is a hypothetical scenario involving dark energy.

**Sergei D. Odintsov** is a Spanish-based Russian astrophysicist active in the fields of cosmology, quantum field theory and quantum gravity. Odintsov is an ICREA Research Professor at the Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (Barcelona) since 2003. He also collaborates as group leader at research projects of the Tomsk State Pedagogical University. He is a member of the editorial boards of *Gravitation and Cosmology*, *International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics*, *International Journal of Modern Physics D*, *Journal of Gravity*, *Universe*, and the *Tomsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin*. Odintsov also is an advisory panel member of *Classical and Quantum Gravity*.

In astrophysics and cosmology **scalar field dark matter** is a classical, minimally coupled, scalar field postulated to account for the inferred dark matter.

**Robert R. Caldwell** is an American theoretical physicist and Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Dartmouth College. His research interests include cosmology and gravitation. He is known primarily for his work on theories of cosmic acceleration, in particular dark energy, quintessence, and the Big Rip scenario.

- ↑ Ratra, P.; Peebles, L. (1988). "Cosmological consequences of a rolling homogeneous scalar field".
*Physical Review D*.**37**(12): 3406. Bibcode:1988PhRvD..37.3406R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.37.3406. - 1 2 Caldwell, R.R.; Dave, R.; Steinhardt, P.J. (1998). "Cosmological Imprint of an Energy Component with General Equation-of-State".
*Phys. Rev. Lett*.**80**(8): 1582–1585. arXiv: astro-ph/9708069 . Bibcode:1998PhRvL..80.1582C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.1582. - ↑ Wetterich, C. "Quintessence --a fifth force from variation of the fundamental scale" (PDF). Heidelberg University.
- ↑ Dvali, Gia; Zaldarriaga, Matias. "Changing α With Time: Implications For Fifth-Force-Type Experiments And Quintessence" (PDF). CERN.
- ↑ Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo (23 July 2012). "Natural Quintessence in String Theory" – via arXiv.org.
- ↑ Wanjek, Christopher. "Quintessence, accelerating the Universe?".
*Astronomy Today*. - ↑ Zlatev, I.; Wang, L.; Steinhardt, P. (1999). "Quintessence, Cosmic Coincidence, and the Cosmological Constant".
*Physical Review Letters*.**82**(5): 896–899. arXiv: astro-ph/9807002 . Bibcode:1999PhRvL..82..896Z. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.896. - ↑ Steinhardt, P.; Wang, L.; Zlatev, I. (1999). "Cosmological tracking solutions".
*Physical Review D*.**59**(12): 123504. arXiv: astro-ph/9812313 . Bibcode:1999PhRvD..59l3504S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.59.123504. - ↑ Linden, Sebastian; Virey, Jean-Marc (2008). "Test of the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization for rapid dark energy equation of state transitions".
*Physical Review D*.**78**(2): 023526. arXiv: 0804.0389 . Bibcode:2008PhRvD..78b3526L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.78.023526. - ↑ Ferramacho, L.; Blanchard, A.; Zolnierowsky, Y.; Riazuelo, A. (2010). "Constraints on dark energy evolution".
*Astronomy & Astrophysics*.**514**: A20. arXiv: 0909.1703 . Bibcode:2010A&A...514A..20F. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913271. - ↑ Linder, Eric V.; Huterer, Dragan (2005). "How many cosmological parameters".
*Physical Review D*.**72**(4): 043509. arXiv: astro-ph/0505330 . Bibcode:2005PhRvD..72d3509L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.043509. - ↑ Caldwell, R. R. (2002). "A phantom menace? Cosmological consequences of a dark energy component with super-negative equation of state".
*Physics Letters B*.**545**(1–2): 23–29. arXiv: astro-ph/9908168 . Bibcode:2002PhLB..545...23C. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(02)02589-3. - ↑ Antoniou, Ioannis; Perivolaropoulos, Leandros (2016). "Geodesics of McVittie Spacetime with a Phantom Cosmological Background".
*Phys. Rev. D*.**93**(12): 123520. arXiv: 1603.02569 . Bibcode:2016PhRvD..93l3520A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.93.123520. - ↑ Hu, Yazhou; Li, Miao; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui (2015). "Holographic Dark Energy with Cosmological Constant".
*Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics*.**2015**(8): 012. arXiv: 1502.01156 . Bibcode:2015JCAP...08..012H. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2015/08/012. - ↑ Shan Gao (2013). "Explaining Holographic Dark Energy".
*Galaxies*.**1**(3): 180–191. Bibcode:2013Galax...1..180G. doi:10.3390/galaxies1030180. - ↑ Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Chen, De-You; Li, Li-Fang (2015). "Holographic thermalization and gravitational collapse in the spacetime dominated by quintessence dark energy".
*Physical Review D*.**91**(4): 046005. arXiv: 1408.6632 . Bibcode:2015PhRvD..91d6005Z. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.91.046005. - ↑ Hu, Wayne (2005). "Crossing the phantom divide: Dark energy internal degrees of freedom".
*Physical Review D*.**71**(4): 047301. arXiv: astro-ph/0410680 . Bibcode:2005PhRvD..71d7301H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.71.047301.

- Ostriker JP; Steinhardt P (January 2001). "The Quintessential Universe".
*Scientific American*.**284**(1): 46–53. Bibcode:2001SciAm.284a..46O. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0101-46. PMID 11132422. - Lawrence M. Krauss (2000).
*Quintessence: The Search for Missing Mass in the Universe*. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465037414.

This page is based on this Wikipedia article

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.