**Lev Davidovich Landau** (Russian : Лев Дави́дович Ланда́у; 22 January 1908 – 1 April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.^{ [1] }

- Life
- Early years
- Leningrad and Europe
- National Scientific Center Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkiv
- Institute for Physical Problems, Moscow
- Scientific achievements
- Personal life and views
- Last years
- Death
- Fields of contribution
- Pedagogy
- Legacy
- Landau's ranking of physicists
- In popular culture
- Works
- Course of Theoretical Physics
- Other
- See also
- References
- Further reading
- External links

His accomplishments include the independent co-discovery of the density matrix method^{ [2] }^{ [3] } in quantum mechanics (alongside John von Neumann), the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second-order phase transitions, the Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity, the theory of Fermi liquid, the explanation of Landau damping in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, the two-component theory of neutrinos, and Landau's equations for *S* matrix singularities.^{ [4] } He received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics for his development of a mathematical theory of superfluidity that accounts for the properties of liquid helium II at a temperature below 2.17 K (−270.98 °C ).^{ [5] }

Landau was born on 22 January 1908 to Jewish parents^{ [5] }^{ [6] }^{ [7] }^{ [8] } in Baku, Azerbaijan, in what was then the Russian Empire. Landau's father, David Lvovich Landau, was an engineer with the local oil industry, and his mother, Lyubov Veniaminovna Garkavi-Landau, was a doctor.^{ [9] } A child prodigy in mathematics, he learned to differentiate at age 12 and to integrate at age 13. Landau graduated in 1920 at age 13 from gymnasium. His parents considered him too young to attend university, so for a year he attended the Baku Economical Technical School. In 1922, at age 14, he matriculated at the Baku State University, studying in two departments simultaneously: the Departments of Physics and Mathematics, and the Department of Chemistry. Subsequently, he ceased studying chemistry, but remained interested in the field throughout his life.

In 1924, he moved to the main centre of Soviet physics at the time: the Physics Department of Leningrad State University, where he dedicated himself to the study of theoretical physics, graduating in 1927. Landau subsequently enrolled for post-graduate studies at the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute where he eventually received a doctorate in Physical and Mathematical Sciences in 1934.^{ [10] } Landau got his first chance to travel abroad during the period 1929–1931, on a Soviet government—People's Commissariat for Education—travelling fellowship supplemented by a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship. By that time he was fluent in German and French and could communicate in English.^{ [11] } He later improved his English and learned Danish.^{ [12] }

After brief stays in Göttingen and Leipzig, he went to Copenhagen on 8 April 1930 to work at the Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics. He stayed there until 3 May of the same year. After the visit, Landau always considered himself a pupil of Niels Bohr and Landau's approach to physics was greatly influenced by Bohr. After his stay in Copenhagen, he visited Cambridge (mid-1930), where he worked with Paul Dirac,^{ [13] } Copenhagen (September to November 1930),^{ [14] } and Zurich (December 1930 to January 1931), where he worked with Wolfgang Pauli.^{ [13] } From Zurich Landau went back to Copenhagen for the third time^{ [15] } and stayed there from 25 February until 19 March 1931 before returning to Leningrad the same year.^{ [16] }

Between 1932 and 1937, Landau headed the Department of Theoretical Physics at the National Scientific Center Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, and he lectured at the University of Kharkiv and the Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute. Apart from his theoretical accomplishments, Landau was the principal founder of a great tradition of theoretical physics in Kharkiv, Ukraine, sometimes referred to as the "Landau school". In Kharkiv, he and his friend and former student, Evgeny Lifshitz, began writing the * Course of Theoretical Physics *, ten volumes that together span the whole of the subject and are still widely used as graduate-level physics texts. During the Great Purge, Landau was investigated within the UPTI Affair in Kharkiv, but he managed to leave for Moscow to take up a new post.^{ [17] }

Landau developed a famous comprehensive exam called the "Theoretical Minimum" which students were expected to pass before admission to the school. The exam covered all aspects of theoretical physics, and between 1934 and 1961 only 43 candidates passed, but those who did later became quite notable theoretical physicists.^{ [18] }^{ [19] }

In 1932, Landau computed the Chandrashekhar limit;^{ [20] } however, he did not apply it to white dwarf stars.^{ [21] }

From 1937 until 1962, Landau was the head of the Theoretical Division at the Institute for Physical Problems.^{ [22] }

On 27 April 1938, Landau was arrested for the leaflet which compared Stalinism to German Nazism and Italian Fascism.^{ [17] }^{ [23] } He was held in the NKVD's Lubyanka prison until his release, on 29 April 1939, after Pyotr Kapitsa, an experimental low-temperature physicist and the founder and head of the institute, wrote a letter to Joseph Stalin in which he personally vouched for Landau's behaviour and threatened to quit the institute if Landau were not released.^{ [24] } After his release, Landau discovered how to explain Kapitsa's superfluidity using sound waves, or phonons, and a new excitation called a roton.^{ [17] }

Landau led a team of mathematicians supporting Soviet atomic and hydrogen bomb development. He calculated the dynamics of the first Soviet thermonuclear bomb, including predicting the yield. For this work Landau received the Stalin Prize in 1949 and 1953, and was awarded the title "Hero of Socialist Labour" in 1954.^{ [17] }

Landau's students included Lev Pitaevskii, Alexei Abrikosov, Evgeny Lifshitz, Lev Gor'kov, Isaak Khalatnikov, Roald Sagdeev and Isaak Pomeranchuk.

Landau's accomplishments include the independent co-discovery of the density matrix method in quantum mechanics (alongside John von Neumann), the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second-order phase transitions, the Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity, the theory of Fermi liquid, the explanation of Landau damping in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, the two-component theory of neutrinos, and Landau's equations for S matrix singularities.

Landau received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics for his development of a mathematical theory of superfluidity that accounts for the properties of liquid helium II at a temperature below 2.17 K (−270.98 °C)."^{ [25] }

In 1937, Landau married Kora T. Drobanzeva from Kharkiv.^{ [26] } Their son Igor was born in 1946. Landau believed in "free love" rather than monogamy and encouraged his wife and his students to practise "free love". However, his wife was not enthusiastic.^{ [17] }

Landau was an atheist.^{ [27] }^{ [28] }^{ [29] } In 1957, a lengthy report to the CPSU Central Committee by the KGB recorded Landau's views on the 1956 Hungarian Uprising, Vladimir Lenin and what he termed "red fascism".^{ [30] }

On 7 January 1962, Landau's car collided with an oncoming truck. He was severely injured and spent two months in a coma. Although Landau recovered in many ways, his scientific creativity was destroyed,^{ [22] } and he never returned fully to scientific work. His injuries prevented him from accepting the 1962 Nobel Prize for physics in person.^{ [31] }

Throughout his life Landau was known for his sharp humour, as illustrated by the following dialogue with a psychologist, Alexander Luria, who tried to test for possible brain damage while Landau was recovering from the car crash:^{ [12] }^{ [32] }

- Luria: "Please draw me a circle"
- Landau draws a cross
- Luria: "Hm, now draw me a cross"
- Landau draws a circle
- Luria: "Landau, why don't you do what I ask?"
- Landau: "If I did, you might come to think I've become mentally retarded".

In 1965 former students and co-workers of Landau founded the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, located in the town of Chernogolovka near Moscow, and led for the following three decades by Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov.

In June 1965, Lev Landau and Yevsei Liberman published a letter in the *New York Times*, stating that as Soviet Jews they opposed U.S. intervention on behalf of the Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry.^{ [33] }

Landau died on 1 April 1968, aged 60, from complications of the injuries sustained in the car accident he was involved in six years earlier. He was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery.^{ [34] }

- DLVO theory
- Fermi liquid theory
- Quasiparticle
- Landau damping
- Landau distribution
- Landau gauge
- Landau pole
- Landau susceptibility
- Landau potential
- Landau quantization
- Landau theory
- Landau–Squire jet
- Landau–Levich problem
- Landau–Hopf theory of turbulence
- Ginzburg–Landau theory
- Darrieus–Landau instability
- Landau–Lifshitz aeroacoustic equation
- Landau–Raychaudhuri equation
- Landau–Zener formula
- Landau–Lifshitz model
- Landau–Lifshitz pseudotensor
- Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation
- Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect
- Landau–Yang theorem
- Landau principle
- Superfluidity
- Superconductivity

Two celestial objects are named in his honour:

- the minor planet 2142 Landau.
^{ [35] } - the lunar crater Landau.

The highest prize in theoretical physics awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences is named in his honour:

On 22 January 2019, Google celebrated what would have been Landau's 111th birthday with a Google doodle.^{ [36] }

The Landau-Spitzer Award (American Physical Society), which recognizes outstanding contributions to plasma physics and European-United States collaboration, is named in-part in his honor.^{ [37] }

Landau kept a list of names of physicists which he ranked on a logarithmic scale of productivity ranging from 0 to 5.^{ [38] } The highest ranking, 0, was assigned to Isaac Newton. Albert Einstein was ranked 0.5. A rank of 1 was awarded to the founding fathers of quantum mechanics, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Satyen Bose, Paul Dirac and Erwin Schrödinger, and others. Landau ranked himself as a 2.5 but later promoted himself to a 2. David Mermin, writing about Landau, referred to the scale, and ranked himself in the fourth division, in the article "My Life with Landau: Homage of a 4.5 to a 2".^{ [38] }^{ [39] }

- The Russian television film
*My Husband – the Genius*(unofficial translation of the Russian title*Мой муж – гений*) released in 2008 tells the biography of Landau (played by Daniil Spivakovsky), mostly focusing on his private life. It was generally panned by critics. People who had personally met Landau, including famous Russian scientist Vitaly Ginzburg, said that the film was not only terrible but also false in historical facts. - Another film about Landau,
*Dau*, is directed by Ilya Khrzhanovsky with non-professional actor Teodor Currentzis (an orchestra conductor) as Landau. Dau was a common nickname of Lev Landau.^{ [40] }

- L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz (1976).
*Mechanics*. Vol. 1 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2896-9.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) - L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1975).
*The Classical Theory of Fields*. Vol. 2 (4th ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2768-9.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) - L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1977).
*Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory*. Vol. 3 (3rd ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020940-1.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) — 2nd ed. (1965) at archive.org - V. B. Berestetskii; E. M. Lifshitz; L. P. Pitaevskii (1982).
*Quantum Electrodynamics*. Vol. 4 (2nd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3371-0.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) - L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1980).
*Statistical Physics, Part 1*. Vol. 5 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3372-7.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) - L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1987).
*Fluid Mechanics*. Vol. 6 (2nd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-033933-7.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) - L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1986).
*Theory of Elasticity*. Vol. 7 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2633-0.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) - L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz; L. P. Pitaevskii (1984).
*Electrodynamics of Continuous Media*. Vol. 8 (2nd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2634-7.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) - L. P. Pitaevskii; E. M. Lifshitz (1980).
*Statistical Physics, Part 2*. Vol. 9 (1st ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2636-1.`|volume=`

has extra text (help) - L. P. Pitaevskii; E. M. Lifshitz (1981).
*Physical Kinetics*. Vol. 10 (1st ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-2635-4.`|volume=`

has extra text (help)

- L. D. Landau; Ya. Smorodinsky (2011) [1958].
*Lectures on Nuclear Theory*. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0486675138. - L. D. Landau; A. I. Akhiezer; E. M. Lifshitz (1967).
*General Physics, Mechanics and Molecular Physics*. Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-009106-8. - L. D. Landau; A. I. Kitaigorodsky (1978).
*Physics for Everyone*. Mir Publishers Moscow. - L. D. Landau; G. B. Rumer (2003) [1960].
*What is Relativity?*. Dover Publications. - L. D. Landau; A. S. Kompaneets (1935).
*The Metal Conductivity*. ONTI, Kharkiv.

A complete list of Landau's works appeared in 1998 in the Russian journal *Physics-Uspekhi*.^{ [41] } Landau would allow to list himself as a co-author of a journal article on two conditions: 1) he brought up the idea of the work, partly or entirely, and 2) he performed at least some calculations presented in the article. Consequently, he removed his name from numerous publications of his students where his contribution was less significant.^{ [40] }

**Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg**, ForMemRS was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Soviet and Russian Academies of Sciences and one of the fathers of the Soviet hydrogen bomb. He was the successor to Igor Tamm as head of the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FIAN), and an outspoken atheist.

**Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky** was a Russian-American physicist of Russian Jewish descent, noted for his work with Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.

**Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz** was a leading Soviet physicist and brother of the physicist Ilya Lifshitz.

In theoretical physics and applied mathematics, a **field equation** is a partial differential equation which determines the dynamics of a physical field, specifically the time evolution and spatial distribution of the field. The solutions to the equation are mathematical functions which correspond directly to the field, as functions of time and space. Since the field equation is a partial differential equation, there are families of solutions which represent a variety of physical possibilities. Usually, there is not just a single equation, but a set of coupled equations which must be solved simultaneously. Field equations are not ordinary differential equations since a field depends on space and time, which requires at least two variables.

**Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov** was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist who has made significant contributions to many areas of theoretical physics, including general relativity, quantum field theory, as well as the theory of quantum liquids. He is well known for his role in developing the Landau-Khalatnikov theory of superfluidity and the so-called BKL conjecture in the general theory of relativity.

**Arnold Markovych Kosevich** was a Soviet and Ukrainian physicist, known for contributions to the electron theory of metals and the theory of crystals.

The **Stewart–Tolman effect** is a phenomenon in electrodynamics caused by the finite mass of electrons in conducting metal, or, more generally, the finite mass of charge carriers in an electrical conductor.

Prof **Dirk ter Haar** FRSE FIP DSc was an Anglo-Dutch physicist.

The **Kharkiv Theoretical Physics School** was founded by Lev Landau in Kharkov, Soviet Union. It is sometimes referred to as the **Landau school** — more precisely, one might say that Landau's group at Kharkiv was the beginning of the Landau school that, after Landau moved to the Kapitza’ Institute for Physical Problems in Moscow, included new generations of theoretical physicists from the countries of the former Soviet Union. Lev Landau was the head of the Kharkhiv Theoretical Physics School from 1932 to 1937, when he left for Moscow. His students at Kharkiv included Alexander Akhiezer, Evgeny Lifshitz, Ilya Lifshitz, and Isaak Pomeranchuk. Upon the recommendation of Edward Teller, László Tisza joined, in January 1935, Landau's group at Kharkiv and then returned to Budapest in 1937 after Landau's departure to Moscow.

**Aleksandr Ilyich Akhiezer** was a Soviet and Ukrainian theoretical physicist, known for contributions to numerous branches of theoretical physics, including quantum electrodynamics, nuclear physics, solid state physics, quantum field theory, and the theory of plasma. He was the brother of the mathematician Naum Akhiezer.

The * Course of Theoretical Physics* is a ten-volume series of books covering theoretical physics that was initiated by Lev Landau and written in collaboration with his student Evgeny Lifshitz starting in the late 1930s.

The **National Science Center Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT)** is the oldest and largest physical science research centre in Ukraine. Today it is known as a science center as it consists of several institutes that are part of the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology science complex.

**Superfluidity** is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without any loss of kinetic energy. When stirred, a superfluid forms vortices that continue to rotate indefinitely. Superfluidity occurs in two isotopes of helium when they are liquefied by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. It is also a property of various other exotic states of matter theorized to exist in astrophysics, high-energy physics, and theories of quantum gravity. The theory of superfluidity was developed by Soviet theoretical physicists Lev Landau and Isaak Khalatnikov.

**Lev Petrovich Pitaevskii** is a Russian theoretical physicist, who made contributions to the theory of quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, low-temperature physics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics. Together with Evgeny Lifshitz and Vladimir Berestetskii, Lev Pitaevskii has also been the co-author of a few volumes of the influential Landau–Lifschitz *Course of Theoretical Physics* series. His academic status is professor.

**Vadim L'vovich Berezinskii** was a Soviet physicist. He was born in Kyiv, graduated from Moscow State University in 1959, and worked in Moscow and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics. He is famous for having identified the role played by topological defects in the low-temperature phase of two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry. His work led to the discovery of the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition, for which John M. Kosterlitz and David J. Thouless were awarded the Nobel Prize in 2016. He also developed a technique for treating electrons in one-dimensional disordered systems and provided first consistent proof of one-dimensional localization. and predicted negative-gap superconductivity.

**Sandro Stringari** is an Italian theoretical physicist, who has contributed to the theory of quantum many-body physics, including atomic nuclei, quantum liquids and ultra-cold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. He has developed in a systematic way the sum rule approach to the collective behavior of interacting systems.

The **Landau Gold Medal** is the highest award in theoretical physics awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences and its predecessor the Soviet Academy of Sciences. It was established in 1971 and is named after Soviet physicist and Nobel Laureate Lev Landau. When awarded by the Soviet Academy of Sciences the award was the "Landau Prize"; the name was changed to the "Landau Gold Medal" in 1992.

**Mark Yakovlevich Azbel** was a Soviet and Israeli physicist. He was a member of the American Physical Society.

- ↑ Rosen, Joe (2009).
*Encyclopedia of Physics*. Facts on File. p. 177. ISBN 9781438110134. - ↑ Lev Landau (1927). "Das Dämpfungsproblem in der Wellenmechanik (The Damping Problem in Wave Mechanics)".
*Zeitschrift für Physik*.**45**(5–6): 430–441. Bibcode:1927ZPhy...45..430L. doi:10.1007/bf01343064. S2CID 125732617. English translation reprinted in: D. Ter Haar, ed. (1965).*Collected papers of L.D. Landau*. Oxford: Pergamon Press. - ↑ Schlüter, Michael; Lu Jeu Sham (1982). "Density functional theory".
*Physics Today*.**35**(2): 36. Bibcode:1982PhT....35b..36S. doi:10.1063/1.2914933. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. - ↑ Shifman, M., ed. (2013).
*Under the Spell of Landau: When Theoretical Physics was Shaping Destinies*. World Scientific. doi:10.1142/8641. ISBN 978-981-4436-56-4. - 1 2 Kapitza, P. L.; Lifshitz, E. M. (1969). "Lev Davydovitch Landau 1908–1968".
*Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society*.**15**: 140–158. doi: 10.1098/rsbm.1969.0007 . - ↑ Martin Gilbert,
*The Jews in the Twentieth Century: An Illustrated History*, Schocken Books, 2001, ISBN 0805241906 p. 284 - ↑
*Frontiers of physics: proceedings of the Landau Memorial Conference*, Tel Aviv, Israel, 6–10 June 1988, (Pergamon Press, 1990) ISBN 0080369391, pp. 13–14 - ↑ Edward Teller,
*Memoirs: A Twentieth Century Journey In Science And Politics*, Basic Books 2002, ISBN 0738207780 p. 124 - ↑ "Great Baku native Lev Landau".
*Vestnik Kavkaza*. - ↑ František Janouch,
*Lev Landau: A Portrait of a Theoretical Physicist, 1908–1988*, Research Institute for Physics, 1988, p. 17. - ↑ Rumer, Yuriy. ЛАНДАУ. berkovich-zametki.com
- 1 2 3 Bessarab, Maya (1971) Страницы жизни Ландау.
*Московский рабочий*. Moscow - 1 2 Mehra, Jagdish (2001)
*The Golden Age of Theoretical Physics*, Boxed Set of 2 Volumes, World Scientific, p. 952. ISBN 9810243421. - ↑ During this period Landau visitied Copenhagen three times: 8 April to 3 May 1930, from 20 September to 22 November 1930, and from 25 February to 19 March 1931 (see Landau Lev biography – MacTutor History of Mathematics).
- ↑ Sykes, J. B. (2013)
*Landau: The Physicist and the Man: Recollections of L. D. Landau*, Elsevier, p. 81. ISBN 9781483286884. - ↑ Haensel, P.; Potekhin, A. Y. and Yakovlev, D. G. (2007)
*Neutron Stars 1: Equation of State and Structure*, Springer Science & Business Media, p. 2. ISBN 0387335439. - 1 2 3 4 5 Gorelik, Gennady (August 1997). "The Top-Secret Life of Lev Landau" .
*Scientific American*.**277**(2): 72–77. Bibcode:1997SciAm.277b..72G. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0897-72. JSTOR 24995874 . Retrieved 18 June 2018. - ↑ Blundell, Stephen J. (2009).
*Superconductivity: A Very Short Introduction*. Oxford U. Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780191579097. - ↑ Ioffe, Boris L. (25 April 2002). "Landau's Theoretical Minimum, Landau's Seminar, ITEP in the beginning of the 1950s". arXiv: hep-ph/0204295 . Bibcode:2002hep.ph....4295I.Cite journal requires
`|journal=`

(help) - ↑ On the Theory of Stars, in
*Collected Papers of L. D. Landau*, ed. and with an introduction by D. ter Haar, New York: Gordon and Breach, 1965; originally published in*Phys. Z. Sowjet.***1**(1932), 285. - ↑ Yakovlev, Dmitrii; Haensel, Pawel (2013). "Lev Landau and the concept of neutron stars".
*Physics-Uspekhi*.**56**(3): 289–295. arXiv: 1210.0682 . Bibcode:2013PhyU...56..289Y. doi:10.3367/UFNe.0183.201303f.0307. S2CID 119282067. - 1 2 Dorozynsk, Alexander (1965).
*The Man They Wouldn't Let Die*. - ↑ Музей-кабинет Петра Леонидовича Капицы (Peter Kapitza Memorial Museum-Study),
*Академик Капица: Биографический очерк (a biographical sketch of Academician Kapitza)*. - ↑ Richard Rhodes,
*Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb*, pub Simon & Schuster, 1995, ISBN 0684824140 p. 33. - ↑ "Lev Davidovich Landau, Soviet physicist and Nobel laureate".
*Physics Today*.**57**(2): 62. 2004. Bibcode:2004PhT....57Q..62.. doi:10.1063/1.2408530. - ↑ Petr Leonidovich Kapitsa,
*Experiment, Theory, Practice: Articles and Addresses*, Springer, 1980, ISBN 9027710619, p. 329. - ↑ Schaefer, Henry F. (2003).
*Science and Christianity: Conflict Or Coherence?*. The Apollos Trust. p. 9. ISBN 9780974297507.I present here two examples of notable atheists. The first is Lev Landau, the most brilliant Soviet physicist of the twentieth century.

- ↑ "Lev Landau". Soylent Communications. 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- ↑ James D. Patterson; Bernard C. Bailey (20 February 2019).
*Solid-State Physics: Introduction to the Theory*. Lev Landau - The Soviet Grand Master: Springer. p. 190. ISBN 9783319753225.Landau’s theoretical minimum exam was famous and only about forty students passed it in his time. This was Landau’s entry-level exam for theoretical physics. It contained what Landau felt was necessary to work in that field. Like many Soviet era physicists he was an atheist.

- ↑ 19 December 1957* (no number). The Bukovsky Archives.
- ↑ Nobel Presentation speech by Professor I. Waller, member of the Swedish Academy of Sciences. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 28 January 2012.
- ↑ Kora Drobantseva's memoirs, Chapter 38, "The way we lived"; the episode with Alexander Luria (in the original Russian text, referred to as
*Лурье*) testing Lev Landau on intellectual abilities - ↑ Yaacov Ro'i,
*The Struggle for Soviet Jewish Emigration, 1948–1967*, Cambridge University Press 2003, ISBN 0521522447 p. 199 - ↑ Obelisk at the Novodevichye Cemetery. novodevichye.com (26 October 2008). Retrieved on 28 January 2012.
- ↑ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003).
*Dictionary of Minor Planet Names*(5th ed.). Springer Verlag. p. 174. ISBN 3-540-00238-3. - ↑ Best, Shivali (22 January 2019). "Google Doodle celebrates 111th birthday of theoretical physicist Lev Landau".
*mirror*. Retrieved 22 January 2019. - ↑ "Landau-Spitzer Award".
*APS.org*. American Physical Society. - 1 2 Hey, Tony (1997).
*Einstein's Mirror*. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-521-43532-3. - ↑ Mitra, Asoke; Ramlo, Susan; Dharamsi, Amin; Mitra, Asoke; Dolan, Richard; Smolin, Lee (2006). "New Einsteins Need Positive Environment, Independent Spirit".
*Physics Today*.**59**(11): 10. Bibcode:2006PhT....59k..10H. doi: 10.1063/1.2435630 . - 1 2 Дао Ландау Archived 7 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine . strf.ru (25 January 2008)
- ↑ "Complete list of L D Landau's works".
*Phys. Usp*.**41**(6): 621–623. June 1998. Bibcode:1998PhyU...41..621.. doi:10.1070/PU1998v041n06ABEH000413.

- Books

- Dorozynski, Alexander (1965).
*The Man They Wouldn't Let Die*. Secker and Warburg. ASIN B0006DC8BA. (After Landau's 1962 car accident, the physics community around him rallied to attempt to save his life. They managed to prolong his life until 1968.) - Janouch, Frantisek (1979).
*Lev D. Landau: His life and work*. CERN. ASIN B0007AUCL0. - Khalatnikov, I. M., ed. (1989).
*Landau. The physicist and the man. Recollections of L. D. Landau*. Sykes, J. B. (trans.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-036383-0. - Kojevnikov, Alexei B. (2004).
*Stalin's Great Science: The Times and Adventures of Soviet Physicists*. History of Modern Physical Sciences. Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-420-5. - Landau-Drobantseva, Kora (1999).
*Professor Landau: How We Lived*(in Russian). AST. ISBN 5-8159-0019-2. Archived from the original on 4 May 2005. - Shifman, M., ed. (2013).
*Under the Spell of Landau: When Theoretical Physics was Shaping Destinies*. World Scientific. doi:10.1142/8641. ISBN 978-981-4436-56-4.

- Articles

- Karl Hufbauer, "Landau's youthful sallies into stellar theory: Their origins, claims, and receptions",
*Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences*, 37 (2007), 337–354. - "As a student, Landau dared to correct Einstein in a lecture". Global Talent News.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Lev Landau",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics archive*, University of St Andrews - Lev Davidovich Landau. Nobel-Winners.
- Landau's Theoretical Minimum, Landau's Seminar, ITEP in the Beginning of the 1950s by Boris L. Ioffe, Concluding talk at the workshop
*QCD at the Threshold of the Fourth Decade/Ioeffest*. - EJTP Landau Issue 2008.
- Ammar Sakaji and Ignazio Licata (eds), Lev Davidovich Landau and his Impact on Contemporary Theoretical Physics, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009, ISBN 978-1-60692-908-7.
- Gennady Gorelik, "The Top Secret Life of Lev Landau",
*Scientific American*, Aug. 1997, vol. 277(2), 53–57, JSTOR link.

- Media related to Lev Landau at Wikimedia Commons
- Quotations related to Lev Landau at Wikiquote
- Lev Landau on Nobelprize.org

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