Nobel Prizeshave been awarded to over 900 individuals, of whom at least 20% were Jews, although the Jewish population comprises less than 0.2% of the world's population. Various theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, which has received considerable attention. Israeli academics Dr. Elay Ben-Gal and Professor Yeshayahu Leibowitz, curious about the phenomenon, started to form an encyclopedia of Jewish Nobel laureates and interview as many as possible about their life and work.
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.
Yeshayahu Leibowitz was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual and polymath. He was professor of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and neurophysiology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, as well as a prolific writer on Jewish thought and western philosophy. He was known for his outspoken views on ethics, religion, and politics. Leibowitz cautioned that the state of Israel and Zionism had become more sacred than Jewish humanist values and controversially went on to describe Israeli conduct in the occupied Palestinian territories as "Judeo-Nazi" in nature, while warning of the dehumanizing effect of the occupation on the victims and the oppressors.
Jews have been recipients of all six awards. The first Jewish recipient, Adolf von Baeyer, was awarded the prize in Chemistry in 1905. As of 2018 [update] , the most recent Jewish recipients were physics laureate Arthur Ashkin and economics laureate William Nordhaus.
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer was a German chemist who synthesised indigo, developed a nomenclature for cyclic compounds. He was ennobled in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1885 and was the 1905 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Arthur Ashkin is an American scientist and Nobel laureate who worked at Bell Laboratories and Lucent Technologies. Ashkin has been considered by many as the father of optical tweezers, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 at age 96, becoming the oldest Nobel Laureate until 2019 when John B. Goodenough was awarded at 97. He resides in Rumson, New Jersey.
William Dawbney Nordhaus is an American economist and Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University, best known for his work in economic modelling and climate change. He is one of the laureates of the 2018 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Nordhaus received the prize "for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis".
Jewish laureates Elie Wiesel and Imre Kertész survived the extermination camps during the Holocaust,while François Englert survived by being hidden in orphanages and children's homes. Others, such as Walter Kohn, Otto Stern, Albert Einstein, Hans Krebs and Martin Karplus had to flee Nazi Germany to avoid persecution. Still others, including Rita Levi-Montalcini, Herbert Hauptman, Robert Furchgott, Arthur Kornberg, and Jerome Karle experienced significant antisemitism in their careers.
Eliezer Wiesel was a Romanian-born American writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor. He authored 57 books, written mostly in French and English, including Night, a work based on his experiences as a Jewish prisoner in the Auschwitz and Buchenwald concentration camps.
Imre Kertész was a Hungarian author and recipient of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature, "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history". He was the first Hungarian to win the Nobel in Literature. His works deal with themes of Nazi Holocaust, dictatorship and personal freedom. He died on 31 March 2016, aged 86, at his home in Budapest after suffering from Parkinson's disease for several years.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically murder millions of Jews. Others were murdered at the death camps as well, including Poles, Soviet POWs, and Roma. The victims of death camps were primarily killed by gassing, either in permanent installations constructed for this specific purpose, or by means of gas vans. Some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but also through extreme work under starvation conditions.
|1905||Adolf von Baeyer||Germany||"[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"|
|1906||Henri Moissan||France||"[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"|
|1910||Otto Wallach||Germany||"[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"|
|1915||Richard Willstätter||Germany||"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"|
|1918||Fritz Haber||Germany||"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"|
|1943||George de Hevesy||Hungary||"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"|
|1961||Melvin Calvin||United States||"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"|
|1962||Max Perutz||United Kingdom||"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"|
|1972||Christian B. Anfinsen||United States||"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"|
|William Howard Stein||United States||"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"|
|1977||Ilya Prigogine||Belgium||"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"|
|1979||Herbert C. Brown||United States||"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"|
|1980||Paul Berg||United States||"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"|
|Walter Gilbert||United States||"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"|
|1981||Roald Hoffmann||United States||"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"|
|1982||Aaron Klug||United Kingdom||"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"|
|1985||Jerome Karle||United States||"for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"|
|Herbert A. Hauptman||United States|
|"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"|
|1992||Rudolph A. Marcus||United States||"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"|
|1994||George Andrew Olah||Hungary||"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"|
|1996||Harry Kroto||United Kingdom||"for the discovery of fullerenes"|
|1998||Walter Kohn||United States||"for his development of the density-functional theory"|
|2000||Alan J. Heeger||United States||"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"|
|2004||Aaron Ciechanover||Israel||"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"|
|Irwin Rose||United States|
|2006||Roger D. Kornberg||United States||"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"|
|2008||Martin Chalfie||United States||"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"|
|2009||Ada Yonath||Israel||"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"|
|2011||Dan Shechtman||Israel||"for the discovery of quasicrystals"|
|2012||Robert Lefkowitz||United States||"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"|
|2013||Arieh Warshel||Israel||"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"|
|Michael Levitt||United States, Britain, Israel|
|Martin Karplus||United States, Austria|
|1908||Élie Metchnikoff||Russia||"in recognition of their work on immunity"|
|1914||Robert Bárány||Austria-Hungary||"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"|
|1922||Otto Fritz Meyerhof||Germany||"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"|
|1930||Karl Landsteiner||Austria||"for his discovery of human blood groups"|
|1931||Otto Heinrich Warburg||Germany||"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"|
|1936||Otto Loewi||Austria||"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"|
|1944||Joseph Erlanger||United States||"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"|
|1945||Ernst Boris Chain||United Kingdom||"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"|
|1946||Hermann Joseph Muller||United States||"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"|
|1947||Gerty Cori||United States||"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"|
|1950||Tadeusz Reichstein||Switzerland / Poland||"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"|
|1952||Selman Waksman||United States||"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"|
|1953||Hans Adolf Krebs||United Kingdom||"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"|
|Fritz Albert Lipmann||United States||"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"|
|1958||Joshua Lederberg||United States||"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"|
|1959||Arthur Kornberg||United States||"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"|
|1964||Konrad Emil Bloch||United States||"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"|
|1965||François Jacob||France||"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"|
|André Michel Lwoff|
|1967||George Wald||United States||"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"|
|1968||Marshall Warren Nirenberg||United States||"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"|
|1969||Salvador Luria||United States, Italy||"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"|
|1970||Julius Axelrod||United States||"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"|
|Bernard Katz||United Kingdom|
|1972||Gerald Edelman||United States||"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"|
|1975||David Baltimore||United States||"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell"|
|Howard Martin Temin||United States|
|1976||Baruch Samuel Blumberg||United States||"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"|
|1977||Rosalyn Sussman Yalow||United States||"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"|
|1978||Daniel Nathans||United States||"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"|
|1980||Baruj Benacerraf||United States||"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"|
|1984||César Milstein||Argentina||"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"|
|1985||Michael Stuart Brown||United States||"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"|
|Joseph L. Goldstein||United States|
|1986||Stanley Cohen||United States||"for their discoveries of growth factors"|
|1988||Gertrude B. Elion||United States||"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"|
|1989||Harold E. Varmus||United States||"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"|
|1994||Alfred G. Gilman||United States||"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"|
|1997||Stanley B. Prusiner||United States||"for his discovery of prions – a new biological principle of infection"|
|1998||Robert F. Furchgott||United States||"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"|
|2000||Paul Greengard||United States||"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"|
|Eric Kandel||United States|
|2002||Sydney Brenner||United Kingdom||"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"|
|H. Robert Horvitz||United States|
|2004||Richard Axel||United States||"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"|
|2006||Andrew Fire||United States||"for his discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"|
|2011||Ralph M. Steinman||Canada||for "his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"|
|Bruce Beutler||United States||"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"|
|2013||James E. Rothman||United States||for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"|
|Randy Schekman||United States|
|2017||Michael Rosbash||United States||"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm".|
|1907||Albert A. Michelson||United States||"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"|
|1908||Gabriel Lippmann||France||"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"|
|1921||Albert Einstein||Germany||"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"|
|1922||Niels Bohr||Denmark||"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"|
|1925||James Franck||Germany||"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"|
|1943||Otto Stern||United States||"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"|
|1944||Isidor Isaac Rabi||United States||"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"|
|1945||Wolfgang Pauli||Austria||"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"|
|1952||Felix Bloch||United States / Switzerland||"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"|
|1954||Max Born||United Kingdom||"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"|
|1958||Ilya Frank||Soviet Union||"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"|
|Igor Tamm||Soviet Union|
|1959||Emilio Gino Segrè||Italy||"for their discovery of the antiproton"|
|1960||Donald A. Glaser||United States||"for the invention of the bubble chamber"|
|1961||Robert Hofstadter||United States||"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"|
|1962||Lev Landau||Soviet Union||"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"|
|1963||Eugene Wigner||United States||"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"|
|1965||Richard Feynman||United States||"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"|
|Julian Schwinger||United States|
|1967||Hans Bethe||United States||"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"|
|1969||Murray Gell-Mann||United States||"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"|
|1971||Dennis Gabor||United Kingdom||"for his invention and development of the holographic method"|
|1972||Leon Cooper||United States||"for his jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"|
|1973||Brian David Josephson||United Kingdom||"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"|
|1975||Ben Roy Mottelson||Denmark||"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"|
|1976||Burton Richter||United States||"for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"|
|1978||Arno Allan Penzias||United States||"for his discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"|
|1979||Sheldon Lee Glashow||United States||"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"|
|Steven Weinberg||United States|
|1981||Arthur Leonard Schawlow||United States||"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"|
|1987||Karl Alexander Müller||Switzerland||"for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"|
|1988||Leon M. Lederman||United States||"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"|
|Melvin Schwartz||United States|
|Jack Steinberger||United States|
|1990||Jerome Isaac Friedman||United States||"for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"|
|1992||Georges Charpak||France / Poland||"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"|
|1995||Martin Lewis Perl||United States||"for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"|
|Frederick Reines||United States||"for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"|
|1996||David Morris Lee||United States||"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"|
|Douglas D. Osheroff||United States|
|1997||Claude Cohen-Tannoudji||France||"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"|
|2000||Zhores Alferov||Russia||"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"|
|2003||Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov||Russia|
|"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"|
|2004||David Gross||United States||"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"|
|H. David Politzer||United States|
|2005||Roy J. Glauber||United States||"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"|
|2011||Adam Riess||United States||"for providing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating"|
|Saul Perlmutter||United States|
|2012||Serge Haroche||France||"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"|
|2013||François Englert||Belgium||"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"|
|2016||J. Michael Kosterlitz||United Kingdom||"for discoveries in condensed-matter physics that have transformed the understanding of matter that assumes strange shapes"|
|2017||Rainer Weiss||United States||"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"|
|Barry Barish||United States|
|2018||Arthur Ashkin||United States||"for his work on optical trapping"|
|1910||Paul Heyse||Germany||"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"|
|1927||Henri Bergson||France||"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"|
|1958||Boris Pasternak||Soviet Union||"for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"|
|1966||Shmuel Yosef Agnon||Israel||"for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"|
|Nelly Sachs||Sweden||"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"|
|1976||Saul Bellow||United States||"for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"|
|1978||Isaac Bashevis Singer||United States / Poland||"for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"|
|1981||Elias Canetti||United Kingdom||"for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"|
|1987||Joseph Brodsky||United States||"for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"|
|1991||Nadine Gordimer||South Africa||"who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity"|
|2002||Imre Kertész||Hungary||"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"|
|2004||Elfriede Jelinek||Austria||"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"|
|2005||Harold Pinter||United Kingdom||"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"|
|2014||Patrick Modiano||France||"for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"|
|2016||Bob Dylan||United States||"for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"|
|1970||Paul Samuelson||United States||"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"|
|1971||Simon Kuznets||United States||"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"|
|1972||Kenneth Arrow||United States||"for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"|
|"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"|
|1975||Leonid Kantorovich||Soviet Union||"for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"|
|1976||Milton Friedman||United States||"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"|
|1978||Herbert A. Simon||United States||"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"|
|1980||Lawrence Klein||United States||"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"|
|"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"|
|1987||Robert Solow||United States||"for his contributions to the theory of economic growth""|
|1990||Harry Markowitz||United States||"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics""|
|Merton Miller||United States|
|1992||Gary Becker||United States||"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour""|
|1993||Robert Fogel||United States||"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"|
|1994||John Harsanyi||Hungary||"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"|
|1997||Myron Scholes||Canada||"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"|
|2001||Joseph Stiglitz||United States||"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"|
|George Akerlof||United States|
|2002||Daniel Kahneman||Israel |
|"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"|
|2005||Robert Aumann||Israel |
|"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"|
|2007||Leonid Hurwicz||United States |
|"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"|
|Eric Maskin||United States|
|Roger Myerson||United States|
|2008||Paul Krugman||United States||"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"|
|2010||Peter Diamond||United States||"for his analysis of markets with search frictions"|
|2012||Alvin E. Roth||United States||"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"|
|2016||Oliver Hart||United States||"contributions to contract theory"|
|2017||Richard Thaler||United States||"contributions have built a bridge between the economic and psychological analyses of individual decision-making"|
|2018||William Nordhaus||United States||"for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis"|
|1911||Tobias Michael Carel Asser||The Netherlands||"Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"|
|Alfred Hermann Fried||Austria||"Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"|
|1968||René Cassin||France||"President of the European Court for Human Rights"|
|1973||Henry A. Kissinger||United States||"For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"|
|1978||Menachem Begin||Israel||"for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"|
|1986||Elie Wiesel||United States||"Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""|
|1994||Yitzhak Rabin||Israel||"to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."|
|1995||Joseph Rotblat||Poland||"for his efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"|
Boris Pasternak, a Russian Jew, winner of the 1958 prize for literature, initially accepted the award, but—after intense pressure from Soviet authorities—subsequently declined it.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak was a Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator. In his native Russian, Pasternak's first book of poems, My Sister, Life, is one of the most influential collections ever published in the Russian language. Pasternak's translations of stage plays by Goethe, Schiller, Calderón de la Barca and Shakespeare remain very popular with Russian audiences.
The history of the Jews in Russia and areas historically connected with it goes back at least 1,500 years. Jews in Russia have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.
The Israeli city of Rishon LeZion has an avenue dedicated to honoring all Jewish Nobel laureates. The street, called Tayelet Hatanei Pras Nobel (Nobel Laureates Boulevard/Promenade), has a monument with attached plaque for each Nobel laureate. The scientific adviser of the project was Prof. Israel Hanukoglu.
Rishon LeZion is the fourth largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain 8 km (5 mi) south of Tel Aviv. It is part of the Gush Dan metropolitan area.
Israel Hanukoglu is a Turkish-born Israeli scientist. He is a full professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Ariel University and former Science and Technology Adviser to the Prime Minister of Israel (1996–1999). He is founder of Israel Science and Technology Homepage.
Whether Ashkenazi Jews have higher average intelligence than other ethnic groups, and if so, why, has been an occasional subject of scientific controversy.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or, by using the Hebrew plural suffix -im, Ashkenazim, are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded yearly by the Nobel Foundation for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
Jews have won more than 20 per cent of the 850-plus prizes awarded, despite making up just 0.2 per cent of world’s population.
Jews are a famously accomplished group. They make up 0.2 percent of the world population, but 54 percent of the world chess champions, 27 percent of the Nobel physics laureates and 31 percent of the medicine laureates. Jews make up 2 percent of the U.S. population, but 21 percent of the Ivy League student bodies, 26 percent of the Kennedy Center honorees, 37 percent of the Academy Award-winning directors, 38 percent of those on a recent Business Week list of leading philanthropists, 51 percent of the Pulitzer Prize winners for nonfiction.
Throughout the 20th century, Jews, more so than any other minority, ethnic or cultural group, have been recipients of the Nobel Prize – perhaps the most distinguished award for human endeavor in the six fields for which it is given. Remarkably, Jews constitute almost one-fifth of all Nobel laureates. This, in a world in which Jews number just a fraction of 1 percent of the population.
Similarly, because Jews make up less than a quarter of one percent of the world's population, it's surprising that over 20 percent of Nobel prizes have been awarded to Jews or people of Jewish descent.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
That achievement is symbolized by the fact that 15 to 20 percent of Nobel Prizes have been won by Jews, who represent two tenths of one percent of the world's population.
These accomplishments account for 20 percent of the Nobel Prizes awarded since 1901. What a feat for a people who make up only .2 percent of the world's population!CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
In the first half of the 20th century, despite pervasive and continuing social discrimination against Jews throughout the Western world, despite the retraction of legal rights, and despite the Holocaust, Jews won 14 percent of Nobel Prizes in literature, chemistry, physics, and medicine/physiology. In the second half of the 20th century, when Nobel Prizes began to be awarded to people from all over the world, that figure rose to 29 percent. So far, in the 21st century, it has been 32 percent. Jews constitute about two-tenths of one percent of the world’s population.
They are dominated by my vivid recollections of 1 1/2 years as a Jewish boy under the Austrian Nazi regime... On another level, I want to mention that I have a strong Jewish identity and – over the years – have been involved in several Jewish projects, such as the establishment of a strong program of Judaic Studies at the University of California in San Diego.
Moissan, whose mother was Jewish, [...]
...Ilya Frank, Igor Tamm, and Lev Landau... Frank, Tamm and Landau—were, like Ioffe himself, born to Jewish parents...
Parents: Father, Evgen Tamm; Mother, Olga Davidova Tamm. Nationality: Russian. Religion: Jewish.
It is the story of a baptized German Jew (Tamm means "naive" in Hebrew)...
Jewish women's writing likewise employs satirical and grotesque elements when depicting non-Jews... Some do so pointedly, such as Ilse Aichinger, Elfriede Gerstl, and Elifriede Jelinek... Jelinek resumed the techniques of the Jewish interwar satirists... Jelinek stresses her affinity to Karl Krauss and the Jewish Cabaret of the interwar era... She claims her own Jewish identity as the daughter of a Holocaust victim, her father, thereby suggesting that there is a continuity of Vienna's Jewish tradition (Berka 1993, 137f.; Gilman 1995, 3).
Robert Aumann was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in 1930, to a well-to-do orthodox Jewish family.
Sure enough, I was accused in various places not just of 'tolerance for anti-Semitism' (yes, I'm Jewish) [...]