List of Nobel laureates

Last updated

Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2017) 9 million SEK (roughly US$1.0 million, EUR0.87 million). Nobel Prize.png
Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2017) 9 million SEK (roughly US$1.0 million, €0.87 million).
Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robert J. Lefkowitz, David J. Wineland, and Serge Haroche during the ceremony Nobel Prize winners 2012.jpg
Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robert J. Lefkowitz, David J. Wineland, and Serge Haroche during the ceremony

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish : Nobelpriset, Norwegian : Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. [1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation. [2]

Nobel Prize Set of 6 annual international awards, primarily established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.

Swedish language North Germanic language spoken in Sweden

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Written Norwegian and Danish are usually more easily understood by Swedish speakers than the spoken languages, due to the differences in tone, accent and intonation. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages. While being strongly related to its southern neighbour language German in vocabulary, the word order, grammatic system and pronunciation are vastly different.

Norwegian language North Germanic language spoken in Norway

Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties; some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are not mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Contents

Prize

Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. [3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years. [2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. In 2017, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 9,000,000 SEK. [4] The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. [5]

Swedish krona Currency of Sweden

The krona is the official currency of Sweden. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use; the former precedes or follows the value, the latter usually follows it but, especially in the past, it sometimes preceded the value. In English, the currency is sometimes referred to as the Swedish crown, as krona literally means "crown" in Swedish. The Swedish krona was the ninth-most traded currency in the world by value in April 2016.

Stockholm Capital of Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 965,232 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Outside the city to the east, and along the coast, is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the county seat of Stockholm County.

In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize. [6] The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II. [7]

World War II 1939–1945, between Axis and Allies

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Laureates

Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals (including 844 men, 48 women) and 24 organizations. [8] Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time.

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field. The award's official name is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany from 1934 to 1945

Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933, and as Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland on 1 September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler's actions and ideology are almost universally regarded as evil. According to historian Ian Kershaw, "never in history has such ruination—physical and moral—been associated with the name of one man."

Richard Kuhn Austrian-German biochemist

Richard Johann Kuhn was an Austrian-German biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938 "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins".

Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other. [9] UNHCR has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize twice. Also the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to John Bardeen twice, and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: Marie Curie (Physics and Chemistry) and Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 892 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. [10] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911. [9]

International Committee of the Red Cross humanitarian institution

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.

Nobel Peace Prize One of five Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

List of laureates

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics

(The Sveriges Riksbank Prize) [11]

1901 Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant ;
Frédéric Passy
1902 Hendrik Lorentz ;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun ;
Charles Albert Gobat
1903 Henri Becquerel ;
Pierre Curie ;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer
1904 Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral ;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International
1905 Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner
1906 J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi ;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta ;
Louis Renault
1908 Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff ;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson ;
Fredrik Bajer
1909 Karl Ferdinand Braun ;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert ;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau
1911 Wilhelm Wien Marie Skłodowska-Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser ;
Alfred Hermann Fried
1912 Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard ;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine
1914 Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány NoneNone
1915 William Henry Bragg ;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter None Romain Rolland None
1916NoneNoneNone Verner von Heidenstam None
1917 Charles Glover Barkla NoneNone Karl Adolph Gjellerup ;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Max Planck Fritz Haber NoneNoneNone
1919 Johannes Stark None Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson
1920 Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois
1921 Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy None Anatole France Hjalmar Branting ;
Christian Lous Lange
1922 Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill ;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting ;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats None
1924 Manne Siegbahn None Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont None
1925 James Franck ;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy None George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain ;
Charles G. Dawes
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand ;
Gustav Stresemann
1927 Arthur Compton ;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson ;
Ludwig Quidde
1928 Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset None
1929 Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden ;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman ;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg
1930 C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom
1931None Carl Bosch ;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams ;
Nicholas Murray Butler
1932 Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington ;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy None
1933 Erwin Schrödinger ;
Paul Dirac
None Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell
1934None Harold Urey George Whipple ;
George Minot ;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson
1935 James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie ;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann None Carl von Ossietzky
1936 Victor Francis Hess ;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale ;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O'Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Clinton Davisson ;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth ;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938 Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn

[lower-alpha 1]

Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt ; [lower-alpha 1]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk [lower-alpha 1] Frans Eemil Sillanpää None
1940Cancelled due to World War II
1941
1942
1943 Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam ;
Edward Adelbert Doisy
NoneNone
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger ;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming ;
Ernst Boris Chain ;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull
1946 Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner ;
John Howard Northrop ;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch ;
John Mott
1947 Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori ;
Gerty Cori ;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948 Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot None

[lower-alpha 2]

1949 Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess ;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr
1950 C. F. Powell Otto Diels ;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench ;
Edward Calvin Kendall ;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche
1951 John Cockcroft ;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan ;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux
1952 Felix Bloch ;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin ;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer
1953 Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs ;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall
1954 Max Born ;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders ;
Frederick Chapman Robbins ;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Willis Lamb ;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness None
1956 John Bardeen ;
Walter Houser Brattain ;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood ;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand ;
Werner Forssmann ;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez None
1957 Chen Ning Yang ;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson
1958 Pavel Cherenkov ;
Ilya Frank ;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle ;
Edward Lawrie Tatum ;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak [lower-alpha 3] Dominique Pire
1959 Emilio G. Segrè ;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg ;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker
1960 Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet ;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli
1961 Robert Hofstadter ;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld
1962 Lev Landau Max Perutz ;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick ;
James D. Watson ;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling
1963 Eugene Wigner ;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer ;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler ;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles ;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin ;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964 Charles Hard Townes ;
Nikolay Basov ;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch ;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre [lower-alpha 4] Martin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga ;
Julian Schwinger ;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob ;
André Michel Lwoff ;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous ;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon ;
Nelly Sachs
None
1967 Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen ;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish ;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit ;
Haldan Keffer Hartline ;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias None
1968 Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley ;
Har Gobind Khorana ;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin
1969 Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton ;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück ;
Alfred Hershey ;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch ;
Jan Tinbergen
1970 Hannes Alfvén ;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod ;
Ulf von Euler ;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson
1971 Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets
1972 John Bardeen ;
Leon Cooper ;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen ;
Stanford Moore ;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman ;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll None John Hicks ;
Kenneth Arrow
1973 Leo Esaki ;
Ivar Giaever ;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer ;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch ;
Konrad Lorenz ;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger ;
Le Duc Tho [lower-alpha 5]
Wassily Leontief
1974 Martin Ryle ;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude ;
Christian de Duve ;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson ;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride ;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal ;
Friedrich Hayek
1975 Aage Bohr ;
Ben Roy Mottelson ;
James Rainwater
John Cornforth ;
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore ;
Renato Dulbecco ;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich ;
Tjalling Koopmans
1976 Burton Richter ;
Samuel C. C. Ting
William Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg ;
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams ;
Mairead Maguire
Milton Friedman
1977 Philip Warren Anderson ;
Nevill Francis Mott ;
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin ;
Andrew Schally ;
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin ;
James Meade
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa ;
Arno Allan Penzias ;
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter D. Mitchell Werner Arber ;
Daniel Nathans ;
Hamilton O. Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar Sadat ;
Menachem Begin
Herbert A. Simon
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow ;
Abdus Salam ;
Steven Weinberg
Herbert C. Brown ;
Georg Wittig
Allan McLeod Cormack ;
Godfrey Hounsfield
Odysseas Elytis Mother Teresa Theodore Schultz ;
Arthur Lewis
1980 James Cronin ;
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg ;
Walter Gilbert ;
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf ;
Jean Dausset ;
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen
Arthur Leonard Schawlow
Kai Siegbahn
Kenichi Fukui
Roald Hoffmann
Roger Wolcott Sperry
David H. Hubel
Torsten Wiesel
Elias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Bergström
Bengt I. Samuelsson
John Vane
Gabriel García Márquez Alva Myrdal
Alfonso García Robles
George Stigler
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
William Alfred Fowler
Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Wałęsa Gérard Debreu
1984 Carlo Rubbia
Simon van der Meer
Robert Bruce Merrifield Niels Kaj Jerne
Georges J. F. Köhler
César Milstein
Jaroslav Seifert Desmond Tutu Richard Stone
1985 Klaus von Klitzing Herbert A. Hauptman
Jerome Karle
Michael Stuart Brown
Joseph L. Goldstein
Claude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani
1986 Ernst Ruska
Gerd Binnig
Heinrich Rohrer
Dudley R. Herschbach
Yuan T. Lee
John Polanyi
Stanley Cohen
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James M. Buchanan
1987 Johannes Georg Bednorz
Karl Alexander Müller
Donald J. Cram
Jean-Marie Lehn
Charles J. Pedersen
Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky Óscar Arias Robert Solow
1988 Leon M. Lederman
Melvin Schwartz
Jack Steinberger
Johann Deisenhofer
Robert Huber
Hartmut Michel
James W. Black
Gertrude B. Elion
George H. Hitchings
Naguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Maurice Allais
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
Hans Georg Dehmelt
Wolfgang Paul
Sidney Altman
Thomas Cech
J. Michael Bishop
Harold E. Varmus
Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama) Trygve Haavelmo
1990 Jerome Isaac Friedman
Henry Way Kendall
Richard E. Taylor
Elias James Corey Joseph Murray
E. Donnall Thomas
Octavio Paz Mikhail Gorbachev Harry Markowitz
Merton Miller
William F. Sharpe
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard R. Ernst Erwin Neher
Bert Sakmann
Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald Coase
1992 Georges Charpak Rudolph A. Marcus Edmond H. Fischer
Edwin G. Krebs
Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Gary Becker
1993 Russell Alan Hulse
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Kary Mullis
Michael Smith
Richard J. Roberts
Phillip Allen Sharp
Toni Morrison Nelson Mandela
F. W. de Klerk
Robert Fogel
Douglass North
1994 Bertram Brockhouse
Clifford Shull
George Andrew Olah Alfred G. Gilman
Martin Rodbell
Kenzaburō Ōe Yasser Arafat
Shimon Peres
Yitzhak Rabin
John Harsanyi
John Forbes Nash, Jr.
Reinhard Selten
1995 Martin Lewis Perl
Frederick Reines
Paul J. Crutzen
Mario J. Molina
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Eric F. Wieschaus
Seamus Heaney Joseph Rotblat
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr.
1996 David Lee
Douglas Osheroff
Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert F. Curl Jr.
Harry Kroto
Richard Smalley
Peter C. Doherty
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Wisława Szymborska Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
José Ramos-Horta
James Mirrlees
William Vickrey
1997 Steven Chu
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
William Daniel Phillips
Paul D. Boyer
John E. Walker
Jens Christian Skou
Stanley B. Prusiner Dario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams
Robert C. Merton
Myron Scholes
1998 Robert B. Laughlin
Horst Ludwig Störmer
Daniel C. Tsui
Walter Kohn
John Pople
Robert F. Furchgott
Louis Ignarro
Ferid Murad
José Saramago John Hume
David Trimble
Amartya Sen
1999 Gerard 't Hooft
Martinus J. G. Veltman
Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell
2000 Zhores Alferov
Herbert Kroemer
Jack Kilby
Alan J. Heeger
Alan MacDiarmid
Hideki Shirakawa
Arvid Carlsson
Paul Greengard
Eric Kandel
Gao Xingjian Kim Dae-jung James Heckman
Daniel McFadden
2001 Eric Allin Cornell
Wolfgang Ketterle
Carl Wieman
William Standish Knowles
Ryōji Noyori
Karl Barry Sharpless
Leland H. Hartwell
Tim Hunt
Paul Nurse
V. S. Naipaul United Nations
Kofi Annan
George Akerlof
Michael Spence
Joseph Stiglitz
2002 Raymond Davis, Jr.
Masatoshi Koshiba
Riccardo Giacconi
John Fenn
Koichi Tanaka
Kurt Wüthrich
Sydney Brenner
H. Robert Horvitz
John Sulston
Imre Kertész Jimmy Carter Daniel Kahneman
Vernon L. Smith
2003 Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov
Vitaly Ginzburg
Anthony James Leggett
Peter Agre
Roderick MacKinnon
Paul Lauterbur
Peter Mansfield
J. M. Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert F. Engle
Clive Granger
2004 David Gross
Hugh David Politzer
Frank Wilczek
Aaron Ciechanover
Avram Hershko
Irwin Rose
Richard Axel
Linda B. Buck
Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn E. Kydland
Edward C. Prescott
2005 Roy J. Glauber
John L. Hall
Theodor W. Hänsch
Yves Chauvin
Robert H. Grubbs
Richard R. Schrock
Barry Marshall
Robin Warren
Harold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency
Mohamed ElBaradei
Robert Aumann
Thomas Schelling
2006 John C. Mather
George Smoot
Roger D. Kornberg Andrew Fire
Craig Mello
Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus
Grameen Bank
Edmund Phelps
2007 Albert Fert
Peter Grünberg
Gerhard Ertl Mario Capecchi
Martin Evans
Oliver Smithies
Doris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Al Gore
Leonid Hurwicz
Eric Maskin
Roger Myerson
2008 Yoichiro Nambu
Makoto Kobayashi
Toshihide Maskawa
Osamu Shimomura
Martin Chalfie
Roger Y. Tsien
Harald zur Hausen
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Luc Montagnier
J. M. G. Le Clézio Martti Ahtisaari Paul Krugman
2009 Charles K. Kao
Willard S. Boyle
George E. Smith
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Thomas A. Steitz
Ada Yonath
Elizabeth Blackburn
Carol W. Greider
Jack W. Szostak
Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom
Oliver E. Williamson
2010 Andre Geim
Konstantin Novoselov
Richard F. Heck
Ei-ichi Negishi
Akira Suzuki
Robert G. Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo

[lower-alpha 6]

Peter A. Diamond
Dale T. Mortensen
Christopher A. Pissarides
2011 Saul Perlmutter
Adam G. Riess
Brian Schmidt
Dan Shechtman Bruce Beutler
Jules A. Hoffmann
Ralph M. Steinman
Tomas Tranströmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
Leymah Gbowee
Tawakel Karman
Thomas J. Sargent
Christopher A. Sims
2012 Serge Haroche
David J. Wineland
Brian K. Kobilka
Robert J. Lefkowitz
John B. Gurdon
Shinya Yamanaka
Mo Yan European Union Alvin E. Roth
Lloyd S. Shapley
2013 François Englert
Peter W. Higgs
Martin Karplus
Michael Levitt
Arieh Warshel
James E. Rothman
Randy W. Schekman
Thomas C. Südhof
Alice Munro Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Eugene F. Fama
Lars Peter Hansen
Robert J. Shiller
2014 Isamu Akasaki
Hiroshi Amano
Shuji Nakamura
Eric Betzig
Stefan Hell
William Moerner
John O'Keefe
May-Britt Moser
Edvard Moser
Patrick Modiano Kailash Satyarthi
Malala Yousafzai
Jean Tirole
2015 Takaaki Kajita
Arthur B. McDonald
Tomas Lindahl
Paul L. Modrich
Aziz Sancar
William C. Campbell
Satoshi Ōmura
Tu Youyou
Svetlana Alexievich Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet Angus Deaton
2016 [14] David J. Thouless
Duncan Haldane
John M. Kosterlitz
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Fraser Stoddart
Ben Feringa
Yoshinori Ohsumi Bob Dylan Juan Manuel Santos Oliver Hart
Bengt R. Holmström
2017 Rainer Weiss
Barry Barish
Kip Thorne
Jacques Dubochet
Joachim Frank
Richard Henderson
Jeffrey C. Hall
Michael Rosbash
Michael W. Young
Kazuo Ishiguro International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Richard Thaler
2018 Arthur Ashkin
Gérard Mourou
Donna Strickland
Frances H. Arnold
George P. Smith
Greg Winter
James P. Allison
Tasuku Honjo
Olga Tokarczuk [lower-alpha 7] Denis Mukwege
Nadia Murad
William Nordhaus
Paul Romer
2019 James Peebles
Michel Mayor
Didier Queloz
John B. Goodenough
M. Stanley Whittingham
Akira Yoshino
William Kaelin Jr.
Peter J. Ratcliffe
Gregg L. Semenza
Peter Handke Abiy Ahmed 14 Oct (11.45)
Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 In 1938 and 1939, the government of Germany did not allow three German Nobel nominees to accept their Nobel Prizes. The three were Richard Kuhn, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1938; Adolf Butenandt, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1939; and Gerhard Domagk, Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine in 1939. They were later awarded the Nobel Prize diploma and medal, but not the money. [9]
  2. In 1948, the Nobel Prize in Peace was not awarded. The Nobel Foundation's website suggests that it would have been awarded to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, however, due to his assassination earlier that year, it was left unassigned in his honor. [12]
  3. In 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak, under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union, was forced to decline the Nobel Prize in Literature. [9]
  4. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre refused to accept the Nobel Prize in Literature, as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past. [9]
  5. In 1973, Lê Ðức Thọ declined the Nobel Peace Prize. His reason was that he felt he did not deserve it because although he helped negotiate the Paris Peace Accords (a cease-fire in the Vietnam War), there had been no actual peace agreement. [7] [9]
  6. In 2010, Liu Xiaobo was unable to receive the Nobel Peace Prize as he was sentenced to 11 years of imprisonment by the Chinese authorities. [13]
  7. The 2018 Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded in 2019, as scandals within the Swedish Academy forced it to postpone the ceremony. [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine One of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded yearly by the Nobel Foundation for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

References

General
Specific
  1. "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  2. 1 2 "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  3. "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  4. "The Nobel Prize Amounts" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-06-15. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  5. "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  6. "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  7. 1 2 Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize 1901-2000". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  8. "All Nobel Prizes". www.nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Nobel Prize Facts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2017-07-08. Retrieved 2015-10-11.
  10. "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
  11. "Official Website of Nobel Prize".
  12. Tønnesson, Øyvind (December 1, 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2010. Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize had he been alive one more year.
  13. "The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 - Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  14. "2016 Nobel Prizes - Prize Announcement Dates". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  15. Henley, Jon (10 October 2019). "Two Nobel literature prizes to be awarded after sexual assault scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 October 2019.