List of Nobel laureates

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Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2017) 9 million SEK (roughly US$1.0 million, EUR0.87 million). Nobel Prize.png
Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2017) 9 million SEK (roughly US$1.0 million, €0.87 million).
Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robert J. Lefkowitz, David J. Wineland, and Serge Haroche during the ceremony Nobel Prize winners 2012.jpg
Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robert J. Lefkowitz, David J. Wineland, and Serge Haroche during the ceremony

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish : Nobelpriset, Norwegian : Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. [1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation. [2]

Nobel Prize Set of annual international awards, primarily 5 established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

Swedish language North Germanic language spoken in Sweden

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.

Norwegian language North Germanic language spoken in Norway

Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties, and some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are hardly mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Contents

Prize

Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. [3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years. [2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. In 2017, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 9,000,000 SEK. [4] The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. [5]

Swedish krona currency of Sweden

The krona is the official currency of Sweden. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use; the former precedes or follows the value, the latter usually follows it but, especially in the past, it sometimes preceded the value. In English, the currency is sometimes referred to as the Swedish crown, as krona literally means crown in Swedish. The Swedish krona was the ninth-most traded currency in the world by value in April 2016.

Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 962,154 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.

In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize. [6] The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II. [7]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Laureates

Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals (including 844 men, 48 women) and 24 organizations. [8] Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time.

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field. The award's official name is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany from 1934 to 1945

Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Richard Kuhn Austrian-German biochemist

Richard Johann Kuhn was an Austrian-German biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938 "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins".

Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other. [9] UNHCR has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize twice. Also the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to John Bardeen twice, and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: Marie Curie (Physics and Chemistry) and Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 892 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. [10] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911. [9]

International Committee of the Red Cross humanitarian institution

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.

Nobel Peace Prize One of five Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

List of laureates

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics
1901 Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant ;
Frédéric Passy
1902 Hendrik Lorentz ;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun ;
Charles Albert Gobat
1903 Henri Becquerel ;
Pierre Curie ;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer
1904 Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral ;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International
1905 Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner
1906 J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi ;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta ;
Louis Renault
1908 Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff ;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson ;
Fredrik Bajer
1909 Karl Ferdinand Braun ;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert ;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau
1911 Wilhelm Wien Marie Skłodowska-Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser ;
Alfred Hermann Fried
1912 Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard ;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine
1914 Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány NoneNone
1915 William Henry Bragg ;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter None Romain Rolland None
1916NoneNoneNone Verner von Heidenstam None
1917 Charles Glover Barkla NoneNone Karl Adolph Gjellerup ;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Max Planck Fritz Haber NoneNoneNone
1919 Johannes Stark None Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson
1920 Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois
1921 Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy None Anatole France Hjalmar Branting ;
Christian Lous Lange
1922 Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill ;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting ;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats None
1924 Manne Siegbahn None Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont None
1925 James Franck ;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy None George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain ;
Charles G. Dawes
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand ;
Gustav Stresemann
1927 Arthur Compton ;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson ;
Ludwig Quidde
1928 Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset None
1929 Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden ;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman ;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg
1930 C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom
1931None Carl Bosch ;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams ;
Nicholas Murray Butler
1932 Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington ;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy None
1933 Erwin Schrödinger ;
Paul Dirac
None Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell
1934None Harold Urey George Whipple ;
George Minot ;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson
1935 James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie ;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann None Carl von Ossietzky
1936 Victor Francis Hess ;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale ;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O'Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Clinton Davisson ;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth ;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938 Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn [A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt ; [A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk [A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää None
1940NoneNoneNoneNoneNone
1941NoneNoneNoneNoneNone
1942NoneNoneNoneNoneNone
1943 Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam ;
Edward Adelbert Doisy
NoneNone
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger ;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming ;
Ernst Boris Chain ;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull
1946 Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner ;
John Howard Northrop ;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch ;
John Mott
1947 Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori ;
Gerty Cori ;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948 Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot None [B]
1949 Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess ;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr
1950 C. F. Powell Otto Diels ;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench ;
Edward Calvin Kendall ;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche
1951 John Cockcroft ;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan ;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux
1952 Felix Bloch ;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin ;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer
1953 Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs ;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall
1954 Max Born ;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders ;
Frederick Chapman Robbins ;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Willis Lamb ;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness None
1956 John Bardeen ;
Walter Houser Brattain ;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood ;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand ;
Werner Forssmann ;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez None
1957 Chen Ning Yang ;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson
1958 Pavel Cherenkov ;
Ilya Frank ;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle ;
Edward Lawrie Tatum ;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak [C] Dominique Pire
1959 Emilio G. Segrè ;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg ;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker
1960 Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet ;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli
1961 Robert Hofstadter ;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld
1962 Lev Landau Max Perutz ;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick ;
James D. Watson ;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling
1963 Eugene Wigner ;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer ;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler ;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles ;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin ;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964 Charles Hard Townes ;
Nikolay Basov ;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch ;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre [D] Martin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga ;
Julian Schwinger ;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob ;
André Michel Lwoff ;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous ;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon ;
Nelly Sachs
None
1967 Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen ;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish ;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit ;
Haldan Keffer Hartline ;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias None
1968 Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley ;
Har Gobind Khorana ;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin
1969 Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton ;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück ;
Alfred Hershey ;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch ;
Jan Tinbergen
1970 Hannes Alfvén ;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod ;
Ulf von Euler ;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson
1971 Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets
1972 John Bardeen ;
Leon Cooper ;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen ;
Stanford Moore ;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman ;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll None John Hicks ;
Kenneth Arrow
1973 Leo Esaki ;
Ivar Giaever ;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer ;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch ;
Konrad Lorenz ;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger ;
Le Duc Tho [E]
Wassily Leontief
1974 Martin Ryle ;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude ;
Christian de Duve ;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson ;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride ;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal ;
Friedrich Hayek
1975 Aage Bohr ; Flag of Denmark.svg
Ben Roy Mottelson ; Flag of Denmark.svg
James Rainwater Flag of the United States.svg
John Cornforth ; Flag of the United States.svg
Vladimir Prelog Flag of Croatia.svg
David Baltimore ;
Renato Dulbecco ;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich ;
Tjalling Koopmans
1976 Burton Richter ; Flag of the United States.svg
Samuel C. C. Ting Flag of the United States.svg
William Lipscomb Flag of the United States.svg Baruch Samuel Blumberg ; Flag of the United States.svg
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek Flag of the United States.svg
Saul Bellow Flag of the United States.svg Betty Williams ; Ulster Banner.svg
Mairead Maguire Ulster Banner.svg
Milton Friedman Flag of the United States.svg
1977 Philip Warren Anderson ; Flag of the United States.svg
Nevill Francis Mott ; Flag of England.svg
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck Flag of the United States.svg
Ilya Prigogine Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Roger Guillemin ; Flag of France.svg
Andrew Schally ; Flag of the United States.svg
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow Flag of the United States.svg
Vicente Aleixandre Flag of Spain.svg Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin ; Flag of Sweden.svg
James Meade Flag of the United States.svg
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa ; Flag of Russia.svg
Arno Allan Penzias ; Flag of the United States.svg
Robert Woodrow Wilson Flag of the United States.svg
Peter D. Mitchell Flag of England.svg Werner Arber ; Flag of Switzerland.svg
Daniel Nathans ; Flag of the United States.svg
Hamilton O. Smith Flag of the United States.svg
Isaac Bashevis Singer Flag of Poland.svg Anwar Sadat ; Flag of Egypt.svg
Menachem Begin Flag of Israel.svg
Herbert A. Simon Flag of the United States.svg
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow ; Flag of the United States.svg
Abdus Salam ; Flag of Pakistan.svg
Steven Weinberg Flag of the United States.svg
Herbert C. Brown ; Flag of the United States.svg
Georg Wittig Flag of Germany.svg
Allan McLeod Cormack ; Flag of South Africa.svg
Godfrey Hounsfield Flag of South Africa.svg
Odysseas Elytis Flag of Greece.svg Mother Teresa Flag of Albania.svg Theodore Schultz ; Flag of the United States.svg
Arthur Lewis Flag of England.svg
1980 James Cronin ; Flag of the United States.svg
Val Logsdon Fitch Flag of the United States.svg
Paul Berg ; Flag of the United States.svg
Walter Gilbert ; Flag of the United States.svg
Frederick Sanger Flag of England.svg
Baruj Benacerraf ; Flag of Venezuela.svg
Jean Dausset ; Flag of France.svg
George Davis Snell Flag of the United States.svg
Czesław Miłosz Flag of Poland.svg Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Flag of Argentina.svg Lawrence Klein Flag of the United States.svg
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Arthur Leonard Schawlow Flag of the United States.svg
Kai Siegbahn Flag of Sweden.svg
Kenichi Fukui Flag of Japan.svg
Roald Hoffmann Flag of Poland.svg
Roger Wolcott Sperry Flag of the United States.svg
David H. Hubel Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Torsten Wiesel Flag of Sweden.svg
Elias Canetti Flag of Germany.svg United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin Flag of the United States.svg
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson Flag of the United States.svg Aaron Klug Flag of Lithuania.svg Sune Bergström Flag of Sweden.svg
Bengt I. Samuelsson Flag of Sweden.svg
John Vane Flag of England.svg
Gabriel García Márquez Flag of Colombia.svg Alva Myrdal Flag of Sweden.svg
Alfonso García Robles Flag of Mexico.svg
George Stigler Flag of the United States.svg
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Flag of India.svg
William Alfred Fowler Flag of the United States.svg
Henry Taube Flag of the United States.svg Barbara McClintock Flag of the United States.svg William Golding Flag of England.svg Lech Wałęsa Flag of Poland.svg Gérard Debreu Flag of France.svg
1984 Carlo Rubbia Flag of Italy.svg
Simon van der Meer Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Robert Bruce Merrifield Flag of the United States.svg Niels Kaj Jerne Flag of Denmark.svg
Georges J. F. Köhler Flag of Germany.svg
César Milstein Flag of Argentina.svg
Jaroslav Seifert Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Desmond Tutu Flag of South Africa.svg Richard Stone Flag of England.svg
1985 Klaus von Klitzing Flag of Germany.svg Herbert A. Hauptman Flag of the United States.svg
Jerome Karle Flag of the United States.svg
Michael Stuart Brown Flag of the United States.svg
Joseph L. Goldstein Flag of the United States.svg
Claude Simon Flag of France.svg International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani Flag of Italy.svg
1986 Ernst Ruska Flag of Germany.svg
Gerd Binnig Flag of Germany.svg
Heinrich Rohrer Flag of Switzerland.svg
Dudley R. Herschbach Flag of the United States.svg
Yuan T. Lee Flag of Japan.svg
John Polanyi Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Stanley Cohen Flag of the United States.svg
Rita Levi-Montalcini Flag of Italy.svg
Wole Soyinka Flag of Nigeria.svg Elie Wiesel Flag of Romania.svg James M. Buchanan Flag of the United States.svg
1987 Johannes Georg Bednorz Flag of Germany.svg
Karl Alexander Müller Flag of Switzerland.svg
Donald J. Cram Flag of the United States.svg
Jean-Marie Lehn Flag of France.svg
Charles J. Pedersen Flag of the United States.svg
Susumu Tonegawa Flag of Japan.svg Joseph Brodsky Flag of Russia.svg Óscar Arias Flag of Costa Rica.svg Robert Solow Flag of the United States.svg
1988 Leon M. Lederman Flag of the United States.svg
Melvin Schwartz Flag of the United States.svg
Jack Steinberger Flag of the United States.svg
Johann Deisenhofer Flag of Germany.svg
Robert Huber Flag of Germany.svg
Hartmut Michel Flag of Germany.svg
James W. Black Flag of Scotland.svg
Gertrude B. Elion Flag of the United States.svg
George H. Hitchings Flag of the United States.svg
Naguib Mahfouz Flag of Egypt.svg United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces United Nations Peacekeeping Logo.svg Maurice Allais Flag of France.svg
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. Flag of the United States.svg
Hans Georg Dehmelt Flag of Germany.svg
Wolfgang Paul Flag of Germany.svg
Sidney Altman Flag of the United States.svg
Thomas Cech Flag of the United States.svg
J. Michael Bishop Flag of the United States.svg
Harold E. Varmus Flag of the United States.svg
Camilo José Cela Flag of Spain.svg Tenzin Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama) Flag of Tibet.svg Trygve Haavelmo Flag of Norway.svg
1990 Jerome Isaac Friedman Flag of the United States.svg
Henry Way Kendall Flag of the United States.svg
Richard E. Taylor Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Elias James Corey Flag of the United States.svg Joseph Murray Flag of the United States.svg
E. Donnall Thomas Flag of the United States.svg
Octavio Paz Flag of Mexico.svg Mikhail Gorbachev Flag of Russia.svg Harry Markowitz Flag of the United States.svg
Merton Miller Flag of the United States.svg
William F. Sharpe Flag of the United States.svg
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Flag of France.svg Richard R. Ernst Flag of Switzerland.svg Erwin Neher Flag of Germany.svg
Bert Sakmann Flag of Germany.svg
Nadine Gordimer Flag of South Africa.svg Aung San Suu Kyi Flag of Myanmar.svg Ronald Coase Flag of England.svg
1992 Georges Charpak Flag of Poland.svg Rudolph A. Marcus Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Edmond H. Fischer Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Edwin G. Krebs Flag of the United States.svg
Derek Walcott Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Rigoberta Menchú Flag of Guatemala.svg Gary Becker Flag of the United States.svg
1993 Russell Alan Hulse Flag of the United States.svg
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. Flag of the United States.svg
Kary Mullis Flag of the United States.svg
Michael Smith Flag of England.svg
Richard J. Roberts Flag of England.svg
Phillip Allen Sharp Flag of the United States.svg
Toni Morrison Flag of the United States.svg Nelson Mandela Flag of South Africa.svg
F. W. de Klerk Flag of South Africa.svg
Robert Fogel Flag of the United States.svg
Douglass North Flag of the United States.svg
1994 Bertram Brockhouse Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Clifford Shull Flag of the United States.svg
George Andrew Olah Flag of Hungary.svg Alfred G. Gilman Flag of the United States.svg
Martin Rodbell Flag of the United States.svg
Kenzaburō Ōe Flag of Japan.svg Yasser Arafat Flag of Palestine.svg
Shimon Peres Flag of Israel.svg
Yitzhak Rabin Flag of Israel.svg
John Harsanyi Flag of Hungary.svg
John Forbes Nash, Jr. Flag of the United States.svg
Reinhard Selten Flag of Germany.svg
1995 Martin Lewis Perl Flag of the United States.svg
Frederick Reines Flag of the United States.svg
Paul J. Crutzen Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Mario J. Molina Flag of Mexico.svg
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis Flag of the United States.svg
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Flag of Germany.svg
Eric F. Wieschaus Flag of the United States.svg
Seamus Heaney Flag of Ireland.svg Joseph Rotblat Flag of Poland.svg
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr. Flag of the United States.svg
1996 David Lee Flag of the United States.svg
Douglas Osheroff Flag of the United States.svg
Robert Coleman Richardson Flag of the United States.svg
Robert F. Curl Jr. Flag of the United States.svg
Harry Kroto Flag of England.svg
Richard Smalley Flag of the United States.svg
Peter C. Doherty Flag of Australia (converted).svg
Rolf M. Zinkernagel Flag of Switzerland.svg
Wisława Szymborska Flag of Poland.svg Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo Flag of Portugal.svg
José Ramos-Horta Flag of Portugal.svg
James Mirrlees Flag of Scotland.svg
William Vickrey Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
1997 Steven Chu Flag of the United States.svg
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji Flag of France.svg
William Daniel Phillips Flag of the United States.svg
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