John Galsworthy

Last updated

John Galsworthy
John Galsworthy 2.jpg
Born(1867-08-14)14 August 1867
Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, England, UK
Died31 January 1933(1933-01-31) (aged 65)
Hampstead, London, England
OccupationWriter
CitizenshipBritish
Parent(s)
  • John Galsworthy (father)
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Literature
1932

Signature Autograph Galsworthy.svg

John Galsworthy OM ( /ˈɡɔːlzwɜːrði/ ; 14 August 1867 – 31 January 1933) was an English novelist and playwright. Notable works include The Forsyte Saga (1906–1921) and its sequels, A Modern Comedy and End of the Chapter. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1932.

The Forsyte Saga, first published under that title in 1922, is a series of three novels and two interludes published between 1906 and 1921 by Nobel Prize–winning English author John Galsworthy. They chronicle the vicissitudes of the leading members of a large commercial upper-middle-class English family, similar to Galsworthy's own. Only a few generations removed from their farmer ancestors, the family members are keenly aware of their status as "new money". The main character, Soames Forsyte, sees himself as a "man of property" by virtue of his ability to accumulate material possessions – but this does not succeed in bringing him pleasure.

Nobel Prize in Literature One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize that is awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year. It was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019.

Contents

Life

Galsworthy was born at what is now known as Galsworthy House (then called Parkhurst) [1] on Kingston Hill in Surrey, England, the son of John and Blanche Bailey (née Bartleet) Galsworthy. His family was prosperous and well established, with a large property in Kingston upon Thames that is now the site of three schools: Marymount International School, Rokeby Preparatory School, and Holy Cross Preparatory School. He attended Harrow and New College, Oxford. He took a Second in Law (Jurisprudentia) at Oxford in 1889, [2] then trained as a barrister and was called to the bar in 1890. However, he was not keen to begin practising law and instead travelled abroad to look after the family's shipping business. During these travels he met Joseph Conrad, then the first mate of a sailing-ship moored in the harbour of Adelaide, Australia, and the two future novelists became close friends. In 1895 Galsworthy began an affair with Ada Nemesis Pearson Cooper (1864–1956), the wife of his cousin Major Arthur Galsworthy. After her divorce ten years later, they were married on 23 September 1905 and stayed together until his death in 1933. Before their marriage, they often stayed clandestinely in a farmhouse called Wingstone in the village of Manaton on Dartmoor, Devon. [3] In 1908 Galsworthy took a long lease on part of the building and it was their regular second home until 1923. [3]

Kingston upon Thames principal settlement of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in southwest London

Kingston upon Thames, frequently known as Kingston, is an area of southwest London, England, 10 miles (16.1 km) southwest of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, and identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan.

Marymount International School is an independent day and boarding school for girls in Kingston upon Thames, London, England. Founded by the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary in 1955 it is open to children of all faiths or none. It is situated on a 7-acre (2.8 ha) campus 12 miles (19 km) from central London.

Rokeby Preparatory School

Rokeby School is an independent all male preparatory day school in Kingston upon Thames, London. Its headmaster is Jason Peck. The school offers an education from 4 to 13 years through the integration of a pre-preparatory school and a preparatory school. The pre-prep school was known as Junior Rokeby until 2008 when headmaster Jason Peck unified the schools under one name and uniform, at the same time abolishing the senior school's traditional Latin motto in favour of a three word English one.

Career

From the Four Winds, a collection of short stories, was Galsworthy's first published work in 1897. These and several subsequent works were published under the pen name of John Sinjohn, and it was not until The Island Pharisees (1904) that he began publishing under his own name, probably owing to the recent death of his father. His first full-length novel, Jocelyn, was published in an edition of 750 under the name of John Sinjohn—he later refused to have it republished. His first play, The Silver Box (1906), [4] —in which the theft of a prostitute's purse by a rich 'young man of good family' is placed beside the theft of a silver cigarette case from the rich man's father's house by 'a poor devil', with very different repercussions, [5] though justice was clearly done in each case—became a success, and he followed it up with The Man of Property (1906), the first book of a Forsyte trilogy. Although he continued writing both plays and novels, it was as a playwright that he was mainly appreciated at the time. Along with those of other writers of the period, such as George Bernard Shaw, his plays addressed the class system and other social issues, two of the best known being Strife (1909) and The Skin Game (1920).

A pen name is a pseudonym adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their real name. A pen name may be used to make the author's name more distinctive, to disguise the author's gender, to distance the author from their other works, to protect the author from retribution for their writings, to combine more than one author into a single author, or for any of a number of reasons related to the marketing or aesthetic presentation of the work. The author's name may be known only to the publisher or may come to be common knowledge.

The Silver Box is a three-act comedy, the first play by the English writer John Galsworthy. It was originally produced in London in 1906, and attracted much attention. In New York it was first seen in 1907.

George Bernard Shaw Irish playwright, critic and polemicist, influential in Western theatre

George Bernard Shaw, known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist and political activist. His influence on Western theatre, culture and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond. He wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman (1902), Pygmalion (1912) and Saint Joan (1923). With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, and in 1925 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

John Galsworthy John galsworthy.jpg
John Galsworthy

He is now far better known for his novels, particularly The Forsyte Saga , his trilogy about the eponymous family and connected lives. These books, as with many of his other works, deal with social class, and upper-middle class lives in particular. Although sympathetic to his characters, he highlights their insular, snobbish, and acquisitive attitudes and their suffocating moral codes. He is viewed as one of the first writers of the Edwardian era who challenged some of the ideals of society depicted in the preceding literature of Victorian England. The depiction of a woman in an unhappy marriage furnishes another recurring theme in his work. The character of Irene in The Forsyte Saga is drawn from Ada Pearson, though her previous marriage was not as miserable as that of the character.

Edwardian era historical period (1901–1910)

The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended to the start of the First World War. The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era. Her son and successor, Edward VII, was already the leader of a fashionable elite that set a style influenced by the art and fashions of continental Europe. Samuel Hynes described the Edwardian era as a "leisurely time when women wore picture hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sun really never set on the British flag."

Victorian literature literature during the period of Queen Victorias reign

Victorian literature is literature, mainly written in English, during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901). It was preceded by Romanticism and followed by the Edwardian era (1901–1910).

Causes and honours

Causes

Through his writings Galsworthy campaigned for a variety of causes, including prison reform, women's rights, and animal welfare, and also against censorship. During the First World War he worked in a hospital in France as an orderly, after being passed over for military service, and in 1917 turned down a knighthood, for which he was nominated by Prime Minister David Lloyd George, on the precept that a writer's reward comes simply from writing itself. [6]

In healthcare, an orderly is a hospital attendant whose job consists of assisting medical and nursing staff with various nursing and medical interventions. The highest role of an orderly is that of an operations assistant. An operations assistant requires people of a higher caliber to be knowledgeable in advanced medical terminology and assisting with specialist surgery set ups, typically an operations assistant understands more about surgical procedures than that of a registered nurse working outside of theatres. An operations assistant is more of a direct assistant to consultant level doctors than that of nurses. These duties are classified as routine tasks involving no risk for the patient.

David Lloyd George Former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, was a British statesman and Liberal politician. He was the last Liberal to serve as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Honours

In 1921 he was elected as the first president of the PEN International literary club and was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1929. Galsworthy was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize for Literature, having been nominated that same year by Henrik Schück, a member of the Swedish Academy. [7] He was too ill to attend the Nobel Prize presentation ceremony on December 10, 1932, [8] [9] and died seven weeks later.

PEN International worldwide association of writers, founded in London in 1921

PEN International is a worldwide association of writers, founded in London in 1921 to promote friendship and intellectual co-operation among writers everywhere. The association has autonomous International PEN centers in over 100 countries.

Henrik Schück rector of Uppsala University

Henrik Schück was a Swedish literary historian, university professor and author.

Swedish Academy Swedish Royal Academy

The Swedish Academy, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. Its 18 members, who are elected for life, comprise the highest Swedish language authority. Outside Scandinavia, it is best known as the body that chooses the laureates for the annual Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded in memory of the donor Alfred Nobel.

Death

Galsworthy lived for the final seven years of his life at Bury in West Sussex. He died from a brain tumour at his London home, Grove Lodge, Hampstead. In accordance with his will he was cremated at Woking, with his ashes then being scattered over the South Downs from an aeroplane, [10] but there are also memorials to him in Highgate 'New' Cemetery [11] and in the cloisters of New College, Oxford, [12] cut by Eric Gill. [13] [14] The popularity of his fiction waned quickly after his death but the hugely successful television adaptation of The Forsyte Saga in 1967 renewed interest in his work.

Legacy

A number of John Galsworthy's letters and papers are held at the University of Birmingham Special Collections.

In 2007, Kingston University opened a new building named in recognition of his local birth. Galsworthy Road in Kingston, the location of Kingston Hospital, is also named for him.

Family

Galsworthy's sister Lilian (1864–1924) was married to the German painter and lithographer Georg Sauter from 1894. With the beginning of World War I Sauter was interned as an enemy alien at Alexandra Palace and later expelled. [15] Their son Rudolf Sauter (1895–1971) was also a painter and graphic artist, who among other things, illustrated the works of his uncle.

Adaptations

Bury House, Galsworthy's West Sussex home. Bury House.JPG
Bury House, Galsworthy's West Sussex home.

The Forsyte Saga has been filmed several times:

The White Monkey was made into a silent film of the same name in 1925, directed by Phil Rosen, and starring Barbara La Marr, Thomas Holding, and Henry Victor. [19]

The Skin Game was adapted and directed by Alfred Hitchcock in 1931. It starred C.V. France, Helen Haye, Jill Esmond, Edmund Gwenn, and John Longden. [20]

Escape was filmed in 1930 and 1948. The latter was directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, starring Rex Harrison, Peggy Cummins, and William Hartnell. The screenplay was by Philip Dunne. [16]

One More River (a film version of Galsworthy's Over the River) was filmed by James Whale in 1934. The film starred Frank Lawton, Colin Clive (one of Whale's most frequently used actors) and Diana Wynyard, and featured Mrs. Patrick Campbell in a rare sound film appearance. [21]

The First and the Last , a short play, was adapted as 21 Days , starring Vivien Leigh and Laurence Olivier. [22]

Galsworthy's short story The Apple Tree was adapted into a radio play for Orson Welles' Lady Esther Almanac radio series on CBS, first broadcast on 12 January 1942; the play was again produced by Welles for CBS on The Mercury Summer Theatre of 6 September 1946. The 1988 film A Summer Story was also based on The Apple Tree. [23]

The NBC University Theater aired radio adaptations of his plays Justice on 31 October 1948 and The Patrician on 26 February 1950.

The Forsyte Chronicles

  1. The Salvation of a Forsyte (The Salvation of Swithin Forsyte) (1900)
  2. On Forsyte 'Change (1930) (re-published 1986 as "Uncollected Forsyte")
  3. Danaë (1905–06) in Forsytes, Pendyces, and Others (1935)
  4. The Man of Property (1906) – first book of The Forsyte Saga (1922)
  5. "Indian Summer of a Forsyte" (1918) – first interlude of The Forsyte Saga in Five Tales (1918)
  6. In Chancery (1920) – second book of The Forsyte Saga
  7. "Awakening" (1920) – second interlude of The Forsyte Saga
  8. To Let (1921) – third book of The Forsyte Saga
  9. The White Monkey (1924) – first book of A Modern Comedy (1929)
  10. The Silver Spoon (1926) – second book of A Modern Comedy
  11. "A Silent Wooing" (1927) – first Interlude of A Modern Comedy
  12. "Passers-By" (1927) – second Interlude of A Modern Comedy
  13. Swan Song (1928) – third book of A Modern Comedy
  14. Four Forsyte Stories (1929) – "A Sad Affair", "Dog at Timothy's", "The Hondekoeter" and "Midsummer Madness"
  15. Maid in Waiting (1931) – first book of End of the Chapter (1934)
  16. Flowering Wilderness (1932) – second book of End of the Chapter
  17. One More River (originally Over the River) (1933) – third book of End of the Chapter

Other works

Notes and references

  1. Cherry, Bridget; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1983). The Buildings of England, London 2: South. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books. p. 321. ISBN   0 14 071047 7.
  2. Oxford University Calendar 1895, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895, 262
  3. 1 2 Cooper, Robert M. (1998). The Literary Guide & Companion to Southern England. Ohio University Press. pp. 323–324. ISBN   0-8214-1225-6 . Retrieved 25 September 2008.
  4. Galsworthy, John (1 January 1909). "The silver box, a comedy in three acts,". C. Scribner's Sons via Open WorldCat.
  5. Description of the plot from John Galsworthy, by George Orwell, Monde 23 March 1929
  6. "Masterpiece Theatre – The Forsyte Saga, Series I – Essays + Interviews – John Galsworthy
    (see ¶ 6)"
    . Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)(US). Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  7. "Nomination Database".
  8. Smith, Helen (2017). An Uncommon Reader: A Life of Edward Garnett, Mentor and Editor of Literary Genius. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN   978-0374717414.
  9. "Nobelprize.org". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  10. Geoffrey Harvey, Galsworthy, John (1867–1933), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006, accessed 29 July 2012
  11. Other Writers. www.poetsgraves.co.uk
  12. John Galsworthy at Find a Grave
  13. "A History of the Workshop". Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). kindersleyworkshop.co.uk
  14. MacCarthy, Fiona (1989). Eric Gill. Faber & Faber. p. 276. ISBN   0-571-14302-4.
  15. Webb, Simon (2016). British Concentration Camps: A Brief History from 1900–1975. Pen and Sword. p. 50–51. ISBN   1473846323.
  16. 1 2 "That Forsyte Woman (1949)". TCM.com.
  17. "BFI Screenonline: Forsyte Saga, The (1967)".
  18. Guider, Elizabeth (25 July 2004). "Review: 'The Forsyte Saga'".
  19. "The White Monkey". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on 2 June 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  20. "The Skin Game (1931)". TCM.com.
  21. "One More River (1934)". TCM.com.
  22. "21 Days Together (1940)". TCM.com.
  23. "A Summer Story". RadioTimes.

Further reading

Sources

Biographical

Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Catherine Amy Dawson Scott
International President of PEN International
1921–1933
Succeeded by
H. G. Wells

Related Research Articles

Damian Lewis British actor and producer

Damian Watcyn Lewis is an English actor and producer. He played U.S. Army Major Richard Winters in the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers, which earned him a Golden Globe nomination, and also portrayed U.S. Marine Sergeant Nicholas Brody in the Showtime series Homeland. His performance as King Henry VIII in Wolf Hall earned him his third Primetime Emmy nomination and fourth Golden Globe nomination. He currently plays Bobby Axelrod in the Showtime series Billions (2016–present), and portrays actor Steve McQueen in Once Upon a Time in Hollywood (2019) directed by Quentin Tarantino.

Edward William Garnett (1868–1937) was an English writer, critic and literary editor, who was instrumental in getting D. H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers published.

Eric Richard Porter was an English actor of stage, film and television.

Anthony Steven was a British television scriptwriter whose career spanned over three decades. Notable works include All Creatures Great and Small, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and The Forsyte Saga.

Caroline Blakiston is an English actress. She is best known in her native United Kingdom for her role in the television comedy series Brass, and to international audiences as Mon Mothma in the Star Wars film Return of the Jedi.

Silver spoon is an idiomatic expression in English synonymous with wealth, especially inherited wealth.

The Fosdyke Saga was a British comic strip by cartoonist Bill Tidy, published in the Daily Mirror newspaper from March 1971 - February 1985. Described as "a classic tale of struggle, power, personalities and tripe", the strip was a parody of John Galsworthy's classic novel series The Forsyte Saga. However, the slightly bizarre and strange antics of the characters and those around them had a Lancashire/Cheshire lean with mangles, chimneys and soot ever present.

<i>That Forsyte Woman</i> 1950 film by Compton Bennett

That Forsyte Woman is a 1949 romance film directed by Compton Bennett and starring Greer Garson, Errol Flynn, Walter Pidgeon, Robert Young and Janet Leigh. It is an adaptation of The Man of Property, the first novel in The Forsyte Saga by John Galsworthy.

<i>The Forsyte Saga</i> (2002 TV series) TV series

The Forsyte Saga is a British drama television serial that chronicles the lives of three generations of an upper-middle-class family from the 1870s to 1920s. It was based on the first two books and the first interlude of John Galsworthy's trilogy The Forsyte Saga, which were adapted by Granada Television for the ITV network in 2002. Additional funding was provided by American PBS station WGBH, as the 1967 BBC version had been a success on PBS in the early 1970s. The second series was titled The Forsyte Saga: To Let.

Nicholas Pennell was an English actor who appeared frequently on film and television in the 1960s and emigrated to Stratford, Ontario, Canada, where he became a stalwart of the Stratford Festival.

<i>The Forsyte Saga</i> (1967 TV series) 1967 series

The Forsyte Saga is a 1967 BBC television adaptation of John Galsworthy's series of The Forsyte Saga novels, and its sequel trilogy A Modern Comedy. The series follows the fortunes of the upper middle class Forsyte family, and stars Eric Porter as Soames, Kenneth More as Young Jolyon and Nyree Dawn Porter as Irene.

<i>One More River</i> 1934 film by James Whale

One More River is a 1934 American drama film mystery directed by James Whale. It was produced and distributed by Universal Pictures and starred Colin Clive, Diana Wynyard and stage actress Mrs Patrick Campbell in one of her very few films. The film marked Jane Wyatt's screen debut. It is based on a 1933 novel by John Galsworthy.

Alan James Gwynne Cellan Jones is a British television and film director. Since 1963, he has directed over 50 diverse television series and films, specializing in dramas.

In Chancery is the second novel of the Forsyte Saga trilogy by John Galsworthy and was originally published in 1920, some fourteen years after The Man of Property. Like its predecessor it focuses on the personal affairs of a wealthy upper middle class English family.

The Forsyte Saga is a series of three novels and two interludes by John Galsworthy published between 1906 and 1921.

Three Years is an 1895 novella by Anton Chekhov originally published in the January and February 1895 issues of Russkaya Mysl. At 130 pages it is Chekhov's second-longest narrative. The story takes a negative position on the progress of society, featuring individuals of the merchant and factory owner class and their workers, without offering political solutions.

Bertram Wodehouse Currie English banker

Bertram Raikes Wodehouse Currie was a British banker, and High Sheriff of the County of London from 1892 to 1893.

Georg Sauter German painter (1866-1937)

Georg Sauter was a German-English painter, lithographer and draftsman.