The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish : Nobelpriset i litteratur) is awarded annually by the Swedish Academy to authors for outstanding contributions in the field of literature. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Swedish Academy. The first Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded in 1901 to Sully Prudhomme of France. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years. In 1901, Prudhomme received 150,782 SEK, which is equivalent to 8,823,637.78 SEK in January 2018. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize that is awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year. It was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.
The Swedish Academy, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. It has 18 members, who are elected for life. The academy makes the annual decision on who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded in memory of the donor Alfred Nobel.
As of 2017, the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to 114 individuals.When he received the award in 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak was forced to publicly reject the award under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre made known that he did not wish to accept the Nobel Prize in Literature, as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past. However the Nobel committee does not acknowledge refusals, and includes Pasternak and Sartre in its list of Nobel laureates.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak was a Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator. In his native Russian, Pasternak's first book of poems, My Sister, Life (1917), is one of the most influential collections ever published in the Russian language. Pasternak's translations of stage plays by Goethe, Schiller, Calderón de la Barca and Shakespeare remain very popular with Russian audiences.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism. His work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence these disciplines.
Fourteen women have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, more than any other Nobel Prize with the exception of the Nobel Peace Prize.There have been four instances in which the award was given to two people (1904, 1917, 1966, 1974). There have been eight years in which the Nobel Prize in Literature was not awarded (1914, 1918, 1935, 1940–1943, 2018 ). The country with the most recipients of the Nobel Prize in Literature is France with 16, followed by the United States with 12 and the United Kingdom with 11.
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
|1901||Sully Prudhomme||French||"in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"||poetry, essay|
|1902||Theodor Mommsen||German||"the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome "||history, law|
|1903||Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson||Norwegian||"as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"||poetry, novel, drama|
|1904||Frédéric Mistral||Provençal||"in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"||poetry, philology|
|José Echegaray||Spanish||"in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"||drama|
|1905||Henryk Sienkiewicz||Polish||"because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"||novel|
|1906||Giosuè Carducci||Italian||"not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"||poetry|
|1907||Rudyard Kipling||English||"in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration that characterize the creations of this world-famous author"||novel, short story, poetry|
|1908||Rudolf Christoph Eucken||German||"in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"||philosophy|
|1909||Selma Lagerlöf||Swedish||"in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"||novel, short story|
|1910||Paul von Heyse||German||"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"||poetry, drama, novel, short story|
|1911||Maurice Maeterlinck||French||"in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations"||drama, poetry, essay|
|1912||Gerhart Hauptmann||German||"primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"||drama, novel|
|1913||Rabindranath Tagore||Bengali and English||"because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West"||poetry, novel, drama, short story, music, essay, philosophy, translation|
|1915||Romain Rolland||French||"as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"||novel|
|1916||Verner von Heidenstam||Swedish||"in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"||poetry, novel|
|1917||Karl Adolph Gjellerup||Danish||"for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals"||poetry|
|Henrik Pontoppidan||Danish||"for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark"||novel|
|1919||Carl Spitteler||German||"in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring"||poetry|
|1920||Knut Hamsun||Norwegian||"for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil "||novel|
|1921||Anatole France||French||"in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"||novel, poetry|
|1922||Jacinto Benavente||Spanish||"for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"||drama|
|1923||William Butler Yeats||English||"for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"||poetry|
|1924||Władysław Reymont||Polish||"for his great national epic, The Peasants "||novel|
|1925||George Bernard Shaw||English||"for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty"||drama, literary criticism|
|1926||Grazia Deledda||Italian||"for her idealistically inspired writings, which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"||poetry, novel|
|1927||Henri Bergson||French||"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"||philosophy|
(Born in Denmark)
|Norwegian||"principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"||novel|
|1929||Thomas Mann||German||"principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks , which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"||novel, short story, essay|
|1930||Sinclair Lewis||English||"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"||novel, short story, drama|
|1931||Erik Axel Karlfeldt||Swedish||"The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt"||poetry|
|1932||John Galsworthy||English||"for his distinguished art of narration, which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga "||novel|
(Born in Russian Empire)
|Russian||"for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"||short story, poetry, novel|
|1934||Luigi Pirandello||Italian||"for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art"||drama, novel, short story|
|1936||Eugene O'Neill||English||"for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"||drama|
|1937||Roger Martin du Gard||French||"for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel cycle Les Thibault "||novel|
|1938||Pearl S. Buck||English||"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"||novel, biography|
|1939||Frans Eemil Sillanpää||Finnish||"for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature"||novel|
|1944||Johannes Vilhelm Jensen||Danish||"for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"||novel, short story|
|1945||Gabriela Mistral||Spanish||"for her lyric poetry, which inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"||poetry|
(Born in Germany)
|German||"for his inspired writings, which while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"||novel, poetry|
|1947||André Gide||French||"for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"||novel, essay|
|1948||T. S. Eliot|
(Born in the United States)
|English||"for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"||poetry|
|1949||William Faulkner||English||"for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"||novel, short story|
|1950||Bertrand Russell||English||"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"||philosophy|
|1951||Pär Lagerkvist||Swedish||"for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind"||poetry, novel, short story, drama|
|1952||François Mauriac||French||"for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"||novel, short story|
|1953||Winston Churchill||English||"for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"||history, essay, memoirs|
|1954||Ernest Hemingway||English||"for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea , and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"||novel, short story, screenplay|
|1955||Halldór Laxness||Icelandic||"for his vivid epic power, which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"||novel, short story, drama, poetry|
|1956||Juan Ramón Jiménez||Spanish||"for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"||poetry|
(Born in French Algeria)
|French||"for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times"||novel, short story, drama, philosophy, essay|
|1958||Boris Pasternak||Russian||"for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"||novel, poetry, translation|
|1959||Salvatore Quasimodo||Italian||"for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times"||poetry|
(Born in Guadeloupe)
|French||"for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry, which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time"||poetry|
(Born in Austria-Hungary)
|Serbo-Croatian||"for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"||novel, short story|
|1962||John Steinbeck||English||"for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"||novel, short story, screenplay|
(Born in the Ottoman Empire)
|Greek||"for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"||poetry, essay, memoirs|
|1964||Jean-Paul Sartre||French||"for his work, which rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"||novel, short story, philosophy, drama, literary criticism, screenplay|
|1965||Mikhail Sholokhov||Russian||"for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"||novel|
|1966||Shmuel Yosef Agnon|
(Born in Austria-Hungary)
|Hebrew||"for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"||novel, short story|
(Born in Germany)
|German||"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"||poetry, drama|
|1967||Miguel Ángel Asturias||Spanish||"for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"||novel, poetry|
|1968||Yasunari Kawabata||Japanese||"for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"||novel, short story|
|1969||Samuel Beckett||English and French||"for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"||novel, drama, poetry|
|1970||Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn||Russian||"for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"||novel|
|1971||Pablo Neruda||Spanish||"for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"||poetry|
|1972||Heinrich Böll||German||"for his writing, which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"||novel, short story|
(Born in the United Kingdom)
|English||"for an epic and psychological narrative art, which has introduced a new continent into literature"||novel, short story, drama|
|1974||Eyvind Johnson||Swedish||"for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"||novel|
|Harry Martinson||Swedish||"for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"||poetry, novel, drama|
|1975||Eugenio Montale||Italian||"for his distinctive poetry, which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions"||poetry|
(Born in Canada)
|English||"for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"||novel, short story|
|1977||Vicente Aleixandre||Spanish||"for a creative poetic writing, which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars"||poetry|
|1978||Isaac Bashevis Singer||Yiddish||"for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"||novel, short story, memoirs|
|1979||Odysseas Elytis||Greek||"for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"||poetry, essay|
|1980||Czesław Miłosz||Polish||"who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"||poetry, essay|
(Born in Bulgaria)
|German||"for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"||novel, drama, memoirs, essay|
|1982||Gabriel García Márquez||Spanish||"for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"||novel, short story, screenplay|
|1983||William Golding||English||"for his novels, which with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"||novel, poetry, drama|
(Born in Austria-Hungary)
|Czech||"for his poetry, which endowed with freshness, and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"||poetry|
(Born in French Madagascar)
|French||"who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition"||novel|
|1986||Wole Soyinka||English||"who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence"||drama, novel, poetry|
(Born in the Soviet Union)
|Russian and English||"for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"||poetry, essay|
|1988||Naguib Mahfouz||Arabic||"who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind"||novel|
|1989||Camilo José Cela||Spanish||"for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"||novel, short story|
|1990||Octavio Paz||Spanish||"for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"||poetry, essay|
|1991||Nadine Gordimer||English||"who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"||novel, short story, essay|
|1992||Derek Walcott||English||"for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"||poetry, drama|
|1993||Toni Morrison||English||"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"||novel|
|1994||Kenzaburō Ōe||Japanese||"who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"||novel, short story|
(Born in Northern Ireland)
|English||"for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"||poetry|
|1996||Wisława Szymborska||Polish||"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"||poetry|
|1997||Dario Fo||Italian||"who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden"||drama|
|1998||José Saramago||Portuguese||"who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality"||novel, drama, poetry|
|1999||Günter Grass||German||"whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"||novel, drama, poetry|
|2000||Gao Xingjian||Chinese||"for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"||novel, drama, literary criticism|
|2001||V. S. Naipaul|
(Born in Trinidad & Tobago)
|English||"for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories"||novel, essay|
|2002||Imre Kertész||Hungarian||"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"||novel|
|2003||J. M. Coetzee||English||"who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"||novel, essay, translation|
|2004||Elfriede Jelinek||German||"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"||novel, drama|
|2005||Harold Pinter||English||"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"||drama, screenplay|
|2006||Orhan Pamuk||Turkish||"who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures"||novel, screenplay, essay|
(Born in Iran)
|English||"that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"||novel, drama, poetry, short story, memoirs|
|2008||J. M. G. Le Clézio||French||"author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"||novel, short story, essay, translation|
(Born in Romania)
|German||"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"||novel, poetry|
|2010||Mario Vargas Llosa||Spanish||"for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"||novel, short story, essay, drama, memoirs|
|2011||Tomas Tranströmer||Swedish||"because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"||poetry, translation|
|2012||Mo Yan||Chinese||"who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary"||novel, short story|
|2013||Alice Munro||English||"master of the contemporary short story"||short story|
|2014||Patrick Modiano||French||"for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"||novel|
(Born in the Soviet Union)
|Russian||"for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time"||history, essay|
|2016||Bob Dylan||English||"for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"||poetry, songwriting|
|2017||Kazuo Ishiguro||English||"who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world"||novel|
|2018||Postponed until 2019|
The 114 Nobel laureates in literature from 1901 to 2017 have come from the following countries:
One Nobel laureate is classified as stateless (Ivan Bunin, 1933).
In international law, a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law". Some stateless persons are also refugees. However, not all refugees are stateless, and many persons who are stateless have never crossed an international border. On 13 November, 2018, Filippo Grandi, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees said there are about 12 million stateless people in the world.
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin was the first Russian writer awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. He was noted for the strict artistry with which he carried on the classical Russian traditions in the writing of prose and poetry. The texture of his poems and stories, sometimes referred to as "Bunin brocade", is considered to be one of the richest in the language.
The 114 Nobel laureates in literature from 1901 to 2017 have written in the following languages:
Rabindranath Tagore (Nobel Prize in Literature 1913) wrote in Bengali and English, Samuel Beckett (Nobel Prize in Literature 1969) wrote in French and English and Joseph Brodsky (Nobel Prize in Literature 1987) wrote poetry in Russian and prose in English. These three Nobel laureates have been sorted under Bengali, French and Russian, respectively.
Rabindranath Tagore, and also known by his sobriquets Gurudev, Kabiguru, and Biswakabi, was a Bengali polymath, poet, musician, and artist from the Indian subcontinent. He reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of the "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse" of Gitanjali, he became in 1913 the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore's poetic songs were viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. He is sometimes referred to as "the Bard of Bengal".
Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish novelist, playwright, short story writer, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life. He wrote in both English and French.
Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky was a Russian and American poet and essayist.
The 114 Nobel laureates in literature from 1901 to 2017 were from the following sexes :
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries. The Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature. The reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, and has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field. The award's official name is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
^ A. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.
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