List of Chinese Nobel laureates

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The Nobel Prize

Since 1957, there have been eight Chinese (including Chinese-born) winners of the Nobel Prize . The Nobel Prize is a Sweden-based international monetary prize. The award was established by the 1895 will and estate of Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel. It was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. An associated prize, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was instituted by Sweden's central bank in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.

Chinese people ethnic group

Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation. Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in China, at about 92% of the population, are often referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English, however there are dozens of other related and unrelated ethnic groups in China.

Nobel Prize Set of annual international awards, primarily 5 established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

Alfred Nobel Swedish chemist, innovator, and armaments manufacturer

Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish businessman, chemist, engineer, inventor, and philanthropist.

Contents

Following is a list of Nobel laureates who have been citizens of the Republic of China or the People's Republic of China [1] and of overseas birth.

Republic of China (1912–1949) 1912–1949 country in Asia, when the Republic of China governed mainland China

The Republic of China (ROC) controlled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. Its government moved to Taipei in December 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai tried to reinstate the monarchy before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, members of cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a restoration of the Qing dynasty.

China Country in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Laureates

Chinese citizens

Citizens of Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

The following are the Nobel laureates who were citizens of Republic of China (capital in Taipei city) at the time they were awarded the Nobel Prize. [2]

YearLaureateChinese nameEnglish nameCategoryLifeRationalePlace of Birth
1957 CNYang.jpg 楊振寧 Chen-Ning Yang Physics1922–"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles" – shared with Tsung-Dao Lee. [3] Hefei, Anhwei, China [nb 1]
TD Lee.jpg 李政道 Tsung-Dao Lee Physics1926–"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles" – shared with Chen-Ning Yang. [3] Shanghai, China
1976 Samuel ting 10-19-10.jpg 丁肇中 Samuel C. C. Ting Physics1936–"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind." - shared with Burton Richter. [4] Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
Dual-citizen of Flag of the United States.svg  United States and Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China
1984 Yuan T. Lee 1-1.jpg 李遠哲 Yuan T. Lee Chemistry1936–"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes" - shared with Dudley R. Herschbach and John C. Polanyi. [5] Shinchiku City, Shinchiku Prefecture, Japanese Taiwan.
Citizens of Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China

The following are the Nobel laureates who were citizens of People's Republic of China at the time they were awarded the Nobel Prize. [6]

YearLaureateChinese nameEnglish nameCategoryLifeRationalePlace of Birth
2010刘晓波 Liu Xiaobo Peace1955–2017"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China". [7] Changchun, Jilin, China
2012 MoYan Hamburg 2008.jpg 莫言 Mo Yan Literature1955–"who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary". [8] Gaomi, Shandong, China
2015 Tu Youyou 5012-1-2015.jpg 屠呦呦 Tu Youyou Physiology or Medicine1930–"for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria". [9] Ningbo, Zhejiang, China

Chinese diaspora

YearLaureateChinese nameEnglish nameCategoryLifeRationalePlace of Birth [nb 2]
1998 Daniel Chee Tsui.jpg 崔琦 Daniel C. Tsui Physics1939–"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations" – shared with Robert B. Laughlin and Horst L. Störmer. [10] Pingdingshan, Henan, China
2000 Gao Xingjian Galerie Simoncini Luxembourg.jpg 高行健 Gao Xingjian Literature1940–"for an œuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama". [11] Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China
2009 Charles K. Kao cropped 2.jpg 高錕 Charles K. Kao Physics1933–2018"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication" – shared with Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith. [12] Shanghai, China
1976 Samuel ting 10-19-10.jpg 丁肇中 Samuel C. C. Ting Physics1936–"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind" – shared with Burton Richter. [13] Ann Arbor, Michigan, United StatesPhysics 1976 (by Internet Archive)</ref>
1997 Professor Steven Chu ForMemRS headshot.jpg 朱棣文 Steven Chu Physics1948–"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light" – shared with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips. [14] St. Louis, Missouri, United States [15]
2008 Roger Tsien-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-2.jpg 錢永健 Roger Y. Tsien Chemistry1952–2016"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP" – shared with Osamu Shimomura and Martin Chalfie. [16] New York City, New York, United StatesPhysics 1976 (by Internet Archive)</ref>

Others

Tibetan

The following are the Nobel laureates who were uncertain citizenship at the time they were awarded the Nobel Prize.

YearLaureateCategoryLifeRationalePlace of Birth
1989 Dalailama1 20121014 4639.jpg བསྟན་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso)Peace1935– Taktser, Qinghai, China [nb 3]

See also

Notes

  1. Hofei, Anhwei, is now spelled Hefei, Anhui, using Hanyu Pinyin transliteration
  2. The Nobel website lists the country of Residence at the time of the award for both the Literature and Peace (if goes to a person) prizes; see "Facts" information of the individuals at and . While the prizes for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Economic Sciences are listed by Affiliation at the time of the award; see "Facts" information of the individuals at , , , and . The official Nobel website only lists the country of the person's affiliated insititions for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Economic Sciences prizes, and not the citizenship of the person himself.
  3. The Nobel Peace Prize 1989 indicates Dalai Lama was born in Tibet in 1935. Taktser is a village located in Qinghai (spelled Tsinghai at the time), which was under the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China. Although Tibet itself was not directly controlled by the Republic of China government, Tsinghai (Qinghai) province was under the authority of the government of the Republic of China. [17]

Related Research Articles

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Nobel Committee

A Nobel Committee is a working body responsible for most of the work involved in selecting Nobel Prize laureates. There are five Nobel Committees, one for each Nobel Prize.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

References

  1. Chronological list of All Nobel Laureates on the official website of the Nobel Prize committee.
  2. Country: China. Physics 1957 (by Internet Archive)
  3. 1 2 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  4. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
  5. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
  6. Country: China. Physics 1957 (by Internet Archive)
  7. "The Nobel Prize in Peace 2010". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  8. "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  9. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  10. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  11. "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  12. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  13. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  14. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  15. Physics 1976 (by Internet Archive)
  16. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  17. The Tsinghai Province was established as early as 1928, and Taktser since then has been a city within its region; see also the 1930 national map of the Republic of China (ROC), and the 1936 political regional map of the ROC in Wikimedia Commons.