Henan

Last updated

Henan
河南
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese河南省 (Hénán Shěng)
  AbbreviationHA / HEN / (pinyin :)
Song Shan Yuan Tiao  - panoramio.jpg
Long Men Shi Ku Zhu Ku  - panoramio (1).jpg
Kaifeng.jpg
Fawang Temple Pagoda, Dengfeng.jpg
Songshanfawangsi.JPG
Clockwise: Mount Song, Kaifeng, Fawang Temple Pagoda in Dengfeng, Fawang Temple entrance, Longmen Grottoes
Henan in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Henan Province
Coordinates: 33°54′N113°30′E / 33.9°N 113.5°E / 33.9; 113.5 Coordinates: 33°54′N113°30′E / 33.9°N 113.5°E / 33.9; 113.5
CountryChina
Named for (Yellow) River
nán – south
"south of the Yellow River"
Capital
(and largest city)
Zhengzhou
Divisions17 prefectures, 159 counties, 2,455 townships
Government
  Type Province
  Body Henan Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Lou Yangsheng
   Congress chairmanLou Yangsheng
   Governor Wang Kai
   CPPCC chairman Kong Changsheng
Area
[1]
  Total167,000 km2 (64,000 sq mi)
  Rank 17th
Highest elevation2,413.8 m (7,919.3 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total99,365,519
  Rank 3rd
  Density600/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
   Rank 7th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 98.8%
Hui – 1%
  Languages and dialects Zhongyuan Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 code CN-HA
GDP (2021) CNY 5.888 trillion
USD 926 billion (5th) [3]
 - per capita CNY 59,410
USD 9,206 (19th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 6.3%
HDI (2019)0.742 [4] (high) (18th)
Website henan.gov.cn
Henan
Henan (Chinese characters).svg
"Henan" in Chinese characters

Henan has a diverse landscape with floodplains in the east and mountains in the west. Much of the province forms part the densely populated North China Plain, an area known as the "breadbasket of China". The Taihang Mountains intrude partially into Henan's northwestern borders from Shanxi, forming the eastern edge of Loess Plateau. To the west the Xionger and Funiu Mountains form an extensive network of mountain ranges and plateaus, supporting one of the few remaining temperate deciduous forests which once covered all of Henan. The renowned Mount Song and its Shaolin Temple is located in the far east of the region, near the capital city Zhengzhou. To the far south, the Dabie Mountains divides Hubei from Henan. The Nanyang Basin, separated from North China Plain by these mountains, is another important agricultural and population center, with culture and history distinct from the rest of Henan and closer to that of Hubei's. Unlike the rest of northern China, desertification is not a problem in Henan, though sandstorms are common in cities near the Yellow River due to the large amount of sand present in the river. At 2413.8 meters above sea level, the highest point in Henan province is Laoyachanao (老鸦岔垴). [25]

The Yellow River passes through central Henan. It enters from the northwest, via the Sanmenxia Reservoir. After it passes Luoyang, the mountains gave way to plains. Excessive amount of sediments are formed due to the silt it picks up from the Loess Plateau, raising the riverbed and causing frequent floods which shaped the habitat of the region. More recently however, construction of dams and levees, as well as the depletion of water resources have ended the floods. The Huai River in southern Henan is another important river, and has been recognized as part of the boundary dividing northern and southern Chinese climate and culture.

Henan shares borders with six other provinces. It is bordered to the west by Shaanxi, to the south by Hubei, and to the north by Shanxi (northwest) and Hebei (northeast). To the east lie Shandong (northeast) and Anhui (southeast), whose borders meet at a narrow strip of land which separates Henan from Jiangsu to the east.

Climate

Henan has a temperate climate that is humid subtropical (Köppen Cwa or Cfa) to the south of the Yellow River and bordering on humid continental (Köppen Dwa) to the north. It has a distinct seasonal climate characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cool to cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Temperatures average around the freezing mark in January and 27 to 28 °C in July. A great majority of the annual rainfall occurs during the summer.

Administrative divisions

Henan is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities; along with one directly administered county-level city (a sub-prefecture-level city):

Administrative divisions of Henan
Division code [26] DivisionArea in km2 [27] Population 2020 [28] SeatDivisions [29]
Districts* Counties CL cities
410000Henan Province167000.0099,366,019 Zhengzhou city548221
410100 Zhengzhou city7532.5612,600,574 Zhongyuan District 615
410200 Kaifeng city6260.954,824,016 Gulou District 54
410300 Luoyang city15229.837,056,699 Luolong District 77
410400 Pingdingshan city7909.424,987,137 Xinhua District 442
410500 Anyang city7354.115,477,614 Beiguan District 441
410600 Hebi city2136.851,565,973 Qibin District 32
410700 Xinxiang city8249.456,251,929 Weibin District 453
410800 Jiaozuo city4000.893,521,078 Jiefang District 442
410900 Puyang city4187.903,772,088 Hualong District 15
411000 Xuchang city4978.364,379,998 Weidu District 222
411100 Luohe city6260.952,367,490 Yancheng District 32
411200 Sanmenxia city9936.652,034,872 Hubin District 222
411300 Nanyang city26508.699,713,112 Wolong District 2101
411400 Shangqiu city10700.237,816,831 Liangyuan District 261
411500 Xinyang city18908.276,234,401 Shihe District 28
411600 Zhoukou city11959.409,026,015 Chuanhui District 271
411700 Zhumadian city15095.307,008,427 Yicheng District 19
419001 Jiyuan city**1893.76727,765 Qinyuan Subdistrict 1
* – including Ethnic districts

** – Directly administered county-level divisions (Jiyuan was formerly part of Jiaozuo)

These 17 prefecture-level cities and one directly administered county-level city of Henan are in turn subdivided into 157 county-level divisions (54 districts, 21 county-level cities, and 82 counties; the sub-prefecture-level city of Jiyuan is counted as a county-level city here). Those are in turn divided into 2454 township-level divisions (1181 towns, 598 townships, twelve ethnic townships, and 663 subdistricts).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [30] District area [30] City proper [30] Census date
1 Zhengzhou 3,677,0324,253,9138,627,0892010-11-01
2 Luoyang 1,584,4631,926,0796,549,9412010-11-01
3 Xinxiang 918,0781,047,0885,708,1912010-11-01
4 Anyang 908,1291,146,8395,173,1882010-11-01
5 Nanyang 899,8991,811,81210,263,6602010-11-01
6 Pingdingshan 855,1301,034,0424,904,7012010-11-01
7 Kaifeng [lower-alpha 1] 725,573896,1174,676,4832010-11-01
(7)Kaifeng (new district) [lower-alpha 1] 168,569698,799see Kaifeng2010-11-01
8 Jiaozuo 702,527865,4133,540,1012010-11-01
9 Xinyang 625,3021,230,0426,109,1062010-11-01
10 Shangqiu 618,5491,536,3927,362,9752010-11-01
11 Luohe 575,9561,294,9742,544,2662010-11-01
12 Hebi 477,659634,7211,569,2082010-11-01
13 Xuchang [lower-alpha 2] 466,341498,0874,307,4882010-11-01
(13)Xuchang (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 208,168767,449see Xuchang2010-11-01
14 Puyang 465,980655,6743,598,7402010-11-01
15 Zhumadian 447,559721,7237,231,2342010-11-01
16 Dengzhou 415,0821,468,157see Nanyang2010-11-01
17 Yongcheng 414,3121,240,382see Shangqiu2010-11-01
18 Yuzhou 372,8151,131,896see Xuchang2010-11-01
19 Gongyi 366,265807,911see Zhengzhou2010-11-01
20 Xinmi 359,148797,256see Zhengzhou2010-11-01
21 Xiangcheng 355,4491,003,698see Zhoukou2010-11-01
22 Xinzheng 337,356758,128see Zhengzhou2010-11-01
23 Jiyuan 334,697675,757675,7572010-11-01
24 Linzhou 321,755789,702see Anyang2010-11-01
25 Zhoukou 308,360505,1718,953,7932010-11-01
26 Yanshi 300,743666,696see Luoyang2010-11-01
27 Ruzhou 296,913927,934see Pingdingshan2010-11-01
28 Dengfeng 293,028668,637see Zhengzhou2010-11-01
29 Sanmenxia [lower-alpha 3] 285,153325,6282,234,0182010-11-01
(29)Sanmenxia (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 118,388343,679see Sanmenxia2010-11-01
30 Changge 281,578687,130see Xuchang2010-11-01
31 Xingyang 269,655613,804see Zhengzhou2010-11-01
32 Huixian 261,767740,435see Xinxiang2010-11-01
33 Lingbao 231,101721,049see Sanmenxia2010-11-01
34 Qinyang 223,647367,113see Jiaozuo2010-11-01
35 Weihui 167,454495,744see Xinxiang2010-11-01
36 Wugang 147,521313,828see Pingdingshan2010-11-01
37 Mengzhou 138,393447,701see Jiaozuo2010-11-01
38 Yima 136,461144,779see Sanmenxia2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Xiangfu (Kaifeng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Jian'an (Xuchang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Shanzhou (Shanxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
 
 
Most populous cities in Henan
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [31]
RankPop.RankPop.
Zhengdong CBD 01.jpg
Zhengzhou
Luo River Luoyang.jpg
Luoyang
1 Zhengzhou 6,261,90011 Luohe 610,300 Nan Yang You Tian Cui Hu Gong Yuan  - panoramio - manoen.jpg
Nanyang
Kai Feng Fu Feng Guang  - panoramio (6).jpg
Kaifeng
2 Luoyang 2,359,80012 Xinyang 609,200
3 Nanyang 1,604,70013 Xuchang 565,800
4 Kaifeng 1,023,00014 Zhumadian 513,800
5 Shangqiu 964,80015 Sanmenxia 494,200
6 Pingdingshan 964,50016 Hebi 490,200
7 Jiaozuo 801,00017 Yongcheng 466,000
8 Xinxiang 789,60018 Yuzhou 434,400
9 Anyang 760,00019 Zhoukou 431,300
10 Puyang 611,40020 Ruzhou 410,000

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [32] 28,518,000    
1928 [33] 30,566,000+7.2%
1936–37 [34] 34,290,000+12.2%
1947 [35] 29,654,000−13.5%
1954 [36] 44,214,594+49.1%
1964 [37] 50,325,511+13.8%
1982 [38] 74,422,739+47.9%
1990 [39] 85,509,535+14.9%
2000 [40] 91,236,854+6.7%
2010 [41] 94,023,567+3.1%

With a population of approximately 93.6 million, Henan is the third most populous Chinese province after Guangdong and Shandong. It is also the fifth most populous sub-national division in the world. If it were a country by itself, it would be the twelfth most populous in the world, just behind Mexico and ahead of the Philippines. However, the hukou system shows Henan as the most populous province in China with over 103 million people, as it counts the migrant Henanese laborers as residents of Henan, instead of the province they currently reside in. On the other hand, Guangdong is shown as having only 81 million people, though the actual population is 95 million due to the influx of migrants from other provinces.

The population is highly homogeneous with 98.8% of the population being Han. Small populations of Mongols and Manchus exists in scattered rural communities as well as major urban centers. Along with Jiangxi, Henan has one of the most unbalanced gender ratios in China. As a result of the Chinese government's one-child policy (many parents do not want the only child to be female and abort the fetus), the gender ratio was 118.46 males for 100 females in 2000. Subsequently, aborting fetuses due to their female sex was banned in Henan and heavy fines are issued for those who violate the law. In addition, daughter-only families receive an annual allowance from the government. [42] Despite these efforts the problem seems to have become far worse. Based on a 2009 British Medical Journal study, the ratio is over 140 boys for every 100 girls in the 1–4 age group; [43] this might be a strong exaggeration, as many families with more than one child do not register their daughters to the hukou in order to escape fines.

Religion

Religion in Henan (2012) [44]

  Non religious and traditional faiths (86.1%)
   Buddhism (6.4%)
   Protestantism (5.6%)
   Catholic (0.5%)
   Islam (1.3%)
  Others (0.2%)

According to a 2012 survey [44] only around 13% of the population of Henan belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.4%, followed by Protestants with 5.6%, Muslims with 1.3% and Catholics with 0.5%. Henan has some important centres of Chinese Buddhism, the White Horse Temple and the famous Shaolin Monastery.

Henan has also the largest Christian population by numbers and percentage of any province of China, [44] 6.1% of the province's population as of 2012, corresponding to approximately 7 million Christians. A 2009 survey reported the share of Christians to be 9.33%. [45] In 2019, Communist officials demolished the True Jesus Church near Zhumadian city in Henan province. [46] In 2020, Communist officials demolished the Sunzhuang Church. [47]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 86% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Confucianism, Taoism and folk religious sects (for example, a sect that is endogenous to Henan is the Tianxian miaodao). According to a 2007 survey, approximately 8% of the Henanese believe in and are involved in ancestor veneration, the traditional Chinese religion of the lineages organised into lineage churches and ancestral shrines. [45]

Guan Lin Guang Zhao Ri Yue Pai Bian Xing She Zi Di .jpg
Detail with incense burner at the Guanlin, Temple Mausoleum of Guandi in Luoyang.
Indian Temple in White Horse Temple.jpg
Indian style pavilion of the White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China.
City god temple in Anyang.JPG
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Anyang.
Lszydfyj.png
The Zhongyuan Buddha (Great Buddha of the Central Plains) of the Temple of the Spring in Lushan is currently the second tallest statue in the world.

Politics

The Government of Henan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Henan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Henan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Henan Chinese Communist Party Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Henan CCP Party Chief".

Economy

Farmland in Xiping County, Zhumadian View near Caizhai, Xiping, Zhumadian.jpg
Farmland in Xiping County, Zhumadian

Henan has seen rapid development in its economy over the past two decades, and its economy has expanded at an even faster rate than the national average of 10%. This rapid growth has transformed Henan from one of the poorest provinces to one that matches other central provinces.

Henan is the 5th-largest provincial economy of China, the second largest in South Central China after Guangdong, the largest in Central China and the largest among inland provinces, with a nominal GDP of 5.88 trillion RMB (US$926 billion) as of 2021, ahead of the GDP of Turkey of 815 billion. [10] [11] If it were a country, it would be the 18th-largest economy as well as the 14th most populous as of 2021. [12] However, per capita GDP is low compared to other eastern and central provinces. [13]

Henan is a semi-industrialized economy with an underdeveloped service sector. Agriculture has traditionally been a pillar of its economy, with the nation's highest wheat and sesame output and second highest rice output, earning its reputation as the breadbasket of China. Henan is also an important producer of beef, cotton, maize, pork, animal oil, and corn.

Although Henan's industry has traditionally been based on light textiles and food processing, recent developments have diversified the industry sector to metallurgy, petrol, cement, chemical industry, machinery and electronics. Henan has the second largest molybdenum reserves in the world. Coal, aluminum, alkaline metals and tungsten are also present in large amounts in western Henan. Henan houses some of the biggest limestone reserves in China estimated over 24 billion tons. [48] Export and processing of these materials is one of the main sources of revenues.

Henan is actively trying to build its economy around the provincial capital of Zhengzhou, and it is hoped that the province may become an important transportation and manufacturing hub in the years to come. [49]

In July 2021, extreme flooding inflicted an estimated US$12.7 billion [50] of economic damage in Henan.

Transportation

Henan has some of the most advanced transportation system in China due to its flat terrain and its location at the heart of central China's construction boom. The Jingguang and Longhai Railway, the nation's two most important railways, run through much of the province and intersect at Zhengzhou. Other railway hubs such as Shangqiu, Xinxiang, and Luohe have also become important centers of trade and manufacturing as a result. A high-speed railway links Zhengzhou with Xi'an. Henan's expressway system is highly developed and the total length is approximately 5,000 km (3,100 mi), the highest total for any Chinese province. The state of air transport is less stellar, the only 3 public airports are located in Xinzheng (near Zhengzhou), Luoyang, and Nanyang.

Culture

Tourism

Henan is located in the Yellow River valley where ancient people lived. Intricate pottery, writing and musical instruments of the Peiligang Culture and Yangshao Culture arose during neolithic times. Three of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China are in Henan: Luoyang, Kaifeng and Anyang. 16 historical sites in Henan are protected at the national level and 267 more at the provincial level.

White Horse Temple WhiteHorseTemple.jpg
White Horse Temple

Colleges and universities

Henan University Auditorium of Henan University.jpg
Henan University

Notable individuals

Sports teams

Professional sports teams in Henan include;

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guangdong</span> Most populous province of China, on the coast of the South China Sea

Guangdong, alternatively romanized as Canton or Kwangtung, is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 126.01 million across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area as well as the second-most populous country subdivision in the world. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the fifth largest sub-national economy in the world with a GDP (nominal) of 1.95 trillion USD in 2021. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone are two of the four top Chinese cities and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities and leading financial centres in the Asia-Pacific region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sichuan</span> Province of China

Sichuan is a province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 83 million. Sichuan neighbors Qinghai to the northwest, Gansu to the north, Shaanxi to the northeast, Chongqing to the east, Guizhou to the southeast, Yunnan to the south, and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the west.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hebei</span> Province of China

Hebei or, is a northern province of China. Hebei is China's sixth most populous province, with over 75 million people. Shijiazhuang is the capital city. The province is 96% Han Chinese, 3% Manchu, 0.8% Hui, and 0.3% Mongol. Three Mandarin dialects are spoken: Jilu Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin and Jin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hubei</span> Province of China

Hubei is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zhejiang</span> Province of China

Zhejiang is an eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou, and other notable cities include Ningbo and Wenzhou. Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to the northwest, Jiangxi to the west and Fujian to the south. To the east is the East China Sea, beyond which lies the Ryukyu Islands. The population of Zhejiang stands at 64.6 million, the 8th highest among China. It has been called 'the backbone of China' due to being a major driving force in the Chinese economy and being the birthplace of several notable persons, including the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and entrepreneur Jack Ma. Zhejiang consists of 90 counties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shandong</span> Province of China

Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anhui</span> Province of China

Anhui, is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the East China region. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a short section in the north.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Liaoning</span> Province of China

Liaoning is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shaanxi</span> Province in Northwest China

Shaanxi is a landlocked province of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hunan</span> Province of South-Central China

Hunan is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the South Central China region. Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed, it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west and Chongqing to the northwest. Its capital and largest city is Changsha, which also abuts the Xiang River. Hengyang, Zhuzhou, and Yueyang are among its most populous urban cities. With a population of just over 66 million as of 2020 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous province, the fourth most populous among landlocked provinces, the second most populous in South Central China after Guangdong and the most populous province in Central China. It is the largest province in South-Central China and the fourth largest among landlocked provinces and the 10th most extensive province by area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jiangsu</span> Province of China, located on the coast of the Yellow Sea

Jiangsu is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jilin</span> Province in Northeast China

Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. Along with the rest of Northeast China, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by heavy industry, has been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guizhou</span> Province of southwestern China

Guizhou is a landlocked province in the southwest region of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the center of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of Guangxi to the south, Yunnan to the west, Sichuan to the northwest, the municipality of Chongqing to the north, and Hunan to the east. The population of Guizhou stands at 38.5 million, ranking 18th among the provinces in China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jiangxi</span> Province in eastern China

Jiangxi is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its major cities include Nanchang and Jiujiang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kaifeng</span> City in Henan, China

Kaifeng is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital eight times in history, and is best known for having been the Chinese capital during the Northern Song dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Central China</span> Geographic region of China

South Central China, South-Central China or Central-South China, is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by State Council that includes the provinces of Guangdong, Hainan, Henan, Hubei and Hunan, as well as the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; in addition, the two provincial-level special administrative regions (SARs), Hong Kong and Macau, are also included under South Central China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yuzhou, Henan</span> County-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Yuzhou is a county-level city in the central part of Henan, People's Republic of China. It occupies the northwest corner of the prefecture-level city of Xuchang. The city is named for Yu the Great, the founder of the Xia Dynasty, which the city's government claims was founded in present-day Yuzhou, and that the dynasty's capital was located in present-day Yuzhou. There is a statue of Yu the Great in Yuzhou, and he serves as a symbol of the city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Weinan</span> Prefecture-level city in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Weinan is a prefecture-level city in the east central Shaanxi province, China. The city lies on the lower section of the Wei River confluence into the Yellow River, about 60 km (37 mi) east of the provincial capital Xi'an, and borders the provinces of Shanxi and Henan to the east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Central China</span> Geographic region of China

Central China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that includes the provinces of Henan, Hubei and Hunan. Jiangxi is sometimes also regarded to be part of this region. Central China is now officially part of South Central China governed by the People's Republic of China. In the context of the Rise of Central China Plan by the State Council of the People's Republic of China in 2004, surrounding provinces including Shanxi, Anhui, are also defined as regions of Central China development zones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gushi County</span> County in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Gushi is a county of 1,023,857 people directly governed by Henan, People's Republic of China. It is administered by the prefecture-level city of Xinyang.

References

Citations

  1. "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry of Commerce – People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  3. GDP-2021 is a preliminary data "Home - Regional - Quarterly by Province" (Press release). China NBS. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  4. 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  5. Longman, J.C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3 ed.). Pearson Education ESL. ISBN   978-1405881173.
  6. "Henan". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021.
  7. "Henan". Merriam-Webster Dictionary .
  8. "An Introduction to Chen Jia Gou - the China Taichi Guide is a Directory of Tai Chi Schools & Tai Chi Teachers in China". Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  9. (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces Archived 27 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine , People's Daily Online.
  10. 1 2 "Decoding China's 2021 GDP Growth Rate: A Look at Regional Numbers". China Briefing News. 7 February 2022. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  11. 1 2 "GDP (current US$) - Turkiye | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  12. 1 2 "GDP (current US$) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  13. 1 2 "China dreams on hold: heartland city feels chill of economic slowdown". Reuters. 28 May 2019. Archived from the original on 14 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  14. "What Were the Largest Cities Throughout History?". about.com. Archived from the original on 27 May 2005. Retrieved 22 January 2005.
  15. "Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck". beck.org. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
  16. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. Shan, Patrick Fuliang (2018). Yuan Shikai: A Reappraisal, The University of British Columbia Press. ISBN   9780774837781
  18. "党史资料:中国大陆五十年非正常死亡调查". Boxun.com . 30 September 2002. Archived from the original on 21 November 2009.
  19. Rummel (1991), pp. 247–248.
  20. Smith (2015), p. 346.
  21. 1 2 3 4 Yi Si, "The World's Most Catastrophic Dam Failures: The August 1975 Collapse of the Banqiao and Shimantan Dams", in: Dai Qing et al, The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River and Its People Archived 7 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine , pp. 25–38.
  22. "After 30 years, secrets, lessons of China's worst dams burst accident surface". People's Daily Online . 1 October 2005. Archived from the original on 3 January 2006.
  23. Evan Osnos, "Faust, China, and Nuclear Power Archived 13 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine ". New Yorker, 2011-10-12
  24. Hannah Beech (15 November 2004). "Henan's Ethnic Tensions". Time . Archived from the original on 13 January 2005.
  25. "河南山峰海拔排名,第一谁也没想到,你都去过几座?_网易订阅". Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  26. 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Simplified Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  27. Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  28. Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6660-2.
  29. Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-7130-9.
  30. 1 2 3 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6659-6.
  31. Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China(MOHURD) (2019). 中国城市建设统计年鉴2018 [China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistic Publishing House. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  32. 1912年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  33. 1928年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  34. 1936–37年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  35. 1947年全国人口. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  36. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009.
  37. 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012.
  38. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
  39. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012.
  40. 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012.
  41. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013.
  42. "China's most populous province legislates to curb gender imbalance". People's Daily Online . Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
  43. Zhu, Wei Xing; Lu, Li; Hesketh, Therese (9 April 2009). "China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey". BMJ. 338: b1211. doi:10.1136/bmj.b1211. PMC   2667570 . PMID   19359290.
  44. 1 2 3 China Family Panel Studies 2012: 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据 (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). CASS. 3 March 2014. pp. 13, 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  45. 1 2 China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 25 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  46. "China: Authorities forcibly demolish 'illegal' church; elderly congregants injured". 15 October 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  47. "China demolishes government-run church after 7-year standoff". Fox News . 1 July 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  48. Ministry of Natural Resources (22 October 2018). Wei, Tiejun (Editor-in-chief) (ed.). "China Mineral Resources" (PDF). Beiijing: Geological Publishing House. Retrieved 10 April 2020.{{cite web}}: |editor-first1= has generic name (help)
  49. "China Economy @ China Perspective". thechinaperspective.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  50. "China floods: people still searching for missing relatives after official says four died in road tunnel". scmp.com. 24 July 2021. Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  51. "张坚同志当选安徽省高级人民法院院长-中国法院网". www.chinacourt.org. Retrieved 14 September 2021.

Works cited