Hebei

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Hebei Province
河北省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese河北省 (Héběi Shěng)
  AbbreviationHE / HEB / (pinyin :)
20090529 Great Wall Jinshanling 0903 8233.jpg
Beidaihe, Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China - panoramio (61).jpg
Chengde Mountain Resort 3.jpg
Fuqing Temple, Cangyan Mountain, Hebei.jpg
Puning Temple, Place in front of hall of Mahayana.jpg
Hebei in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Hebei Province
Coordinates: 39°18′N116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E / 39.3; 116.7 Coordinates: 39°18′N116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E / 39.3; 116.7
Country China
Named for —"(Yellow) River"
běi—"north"
"north of the Yellow River"
Capital
(and largest city)
Baoding (1729–1913, 1935–1937, 1946–1947, 1949–1958, 1966–1968)
Beijing(1928–1930, 1945–1946, 1947–1949)
Tianjin (1870–1902, 1913–1928, 1930–1935, 1958–1966)
Shijiazhuang (1968–present)
Divisions11 prefectures, 121 counties, 2207 townships
Government
  Type Province
  Body Hebei Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Wang Dongfeng
   Congress chairmanWang Dongfeng
   Governor Xu Qin
   CPPCC chairman Ye Dongsong
Area
  Total188,800 km2 (72,900 sq mi)
Area rank 12th
Highest elevation2,882 m (9,455 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total74,610,235
  Rank 6th
  Density400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
  Density rank 11th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han: 96%
Manchu: 3%
Hui: 0.8%
Mongol: 0.3%
  Languages and dialects Jilu Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 code CN-HE
GDP (2020) CNY 3.620 trillion
USD 524 billion (12th) [3]
 - per capita CNY 48,528
USD 7,033 (25th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 3.9%
HDI (2018)Increase2.svg 0.737 [4]
high · 20th
Website www.hebei.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
english.hebei.gov.cn (English)
  1. 1 2 New districts established after census: Gaocheng (Gaocheng CLC), Luquan (Luquan CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Caofeidian (Tanghai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New districts established after census: Yongnian (Yongnian County), Feixiang (Feixiang County); Handan County merged into Hanshan & Congtai. These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New districts established after census: Mancheng (Mancheng County), Qingyuan (Qingyuan County), Xushui (Xushui County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. Xiong'an New Area is a special urban area jurisdiction consist of Rongcheng County, Anxin County, & Xiongxian County established after census.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Funing (Funing County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. 1 2 New districts established after census: Wanquan (Wanquan County), Chongli (Chongli County); Xuanhua County merged into Xuanhua. These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. 1 2 New district established after census: Jizhou (Jizhou CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. Luanxian County is currently known as Luanzhou CLC after census.
  10. Pingquan County is currently known as Pingquan CLC after census.
Hebei
Hebei (Chinese characters).svg
"Hebei" in Chinese characters
 
 
Most populous cities in Hebei
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [34]
RankPop.RankPop.
Huai Te Qu  - panoramio.jpg
Shijiazhuang
Han Dan Shi Jie Dao 01.jpg
Handan
1 Shijiazhuang 2,843,10011 Chengde 597,800 Tang Shan Mo Da Gong Yuan Li C8Dong 9Ceng Xi Xiang Da Zhao Gong Yuan .jpg
Tangshan
Baoding 001.jpg
Baoding
2 Handan 2,044,00012 Dingzhou 416,100
3 Tangshan 2,041,70013 Renqiu 368,500
4 Baoding 1,730,00014 Qian'an 350,000
5 Qinhuangdao 1,338,60015 Zhuozhou 277,800
6 Zhangjiakou 1,072,20016 Luanzhou 273,000
7 Xingtai 936,80017 Wu'an 248,300
8 Cangzhou 648,80018 Zunhua 243,300
9 Hengshui 643,40019 Sanhe 218,700
10 Langfang 608,40020 Xinji 211,300

Politics

The politics of Hebei is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Hebei is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hebei. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hebei Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (CPC Party Chief).

Economy

Downtown Shijiazhuang. Huai Te Qu  - panoramio.jpg
Downtown Shijiazhuang.

In 2014, Hebei's GDP was 2.942 trillion yuan (US$479 billion), [35] ranked 6th in the PRC, with its GDP per capita reaching 40,124 Renminbi. As of 2011, the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of industry contributed 203.46 billion, 877.74 billion, and 537.66 billion RMB respectively. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.96%.[ citation needed ]

A building in downtown Zhangjiakou. Lanjin Building.jpg
A building in downtown Zhangjiakou.

Hebei's industries include textiles, coal, steel, iron, engineering, chemical production, petroleum, power, ceramics and food.

40% of Hebei's labor force works in the agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry sectors, with the majority of production from these industries going to Beijing and Tianjin. Hebei's main agricultural products are cereal crops including wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum. Cash crops like cotton, peanut, soybeans and sesame are also produced.

Hebei's also abundant in natural resources. The Kailuan mine in Tangshan, with a history of over 100 years, is one of China's first modern coal mines, and remains a major mine with an annual production of over 20 million metric tonnes. Much of the North China Oilfied is found in Hebei, and there are also major iron mines at Handan and Qian'an. Iron, as well as steel, manufacturing are the largest industries in Hebei, and are likely to remain so as these industries consolidate and Hebei continues to grow as a manufacturing and transportation center for the region.

Economic and technological development zones

Demographics

The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty Zhengding Lingxiao Pagoda 3.jpg
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1912 [36] 26,658,000    
1928 [37] 31,232,000+0.99%
1936–37 [38] 28,644,000−1.08%
1947 [39] 28,719,000+0.02%
1954 [40] 35,984,644+3.27%
1964 [41] 45,687,781+2.42%
1982 [42] 53,005,876+0.83%
1990 [43] 61,082,439+1.79%
2000 [44] 66,684,419+0.88%
2010 [45] 71,854,202+0.75%
2020 [46] 74,610,235+0.38%
Hebei Province was known as Zhili Province until 1928.
Beijing was part of Hebei Province [16] until 1928.
Tainjin was part of Hebei Province until 1928 and 1954 to 1967.
Rehe Province dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Hebei Province.
Qahar Province dissolved in 1952 and parts were incorporated into Hebei Province.

The population is mostly Han Chinese. 55 ethnic minorities are present in Hebei, representing 4.27% of the total population. The largest are Manchu (2.1 million people), Hui people (600000 people) and Mongol (180000 people). [47]

Ethnic groups in Hebei, 2000 census
Nationality PopulationPercentage
Han Chinese 63,781,60395.65%
Manchu 2,118,7113.18%
Hui 542,6390.78%
Mongol 169,8870.26%
Zhuang 20,8320.031%

It excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service. [48]

In 2004, the birth rate was 11.98 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.19 deaths per 1,000 people. In 2000 the sex ratio at birth was 118.46 males to 100 females. [49] In 2019, the birth rate was 10.83 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.12 deaths per 1,000 people. [50] The male population is 37,679,003(50.50%), the female population is 36,931,232(49.50%). The sex ratio of the total population was 102.02, decreasing 0.82 from 2010. [51]

Religion

Religion in Hebei [52] [note 1]

   Deity worshippers, Taoists, Buddhists, Confucians, folk religious sects, or not religious people (90.61%)
   Christianity (3.05%)
   Islam (0.82%)

The predominant religions in Hebei are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 5.52% of the population believe in and are involved in ancestor veneration, while 3.05% of the population identify as Christian, [52] mostly of the Catholic Church. Local worship of deities in the region began to organise into "benevolent churches" as a reaction to Catholicism in the Qing dynasty.

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.61% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and folk religious sects. Zailiism is a folk religious sect that originated in Hebei. There is a presence of Tibetan Buddhist schools in the province.

Hebei has the largest Catholic population in China, with 1 million members according to the local government. [54] and 1.5 million Catholics according to the Catholic Church. [55] The province is considered as the center of Catholicism in China. The town of Donglu in Baoding, where an apparition of the Virgin Mary was reported to have occurred in 1900, is reportedly "one of the strongholds of the unofficial Catholic Church in China". [56]

A large number of Catholics in Hebei remain loyal to the Pope and reject the authority of the Catholic Patriotic Church. Four of Hebei's underground bishops have been imprisoned in recent years: Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Donglu since 1996; Bishop James Su Zhimin since October 1997; and Bishops Han Dingxiang of Yongnian who died in prison in 2007 and Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding since late 1999. [55] [57] In 2003 there were 350.000 Protestants and 580.000 Muslims according to government statistics. [58] [59] According to a survey, as of 2010 Muslims constitute 0.82% of the population of Hebei. [53]

Dafuo2.jpg
The giant Bodhisattva statue of Puning Temple complex (Tibetan Buddhism).
Zhang Hui Gong Da Dian 2.jpg
Great Temple of Zhang Hui (张挥公大殿 Zhāng Huī gōng dàdiàn), the central ancestral shrine of the Zhang lineage, in Qinghe (Zhangs' ancestral home).

Culture

Heijian-styled donkey burger Donkey sandwich, Hejian style (20160220143311).jpg
Heijian-styled donkey burger

Dialects of Mandarin are spoken over most of the province, and most Mandarin dialects in Hebei are in turn classified as part of the Ji Lu Mandarin subdivision. Regions along the western border with Shanxi, however, have dialects that are distinct enough for linguists to consider them as part of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, rather than Mandarin. In general, the dialects of Hebei are quite similar to and readily intelligible with the Beijing dialect, which forms the basis for Standard Chinese, the official language of the nation. However, there are also some distinct differences, such as differences in the pronunciation of certain words that derive from entering tone syllables (syllables ending on a plosive) in Middle Chinese. [60]

Traditional forms of Chinese opera in Hebei include Pingju, Hebei Bangzi (also known as Hebei Clapper Opera), and Cangzhou Kuaiban Dagu. Pingju is especially popular: it tends to be colloquial in language and hence easy to understand for audiences. Originating from northeastern Hebei, Pingju has been influenced by other forms of Chinese opera like Beijing opera. Traditionally Pingju makes use of just a xiaosheng (young male lead), a xiaodan (young female lead), and a xiaohualian (young comic character), though it has since diversified with the use of other roles as well. [61]

A Ding ware bowl Bowl (Wan) with Peony, Chrysanthemum, and Prunus Sprays LACMA M.73.48.101.jpg
A Ding ware bowl

Quyang County, in central Hebei, is noted for Ding ware, a type of Chinese ceramics which includes various vessels such as bowls, plates, vases, and cups, as well as figurines. Ding ware is usually creamy white, though it is also made in other colors.

Hebei cuisine is typically based on wheat, mutton, and beans. The donkey burger, originating from the cities of Baoding and Hejian, Cangzhou in the central part of the province, is perhaps the most popular. A staple in the provincial cuisine, it has spread into the two municipalities as well. Other dishes include local variants of shaobing. The city of Baoding is also home to the Baoding balls, a kind of metal ball for exercise and meditation.

Notable individuals

As Han Yu described in Sending Off Dong Shaonan (送董邵南序), "The land of Yanzhao is said to be home of heroes with tragic fates since ancient times (燕赵古称多感慨悲歌之士)", [62] many famous warriors, generals, and politicals, both real and fictional, had hailed from Hebei:

Well-known people of other expertise include:

Media

Hebei is served by the province-wide Hebei Television, abbreviated HEBTV. It also covers parts of Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia. Shijiazhuang Radio & Television is a regional TV network that covers the provincial capital. Hebei is also served by three main newspapers, Hebei Daily, Yanzhao Metropolis Daily, and Yanzhao Evening News, all published by the Hebei Daily Newspaper Group.

Transportation

Because Hebei surrounds Beijing and Tianjin, all the numerous important railway lines radiating out of these two cities pass through Hebei. The Beijing–Guangzhou Railway is one of the most important: it passes through many major cities such as Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Xingtai and Handan on its way south to Henan. Other important railways include the Beijing–Kowloon Railway, Beijing–Shanghai Railway, Beijing-Harbin Railway, Beijing–Chengde Railway, Beijing–Tongliao Railway, Beijing-Baotou Railway and Fengtai–Shacheng Railway. High-speed rail lines crossing the province include the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway and Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan High-Speed Railway. Future high-speed rail lines from Beijing and Tianjin to Northeast China and Northwest China will traverse northern Hebei.

During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Beijing and Hebei were collaborating on a new passenger railway. The RMB 82.6 billion network will add 844 kilometers to the system. Current railway systems for Hebei trains are also being upgraded and will soon be able to travel at speeds of between 160 and 200 kilometers per hour.

As of the early 2013, railway schedule systems listed 160 passenger train stations within the province. [64]

The recent expressway boom in China has not left Hebei behind. There are expressways to every prefecture-level city of Hebei, totaling approximately 2,000 kilometers. The total length of highways within Hebei is around 40,000 kilometers.[ citation needed ]

There are a number of ports along the Bohai Sea, including Qinhuangdao (the second busiest in China with a capacity of over 100 million tons), Huanghua, and Jingtang. Shijiazhuang's Zhengding Airport is the province's center of air transportation, with domestic and international flights. Parts of Hebei are served by the Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing. [65]

The Shijiazhuang Metro is the only operational metro system in Hebei. Xiong'an Rail Transit is a planned metro system in Xiong'an.

Tourism

The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty Xumipagodazhengding.jpg
The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty

The Ming Great Wall crosses the northern part of Hebei and the eastern end is located on the coast at Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass), near Qinhuangdao. Informally known as the "First Pass of The World" (天下第一關), Shanhaiguan was the place where Ming general Wu Sangui opened the gates to Manchu forces in 1644, beginning nearly 300 years of Manchu rule; Shanhai Pass also marks the psychological entrance / exit of Manchuria, so that for centuries Manchuria was known as "outside the Pass" or "east of the Pass". Beidaihe, located near Shanhaiguan, is a popular beach resort well known as a former meeting place for top governmental officials.

The Chengde Mountain Resort and its outlying temples are a World Heritage Site. Also known as the Rehe Palace, this was the summer resort of the Manchu Qing dynasty emperors. The Chengde Resort was built between 1703 and 1792, and consists of a palace complex, a large park area composed of lakes, pavilions, causeways, bridges, etc., and a number of Tibetan Buddhist and Han Chinese temples in the surrounding area.

View of the Chengde Mountain Resort Bi Shu Shan Zhuang Xiao Jin Shan .jpg
View of the Chengde Mountain Resort

There are Qing dynasty imperial tombs at Zunhua (Eastern Qing Tombs) and Yixian (West Qing Tombs). The Eastern Qing Tombs are the resting place of 161 Qing emperors, empresses, and other members of the Qing imperial family, while the West Qing Tombs have 76. These are also part of a World Heritage Site.

The Zhaozhou, or Anji Bridge, built by Li Chun during the Sui dynasty, is the oldest stone arch bridge in China, and one of the most significant examples of pre-modern Chinese civil engineering.

Baoding, the old provincial capital, contains the historical Zhili Governor's Residence and the former court.

Xibaipo, a village about 90 km (56 mi) from Shijiazhuang, in Pingshan County was the location of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949, at which point they were moved to Beijing. Today, the area houses a memorial site. [66]

Sports

The 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship was held in Hebei.

Sports teams based in Hebei include:

National Basketball League (China)
Hebei Springs Benma

Chinese Football Association

Education

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under other national agencies:

Under the provincial government:

Sister subdivisions

Hebei is twinned with the following country subdivisions: [67]

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [52] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i.e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organized into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010. [53]

Related Research Articles

Hubei Province of China

Hubei is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China.

Shandong Province of China

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Gansu Province of China

Gansu is a landlocked province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province.

Liaoning Province of China

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Shaanxi Province in Northwest China

Shaanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).

Jilin Province of China

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Qinghai Province of China

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Tangshan Prefecture-level city in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Tangshan is a coastal, industrial prefecture-level city in the northeast of Hebei province. It is located in the eastern part of Hebei Province and the northeastern part of the North China Plain. It is located in the central area of the Bohai Rim and serves as the main traffic corridor to the Northeast. The city faces the Bohai Sea in the south, the Yan Mountains in the north, Qinhuangdao across the Luan River to the east, and Tianjin to the west.

Baoding Prefecture-level city in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Baoding, formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) southwest of Beijing. As of the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,382 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built-up area made of 4 out of 5 urban districts : Lianchi, Jingxiu, Qingyuan and Mancheng largely being conurbated, on 1,840 km2 (710 sq mi). Baoding is among 13 Chinese cities with a population of over 10 million, ranking seventh. One can also note that Zhuozhou City in the northern part has now grown into part of the Beijing built-up area.

Daxing District District in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China

Daxing District is a district of Beijing, covering the southern suburbs of the city. It borders the Beijing districts of Tongzhou to the east/northeast, Fangshan to the west, Fengtai to the northwest, Chaoyang to the northeast, and the Hebei province to the south.

Zaoyang County-level city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Zaoyang is a city in the north of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, bordering Henan province to the north. Administratively, it is a county-level city under the administration of Xiangyang. At the 2010 census its population was 1,004,741 inhabitants even though its built-up area is much smaller.

Northwest China Place

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Subei Mongol Autonomous County County in Gansu, Peoples Republic of China

The Subei Mongol Autonomous County is an autonomous county within the prefecture-level city of Jiuquan in the northwest of Gansu Province, China, bordering Xinjiang to the west, Qinghai Province to the southeast and Mongolia's Govi-Altai Province to the north. Containing the northernmost point in Gansu, Subei is split into two non-contiguous sections and has an area of 66,748 km2 (25,772 sq mi) and had approximately 13,046 inhabitants in 2000. To the east it shares a border with Ejin Banner, Alxa League, Inner Mongolia.

Mangshi County-level city in Yunnan, Peoples Republic of China

Mangshi, former name Luxi (潞西), is a county-level city and the seat of Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, western Yunnan province, China. Mangshi has an area of 2,900.91 km2 (1,120.05 sq mi), with an urban area of 18.66 km2 (7.20 sq mi). Han Chinese, Dai people and Jingpo people are the major ethnic groups. Luxi County was founded in 1949, and became a county-level city in 1996.

Changan District, Shijiazhuang District in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Chang'an District is one of eight districts of the prefecture-level city of Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province, North China, located in the northeast of the urban core of the city. The area is 110.24 km2 (42.56 sq mi). There are 426,500 residents, among which 109,700 residents are farmers. The leading pharmaceutical manufacturer in China, North China Pharmaceutical Group Corp (NCPC) located in Chang'an District, Shijiazhang.

Daweishan Town in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Daweishan Town is a rural town in Liuyang City, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. As of the 2015 census, it had a population of 27,400 and an area of 401.7-square-kilometre (155.1 sq mi). It borders Pingjiang County in the north, Paibu Town of Jiangxi in the east, Zhangfang Town in the south, and Dahu Town in the west and southwest.

Wang Hu

Wang Hu ; 1865 – April 25, 1933) was a politician of the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China.He was born in Baoding, Hebei. He was the 6th Republic-era mayor of Beijing. He was affiliated with the Zhili clique of the Beiyang government.

Xiongan State-level new area in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Xiong'an New Area is a state-level new area in the Baoding area of Hebei, China. Established in April 2017, the area is located about 100 km southwest of Beijing and 50 km east of downtown Baoding. Its main function is to serve as a development hub for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jingjinji) economic triangle. Additionally, "non-core" functions of the Chinese capital are expected to migrate here, including offices of some state-owned enterprises, government agencies, and research and development facilities.

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