Hebei

Last updated
Hebei
河北
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese河北省 (Héběi Shěng)
  AbbreviationHE / HEB / (pinyin :)
20090529 Great Wall Jinshanling 0903 8233.jpg
Beidaihe, Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China - panoramio (61).jpg
Chengde Mountain Resort 3.jpg
Fuqing Temple, Cangyan Mountain, Hebei.jpg
Puning Temple, Place in front of hall of Mahayana.jpg
Hebei in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Hebei Province
Coordinates: 39°18′N116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E / 39.3; 116.7 Coordinates: 39°18′N116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E / 39.3; 116.7
Country China
Named for —"(Yellow) River"
běi—"north"
"north of the Yellow River"
Capital
(and largest city)
Baoding (1729–1913, 1935–1937, 1946–1947, 1949–1958, 1966–1968)
Beijing (1928–1930, 1945–1946, 1947–1949)
Tianjin (1870–1902, 1913–1928, 1930–1935, 1958–1966)
Shijiazhuang (1968–present)
Divisions11 prefectures, 121 counties, 2207 townships
Government
  Type Province
  Body Hebei Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Ni Yuefeng
   Congress chairmanNi Yuefeng
   Governor Wang Zhengpu
   CPPCC chairman Lian Yimin
Area
  Total188,800 km2 (72,900 sq mi)
  Rank 12th
Highest elevation2,882 m (9,455 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total74,610,235
  Rank 6th
  Density400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
   Rank 11th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han: 96%
Manchu: 3%
Hui: 0.8%
Mongol: 0.3%
  Languages and dialects Jilu Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 code CN-HE
GDP (2021) CN¥4.039 trillion
US$635 billion (12th) [3]
 - per capitaCN¥54,172
US$8,397 (25th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 6.5%
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.738 [4]
high · 20th
Website www.hebei.gov.cn
  1. 1 2 New districts established after census: Gaocheng (Gaocheng CLC), Luquan (Luquan CLC). These new districts are not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Caofeidian (Tanghai County). The new district is not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New districts established after census: Yongnian (Yongnian County), Feixiang (Feixiang County); Handan County merged into Hanshan & Congtai. These new districts are not included in the urban area and district area count.
  4. 1 2 New districts established after census: Mancheng (Mancheng County), Qingyuan (Qingyuan County), Xushui (Xushui County). These new districts are not included in the urban area and district area count.
  5. Xiong'an New Area is a special urban area jurisdiction consisting of Rongcheng County, Anxin County, & Xiongxian County established after the census.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Funing (Funing County). The new district is not included in the urban area and district area count.
  7. 1 2 New districts established after census: Wanquan (Wanquan County), Chongli (Chongli County); Xuanhua County merged into Xuanhua. These new districts are not included in the urban area and district area count.
  8. 1 2 New district established after census: Jizhou (Jizhou CLC). The new district is not included in the urban area and district area count.
  9. Luanxian County is currently known as Luanzhou CLC after the census.
  10. Pingquan County is currently known as Pingquan CLC after the census.
Hebei
Hebei (Chinese characters).svg
"Hebei" in Chinese characters
 
 
Most populous cities in Hebei
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [36]
RankPop.RankPop.
Huai Te Qu  - panoramio.jpg
Shijiazhuang
Han Dan Shi Jie Dao 01.jpg
Handan
1 Shijiazhuang 2,843,10011 Chengde 597,800 Tang Shan Mo Da Gong Yuan Li C8Dong 9Ceng Xi Xiang Da Zhao Gong Yuan .jpg
Tangshan
Baoding 001.jpg
Baoding
2 Handan 2,044,00012 Dingzhou 416,100
3 Tangshan 2,041,70013 Renqiu 368,500
4 Baoding 1,730,00014 Qian'an 350,000
5 Qinhuangdao 1,338,60015 Zhuozhou 277,800
6 Zhangjiakou 1,072,20016 Luanzhou 273,000
7 Xingtai 936,80017 Wu'an 248,300
8 Cangzhou 648,80018 Zunhua 243,300
9 Hengshui 643,40019 Sanhe 218,700
10 Langfang 608,40020 Xinji 211,300

Economy

In 2014, Hebei's gross domestic product (GDP} was 2.942 trillion yuan (US$479 billion). [37] It is ranked sixth in the PRC, with its GDP per capita reaching 40,124 renminbi. As of 2011, the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of industry contributed 203.46 billion, 877.74 billion, and 537.66 billion RMB respectively. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.96%.

Hebei's industries include textiles, coal, steel, iron, engineering, chemical production, petroleum, power, ceramics, and food. 40% of Hebei's labor force works in the agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry sectors, with the majority of production from these industries going to Beijing and Tianjin. Hebei's main agricultural products are cereal crops, including wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum. Cash crops like cotton, peanut, soybeans and sesame are also produced.

Hebei has abundant natural resources. The Kailuan mine in Tangshan, with a history of over 100 years, is one of China's first modern coal mines. It remains active, with an annual production of over 20 million metric tonnes. Much of the North China Oilfied is within Hebei. There are major iron mines at Handan and Qian'an. Iron and steel manufacturing are the largest industries in Hebei.

Economic and technological development zones

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1912 [38] 26,658,000    
1928 [39] 31,232,000+0.99%
1936–37 [40] 28,644,000−1.08%
1947 [41] 28,719,000+0.02%
1954 [42] 35,984,644+3.27%
1964 [43] 45,687,781+2.42%
1982 [44] 53,005,876+0.83%
1990 [45] 61,082,439+1.79%
2000 [46] 66,684,419+0.88%
2010 [47] 71,854,202+0.75%
2020 [48] 74,610,235+0.38%
Hebei Province was known as Zhili Province until 1928.
Beijing was part of Hebei Province [16] until 1928.
Tainjin was part of Hebei Province until 1928 and from 1954 to 1967.
Rehe Province dissolved in 1955. Parts of it were incorporated into Hebei Province.
Qahar Province dissolved in 1952. Parts of it were incorporated into Hebei Province.

Demographics

The population in Hebei is mostly Han Chinese. There are 55 ethnic minorities in Hebei, representing 4.27% of the total population. The largest ethnic groups are Manchu (2.1 million people), Hui (600,000 people), and Mongol (180,000 people). [49] Population totals do not include those in active service with the People's Liberation Army. [50]

Ethnic groups in Hebei, 2000 census
Nationality PopulationPercentage
Han Chinese 63,781,60395.65%
Manchu 2,118,7113.18%
Hui 542,6390.78%
Mongol 169,8870.26%
Zhuang 20,8320.031%

In 2019, the birth rate was 10.83 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.12 deaths per 1,000 people. [51] The male population is 37,679,003 (50.50%), the female population is 36,931,232 (49.50%). The gender ratio of the total population was 102.02, decreasing by 0.82 from 2010. [52]

Religion

Religion in Hebei [53] [note 1]

   Deity worshippers, Taoists, Buddhists, Confucians, folk religious sects, or not religious people (90.61%)
   Christianity (3.05%)
   Islam (0.82%)

The dominant religions in Hebei are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions, and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 5.52% of the population believe in and are involved in ancestor veneration, while 3.05% identify as Christian, belonging mostly to the Catholic Church. [53] As of 2010 Muslims constitute 0.82% of the population of Hebei. [54]

Although the surveys did not provide specific data for other religions, 90.61% of the population are either nonreligious or are involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and folk religious sects. Zailiism is a folk religious sect that originated in Hebei. Local worship of deities organized into benevolent churches in reaction to Catholicism in the Qing dynasty.

Dafuo2.jpg
The giant Bodhisattva statue of Puning Temple
Zhang Hui Gong Da Dian 2.jpg
Great Temple of Zhang Hui, the central ancestral shrine of the Zhang lineage, in Qinghe

Hebei has the largest Catholic population in China, with one million members and 1.5 million Catholics according to the Catholic Church. [55] [56] In 1900, apparition of the Virgin Mary was said have appeared in the town of Donglu in Baoding. As a result, Donglu is "one of the strongholds of the unofficial Catholic Church in China". [57] Many Catholics in Hebei remain loyal to the Pope and reject the authority of the Catholic Patriotic Church. Four of Hebei's underground bishops have been imprisoned in recent years: Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Donglu since 1996; Bishop James Su Zhimin since October 1997; Bishop Han Dingxiang of Yongnian who died in prison in 2007, and Bishop Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding since late 1999. [55] [58]

The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty Zhengding Lingxiao Pagoda 3.jpg
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty

Culture

Language

People speak dialects of Mandarin across the Hebei, with most classified as part of the Ji Lu Mandarin subdivision of Chinese. Along the western border with Shanxi, dialects are distinct enough for linguists to consider them as part of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese. In general, the dialects of Hebei are similar to the Beijing dialect, which forms the basis for Standard Chinese and the official language of the nation. However, there are also some distinct differences, such as the pronunciation of some words, made by entering tone syllables (syllables ending on a plosive) in Middle Chinese. [59]

Arts

A Ding ware bowl Bowl (Wan) with Peony, Chrysanthemum, and Prunus Sprays LACMA M.73.48.101.jpg
A Ding ware bowl

Traditional forms of Chinese opera in Hebei include Pingju, Hebei Bangzi (Hebei Clapper Opera), and Cangzhou Kuaiban Dagu. Pingju is especially popular because it tends to use colloquial language which is easier for audiences to understand. Originating from northeastern Hebei, Pingju was influenced by other forms of Chinese opera such as Beijing opera. Traditionally Pingju has a xiaosheng (young male lead), a xiaodan (young female lead), and a xiaohualian (young comic character), though it has diversified to include other roles. [60]

Quyang County, in central Hebei, is noted for Ding ware, a type of Chinese ceramics which includes various vessels such as bowls, plates, vases, and cups, as well as figurines. Ding ware is usually creamy white, though it is also made in other colors.

Hejian-styled donkey burger Donkey sandwich, Hejian style (20160220143311).jpg
Hejian-styled donkey burger

Cuisine

Hebei cuisine is typically based on wheat, mutton, and beans. The donkey burger, originating from the cities of Baoding and Hejian, Cangzhou, is a staple in provincial cuisine and has spread into the two municipalities. Other dishes include local variants of shaobing.

Entertainment

Beidaihe, located near Shanhaiguan, is a popular beach resort.

Architectural and cultural sites

Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling Phillipvn2.jpg
Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, built in 636 AD Xumipagodazhengding.jpg
Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, built in 636 AD

The Ming Great Wall crosses the northern part of Hebei, and its eastern end is located on the coast at Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass), near Qinhuangdao. Informally known as the First Pass of The World, Shanhaiguan Pass was where Ming general Wu Sangui opened the gates to Manchu forces in 1644, beginning nearly 300 years of Manchu rule.

The Chengde Mountain Resort and its outlying temples are a World Heritage Site. Also known as the Rehe Palace, this was the summer resort of the Manchu Qing dynasty emperors. The resort was built between 1703 and 1792. It consists of a palace complex and a large park with lakes, pavilions, causeways, and bridges. There are also several Tibetan Buddhist and Han Chinese temples in the surrounding area.

Chengde Mountain Resort Bi Shu Shan Zhuang Xiao Jin Shan .jpg
Chengde Mountain Resort

There are Qing dynasty imperial tombs at Zunhua (Eastern Qing Tombs) and Yixian (West Qing Tombs). The Eastern Qing Tombs are the resting place of 161 Qing emperors, empresses, and other members of the Qing imperial family, while the West Qing Tombs have 76 burials. Both tomb complexes are part of a World Heritage Site.

The Zhaozhou, or Anji Bridge, was built by Li Chun during the Sui dynasty and is the oldest stone arch bridge in China. It is one of the most significant examples of pre-modern Chinese civil engineering. Baoding, the old provincial capital, contains the historic Zhili governor's residence and the former court.

Xibaipo, a village about 90 km (56 mi) from Shijiazhuang in Pingshan County, was the location of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949. Today, the area houses a memorial site. [61]

Sports

The 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship was held in Hebei. Sports teams based in Hebei include National Basketball League (China), Hebei Springs Benma, and the Chinese Football Association team Hebei F.C., Hebei Elite F.C., and Cangzhou Mighty Lions F.C. Baoding is home to the Baoding balls, a kind of metal ball for exercise and meditation.

Education

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under other national agencies:

Under the provincial government:

There are also Tibetan Buddhist schools in the province.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Intracity Rail

The Shijiazhuang Metro is the only operational rapid transit system in Hebei. Xiong'an Rail Transit is a planned metro system in Xiong'an.

Intercity Rail

As of early 2013, railway schedule systems listed 160 passenger train stations within the province. [62] Because Hebei surrounds Beijing and Tianjin, all the important railway lines from these cities pass through Hebei. The Beijing–Guangzhou railway is one of the most important. It passes through many major cities, including Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Xingtai and Handan on its way south to Henan. Other important railways include the Beijing–Kowloon railway, Beijing–Shanghai railway, Beijing–Harbin railway, Beijing–Chengde railway, Beijing–Tongliao railway, Beijing–Baotou railway and Fengtai–Shacheng railway. High-speed rail lines crossing the province include the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway, Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway, and Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan high-speed railway.

During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Beijing and Hebei collaborated on a new passenger railway. The RMB 82.6 billion network will add 844 kilometres (524 mi) to the system. Current railway systems for Hebei are also being upgraded and will soon be able to travel at speeds of between 160 and 200 kilometres (99 and 124 mi) per hour.

Highways and primary routes

The recent expressway boom in China included Hebei. There are expressways to every prefecture-level city in Hebei, totaling approximately 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi). The total length of highways within Hebei is around 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi).

Air transit

Shijiazhuang's Zhengding Airport is the province's center for air transportation, with domestic and international flights. Parts of Hebei are served by the Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing. [63]

Ocean transit

There are several ports along the Bohai Sea, including Huanghua, Jingtang, and Qinhuangdao. Qinhuangdao is the second busiest port in China and has a capacity of over 100 million tons.

Media

Hebei is served by the province-wide Hebei Television, abbreviated HEBTV. Shijiazhuang Radio & Television is a regional network that covers the provincial capital. Hebei is also served by three major newspapers: Hebei Daily , Yanzhao Metropolis Daily , and Yanzhao Evening News . Hebei Daily Newspaper Group publishes all three newspapers.

Notable people

Sister subdivisions

Hebei is a sister district with the following country states, districts, and other subdivisions: [65]

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [53] to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i.e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organized into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010. [54]

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